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Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(1): e35-e36, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892110


Idiopathic intussusception is a common cause of bowel obstruction in infants, presenting as refractory abdominal pain or mass, vomiting, lethargy, and currant jelly stool. Coronavirus disease 2019 is not well characterized in children, especially infants, but symptoms in children have included nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. From January to July 2020, intussusception was reported in 5 infants 4-10 months of age who had laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. All 5 infants presented with currant jelly stool and at least 1 other abdominal symptom, and none presented with respiratory symptoms. Four infants recovered but the fifth infant progressed to a critical illness and death. While an association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and intussusception has not been established, infants with symptoms consistent with intussusception may warrant testing for viral pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2, especially if presenting to healthcare with a history of SARS-CoV-2 exposure or with signs and symptoms of COVID-19. More investigation is needed to determine whether intussusception is part of the clinical spectrum of COVID-19 in infants or a coincidental finding among infants with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

COVID-19/complications , Intussusception/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant , Intussusception/pathology , Intussusception/therapy , Intussusception/virology , Male , Treatment Outcome
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(32): 1074-1080, 2020 08 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695725


In April 2020, during the peak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Europe, a cluster of children with hyperinflammatory shock with features similar to Kawasaki disease and toxic shock syndrome was reported in England* (1). The patients' signs and symptoms were temporally associated with COVID-19 but presumed to have developed 2-4 weeks after acute COVID-19; all children had serologic evidence of infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1). The clinical signs and symptoms present in this first cluster included fever, rash, conjunctivitis, peripheral edema, gastrointestinal symptoms, shock, and elevated markers of inflammation and cardiac damage (1). On May 14, 2020, CDC published an online Health Advisory that summarized the manifestations of reported multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), outlined a case definition,† and asked clinicians to report suspected U.S. cases to local and state health departments. As of July 29, a total of 570 U.S. MIS-C patients who met the case definition had been reported to CDC. A total of 203 (35.6%) of the patients had a clinical course consistent with previously published MIS-C reports, characterized predominantly by shock, cardiac dysfunction, abdominal pain, and markedly elevated inflammatory markers, and almost all had positive SARS-CoV-2 test results. The remaining 367 (64.4%) of MIS-C patients had manifestations that appeared to overlap with acute COVID-19 (2-4), had a less severe clinical course, or had features of Kawasaki disease.§ Median duration of hospitalization was 6 days; 364 patients (63.9%) required care in an intensive care unit (ICU), and 10 patients (1.8%) died. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to expand in many jurisdictions, clinicians should be aware of the signs and symptoms of MIS-C and report suspected cases to their state or local health departments; analysis of reported cases can enhance understanding of MIS-C and improve characterization of the illness for early detection and treatment.

Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology