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1.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S245, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746714

ABSTRACT

Background. COVID-19 has emerged as a global public health emergency and has been the main cause of intensive care admission during the pandemic. COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has been reported in case series of critically ill patients. However, the criteria for CAPA diagnosis has been inconsistent among most of the reports. Mexico has been widely affected by SARS-CoV-2. We present a series of CAPA cases at a teaching hospital in Mexico City. Methods. We performed a retrospective analysis of COVID-19 patients admitted to the ABC Medical Center from May 1st, 2020, to May 1st, 2021. Including only those with critical COVID-19 who required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Patients with a diagnosis of CAPA were analyzed. We followed the 2020 ECMM/ISHAM consensus criteria for CAPA diagnosis. Aspergillus antigen testing in tracheal aspirate and serum was done with Aspergillus-specific galactomannoprotein (GP) ELISA (Euroimmun Medizinische Labordiagnostika). Results. Among the 230 admitted patients who required IMV, we identified 49 (21.3%) cases of CAPA, 46 probable CAPA and 3 proven CAPA. Nineteen (38%) of those died in the hospital. The mean age was 64.5 ± 12.6 years and 11 were female. Proven CAPA was diagnosed with culture in three cases (one A. niger, one A. terreus and one A. fumigatus). Probable CAPA was diagnosed by a positive serum GP in 27 (55.1%) patients and by a positive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) GP in 29 (59.2%) cases. Seven patients had both serum and BAL positive GP. Forty-six (93.9%) patients received corticosteroids, and 22 (49.9%) were treated with tocilizumab before CAPA diagnosis. All but one received isavuconazole as CAPA treatment. We detected 35 (71.4%) patients who had a bacterial co-infection. Eighteen of those died (51.4%) compared to only one dead in the subgroup without coinfections (7.1%). The mean time from hospital admission to CAPA diagnosis was 6.2 days (SD 7.1) among those who survived compared to 13.2 (SD 6.3) days in those who died p< 0.01. Conclusion. CAPA had a lower prevalence than previously reported in other series. However, it appears to be linked to high mortality when it occurs with other bacterial coinfections and when it is diagnosed late from admission.

2.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(SUPPL 1):S320, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1185870

ABSTRACT

Background: Over the past few years, it has been shown that T cells play an essential role in antiviral immunity, in the course of the COVID-19 pandemic some studies reported an association between lymphocytopenia and exhaustion of the surviving remaining T cells which are apparently functional in patients with acute COVID-19, specially in those with severe forms of presentation. Some studies have reported an association where less than 800 CD4 + T cells are negatively related to the survival of seriously ill patients with COVID -19. Methods: We included 19 patients admitted to our hospital (ABC Medical Center) from May 7 to 15, 2020 with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 and were randomized into 2 groups according to the severity of the presentation (severe or critical) A determination of CD4 + T cells was made at admission, we also reported the need for invasive mechanical ventilation at some point of the hospitalization for each group, all patients were followed until their hospital discharge. One patient was excluded because he was still admitted at the time of the analysis. Results: Of the 18 patients included, 9 (50%) fulfilled criteria of severe and 9 (50%) of critical. The mean of CD4 + T cell was 455 (256-697) for the severe and 285.44 (145-430) for the critical (CI 95% P 0.46), the determination of CD8+ T cell was 212 (88-392) for the severe and 201 (59-534) for the critical (CI 95% P 1.19), of the critical patients 8 (88.9%) required invasive mechanical ventilation and only one non-invasive mechanical ventilation, while the severe patients only required support with supplemental oxygen by nasal cannula (9 (100%)).The mean lenght of hospitalization was 12.73 days (3-34) and all the patients survived until they were discharged home. Conclusion: As it has been reported in some studies, the pathogenesis of SARSCoV- 2 infection in humans is associated with a reduction and functional exhaustion of T cells in patients with COVID-19.In this study we presume that lower levels of CD4+T cells can be associated with critical forms of COVID 19 as the majority of critical patients in our report had < 300 CD4 +T cell count, while we need further studies with a greater number of patients and follow-up to establish reliable determinations, we propose than the levels of CD4+T cell count could be use as a good predictor of severity in COVID-19.

3.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(SUPPL 1):S247, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1185722

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has emerged as a global public health emergency and has been the main cause of intensive care admission during the pandemic. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) superinfection has been reported in case series of critically ill patients. Mexico has been widely affected by SARS-CoV-2. We present a case series of COVID-19-associated IPA at a teaching hospital in Mexico City. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of COVID-19 patients admitted to the ABC Medical Center from March 13 to June 1, 2020. Only those with severe or critical COVID-19 were hospitalized. Patients with a diagnosis of putative IPA were analyzed. SARS-CoV-2 was diagnosed by Real-Time PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs. Aspergillus antigen testing in tracheal aspirate and serum was done with Aspergillus-specific galactomannoprotein (GP) ELISA (Euroimmun Medizinische Labordiagnostika).The study was approved by the hospital ethics committee. Results: Among the 47 admitted patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), we identified seven (14.9%) cases of IPA. The mean age was 59.7 ± 17.8 years and five were male. All our patients had comorbidities, but none were under previous immunosuppressive treatment. All had critical COVID-19 pneumonia requiring IMV. All but one patient received corticosteroids, and five patients were treated with tocilizumab before IPA diagnosis. Putative IPA was diagnosed in six cases (86%) by a positive GP in tracheal aspirate, additionally in one of these, the tracheal aspirate culture also grew Aspergillus niger. The remaining one (14%) had a positive serum GP. The median time from COVID-19 to IPA diagnosis was 10 days. There were five bacterial co-infections, three with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and one with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Six patients were treated with isavuconazole and one voriconazole. As of June 17, 2020, three patients had died, two patients had been discharged, and two were still in the intensive care unit receiving IMV. Aspergillus niger isolated from a tracheal aspirate of a critically-ill COVID-19 patient Conclusion: COVID-19-associated IPA had a lower prevalence than previously reported in other series. However, it appears to be linked to high mortality and could be associated with other bacterial coinfections.

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