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1.
J Affect Disord ; 294: 128-136, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317696

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore the risk profiles attributable to psychosocial and behavioural problems during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. To this end, we created a risk-prediction nomogram model. METHODS: A national multicentre study was conducted through an online questionnaire involving 12,186 children (6-11 years old) and adolescents (12-16 years old). Respondents' psychosocial and behavioural functioning were assessed using the Achenbach Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Data were analysed using STATA software and R-language. RESULTS: The positive detection rate of psychological problems within Wuhan was greater than that outside Wuhan for schizoid (P = 0.005), and depression (P = 0.030) in children, and for somatic complaints (P = 0.048), immaturity (P = 0.023), and delinquent behaviour (P = 0.046) in adolescents. After graded multivariable adjustment, seven factors associated with psychological problems in children and adolescents outside Wuhan were parent-child conflict (odds ratio (OR): 4.94, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 4.27-5.72), sleep problems (OR: 4.05, 95% CI: 3.77-4.36), online study time (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.37-0.47), physical activity time (OR: 0.510, 95% CI: 0.44-0.59), number of close friends (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.44-0.6), time spent playing videogames (OR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.90-2.69) and eating disorders (OR: 2.71, 95% CI: 2.35-3.11) (all P < 0.001). Contrastingly, within Wuhan, only the first four factors, namely, parent-child conflict (5.95, 2.82-12.57), sleep problems (4.47, 3.06-6.54), online study time (0.37, 0.22-0.64), and physical activity time (0.42, 0.22-0.80) were identified (all P < 0.01). Accordingly, nomogram models were created with significant attributes and had decent prediction performance with C-indexes over 80%. LIMITATION: A cross-sectional study and self-reported measures. CONCLUSIONS: Besides the four significant risk factors within and outside Wuhan, the three additional factors outside Wuhan deserve special attention. The prediction nomogram models constructed in this study have important clinical and public health implications for psychosocial and behavioural assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Problem Behavior , Adolescent , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Nomograms , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 342, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258580

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the psychosocial and behavioral problems of children and adolescents in the early stage of reopening schools. In this national cross-sectional study, a total of 11072 students from China were naturally divided into two groups based on their schooling status: reopened schools (RS) and home schooling (HS) group. The psychosocial and behavioral functioning were measured by Achenbach Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and compared in these two groups. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the independent predictors associated with the psychosocial and behavioral problems. Our results showed that the students in the RS group had more adverse behaviors than that of HS group. The RS group had the higher rates of parent-offspring conflict, prolonged homework time, increased sedentary time and sleep problems (all p < 0.001). When separate analyses were conducted in boys and girls, the RS group had the higher scores for (1) overall behavioral problems (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01), internalizing (p = 0.02 and p = 0.02) and externalizing (p = 0.02 and p = 0.004) behaviors in the 6-11 age group; (2) externalizing (p = 0.049 and p = 0.006) behaviors in the 12-16 age group. Multivariable regression showed parent-offspring conflict and increased sedentary time were the most common risk factors, while physical activity and number of close friends were protective factors for behavior problems in RS students (p < 0.01 or 0.05). The present study revealed that students' psychosocial and behavioral problems increased in the early stage of schools reopened unexpectedly. These findings suggest that close attention must be paid and holistic strategies employed in the school reopening process of post-COVID-19 period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Problem Behavior , Adolescent , Child , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 123-131, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059590

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As COVID-19 ravages continuously around the world, more information on the epidemiological characteristics and factors associated with time interval between critical events is needed to contain the pandemic and to assess the effectiveness of interventions. METHODS: Individual information on confirmed cases from January 21 to March 2 was collected from provincial or municipal health commissions. We identified the difference between imported and local cases in the epidemiological characteristics. Two models were established to estimate the factors associated with time interval from symptom onset to hospitalization (TOH) and length of hospital stay (LOS) respectively. RESULTS: Among 7,042 cases, 3392 (48.17%) were local cases and 3304 (46.92%) were imported cases. Since the first intervention was adopted in Hubei on January 23, the daily reported imported cases reached a peak on January 28 and gradually decreased since then. Imported cases were on average younger (41 vs. 48), and had more male (58.66% vs. 47.53%) compared to local cases. Furthermore, imported cases had more contacts with other confirmed cases (2.80 ± 2.33 vs. 2.17 ± 2.10), which were mainly within family members (2.26 ± 2.18 vs. 1.57 ± 2.06). The TOH and LOS were 2.67 ± 3.69 and 18.96 ± 7.63 days respectively, and a longer TOH was observed in elderly living in the provincial capital cities that were higher migration intensity with Hubei. CONCLUSIONS: Measures to restrict traffic can effectively reduce imported spread. However, household transmission is still not controlled, particularly for the infection of imported cases to elderly women. It is still essential to surveil and educate patients about the early admission or isolation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Young Adult
4.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 6(10): 1185-1191, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-747430

ABSTRACT

No therapeutics have been proven effective yet for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To assess the efficacy and safety of Triazavirin therapy for COVID-19, we conducted a randomized, double-blinded controlled trial involving hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19. Participants were enrolled from ten sites, and were randomized into two arms of the study with a ratio of 1:1. Patients were treated with Triazavirin 250 mg versus a placebo three or four times a day for 7 d. The primary outcome was set as the time to clinical improvement, defined as normalization of body temperature, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, cough, and absorption of pulmonary infection by chest computed tomography (CT) until 28 d after randomization. Secondary outcomes included individual components of the primary outcome, the mean time and proportion of inflammatory absorption in the lung, and the conversion rate to a repeated negative SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test of throat swab sampling. Concomitant therapeutic treatments, adverse events, and serious adverse events were recorded. Our study was halted after the recruitment of 52 patients, since the number of new infections in the participating hospitals decreased greatly. We randomized 52 patients for treatment with Triazavirin (n = 26) or a placebo (n = 26). We found no differences in the time to clinical improvement (median, 7 d versus 12 d; risk ratio (RR), 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7-5.6; p = 0.2), with clinical improvement occurring in ten patients in the Triazavirin group and six patients in the placebo group (38.5% versus 23.1%; RR, 2.1; 95% CI, 0.6-7.0; p = 0.2). All components of the primary outcome normalized within 28 d, with the exception of absorption of pulmonary infection (Triazavirin 50.0%, placebo 26.1%). Patients in the Triazavirin group used less frequent concomitant therapies for respiratory, cardiac, renal, hepatic, or coagulation supports. Although no statistically significant evidence was found to indicate that Triazavirin benefits COVID-19 patients, our observations indicated possible benefits from its use to treat COVID-19 due to its antiviral effects. Further study is required for confirmation.

5.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(4): 642-645, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696904

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 infection status of hospitalized children was surveyed in the department of pediatric hematology and oncology in three different hospitals of epidemic areas in Hubei, China. A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the clinical characteristics, lung CT scan, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test and serum antibodies of hospitalized children with hemato-oncological diseases from January 23 to April 24, 2020. 299 children were enrolled in this study, including 176 males (58.9%) and 123 females (41.1%), aged from 2 months to 16 years. 255 cases (85.3%) received chemotherapy or other immunosuppressive therapies, and there were 44 cases (14.7%) of other benign diseases. Nucleic acid test was performed on 258 children (86.3%) and one case was positive. 163 cases (54.5%) were tested for serum antibodies, and all of them were negative. Lung CT scan was performed on 247 children (82.6%), and 107 of them showed infectious changes. Only one case (0.33%) of COVID-19 was diagnosed in the group. The prevalence rate of COVID-19 in enrolled children with hemato-oncological diseases in Hubei was 0.33%. Immunosuppressed patients are not prone to produce related antibodies. Comprehensive protective measures and ward management can reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the group patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hematologic Diseases/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infection Control , Male , Mass Screening , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 6(10): 1199-1204, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-624244

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus, was reported in December 2019. COVID-19 is highly contagious and has rapidly developed from a regional epidemic into a global pandemic. As yet, no effective drugs have been found to treat this virus. This study, an ongoing multicenter and blind randomized controlled trial (RCT), is being conducted at ten study sites in Heilongjiang Province, China, to investigate the efficacy and safety of Triazavirin (TZV) versus its placebo in COVID-19 patients. A total of 240 participants with COVID-19 are scheduled to be enrolled in this trial. Participants with positive tests of throat swab virus nucleic acid are randomized (1:1) into two groups: standard therapy plus TZV or standard therapy plus placebo for a 7-day treatment with a 21-day follow-up. The primary outcome is the time to clinical improvement of the subjects. Secondary outcomes include clinical improvement rate, time to alleviation of fever, mean time and proportion of obvious inflammatory absorption in the lung, conversion rate of repeated negative virus nucleic acid tests, mortality rate, and conversion rate to severe and critically severe patients. Adverse events, serious adverse events, liver function, kidney function, and concurrent treatments will be monitored and recorded throughout the trial. The results of this trial should provide evidence-based recommendations to clinicians for the treatment of COVID-19.

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