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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305513

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) at late 2019 has caused a devastating global pandemic of the severe pneumonia-like disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although vaccines have been and are being developed, they are not accessible to everyone and not everyone can receive these vaccines. Also, it typically takes more than 10 years until a new therapeutic agent is approved for usage. Therefore, repurposing of known drugs can lend itself well as a key approach for significantly expediting the development of new therapies for COVID-19. Methods: We have been incorporated machine learning-based computational tools and in silico models into the drug discovery process to predict Adsorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion, and Toxicity (ADMET) profiles of 90 potential drugs for COVID-19 treatment identified from two independent studies mainly with the purpose of mitigating late-phase failures because of inferior pharmacokinetics and toxicity. Results: Here, summarized the cardiotoxicity and general toxicity profiles of 90 potential drugs for COVID-19 treatment and summarize the risks of repurposing and propose a stratification of patients accordingly. We shortlist a total of five compounds based on their non-toxic properties. Conclusion: In summary, this manuscript aims to provide a potentially useful source of essential knowledge on toxicity assessment of 90 compounds for health care practitioners and researchers to find off-label alternatives for the treatment for COVID-19. The majority of the molecules discussed in this manuscript have already moved into clinical trials and thus their known pharmacological and human safety profiles are expected to facilitate a fast track preclinical and clinical assessment for treating COVID-19.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320533

ABSTRACT

Ligand and structure based virtual screening approaches were applied to clinical stage drugs as well as those approved for human use in an attempt to repurpose drugs for potential use against COVID-19. This approach involved ligand-based shape similarity searches, structure-based docking and pharmacophore searches with the help of pharmacophore queries derived from available ligands and receptor structures. Several compounds appeared as hits in pharmacophore and shape similarity searches and those docking to the SARS-CoV-2 viral 3CL protease were then ranked on the basis of docking scores.

3.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 22(1): 61, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477468

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) in thelate 2019 has caused a devastating global pandemic of the severe pneumonia-like disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although vaccines have been and are being developed, they are not accessible to everyone and not everyone can receive these vaccines. Also, it typically takes more than 10 years until a new therapeutic agent is approved for usage. Therefore, repurposing of known drugs can lend itself well as a key approach for significantly expediting the development of new therapies for COVID-19. METHODS: We have incorporated machine learning-based computational tools and in silico models into the drug discovery process to predict Adsorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion, and Toxicity (ADMET) profiles of 90 potential drugs for COVID-19 treatment identified from two independent studies mainly with the purpose of mitigating late-phase failures because of inferior pharmacokinetics and toxicity. RESULTS: Here, we summarize the cardiotoxicity and general toxicity profiles of 90 potential drugs for COVID-19 treatment and outline the risks of repurposing and propose a stratification of patients accordingly. We shortlist a total of five compounds based on their non-toxic properties. CONCLUSION: In summary, this manuscript aims to provide a potentially useful source of essential knowledge on toxicity assessment of 90 compounds for healthcare practitioners and researchers to find off-label alternatives for the treatment for COVID-19. The majority of the molecules discussed in this manuscript have already moved into clinical trials and thus their known pharmacological and human safety profiles are expected to facilitate a fast track preclinical and clinical assessment for treating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/toxicity , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Drug Repositioning , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Captopril/therapeutic use , Cardiotoxins/toxicity , Catechols/therapeutic use , Computational Biology , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism , Drug Discovery/methods , Humans , Indomethacin/therapeutic use , Linezolid/therapeutic use , Liver/drug effects , Mice , Models, Biological , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Rats , Reproduction/drug effects , Software , Valproic Acid/therapeutic use
4.
Vaccine ; 39(40): 5769-5779, 2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392616

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the etiological agent of COVID19. There are currently several licensed vaccines approved for human use and most of them target the spike protein in the virion envelope to induce protective immunity. Recently, variants that spread more quickly have emerged. There is evidence that some of these variants are less sensitive to neutralization in vitro, but it is not clear whether they can evade vaccine induced protection. In this study, we tested SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD as a vaccine antigen and explored the effect of formulation with Alum/MPLA or AddaS03 adjuvants. Our results show that RBD induces high titers of neutralizing antibodies and activates strong cellular immune responses. There is also significant cross-neutralization of variants B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 and to a lesser extent, SARS-CoV-1. These results indicate that recombinant RBD can be a viable candidate as a stand-alone vaccine or as a booster shot to diversify our strategy for COVID19 protection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
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