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1.
J Neurosci Rural Pract ; 13(3): 563-567, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946015

ABSTRACT

Metastatic pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a rare entity arising from extra-adrenal tissue. We report the perioperative management of a young woman presenting with metastatic PCC to the vertebral body resulting in vertebral collapse and spinal cord compression necessitating emergency surgery. There are no reports of anesthetic management of a patient with unoptimized metastatic PCC presenting for emergency neurosurgery under general anesthesia. Our anesthetic goals were to maintain a deep anesthetic plane with stable hemodynamics, facilitate intraoperative neuromonitoring, manage catecholamine surges during anesthetic induction, tumor resection, and manage perioperative massive blood loss. The successful perioperative management of metastatic PCC has become possible with the vast armamentarium of anesthetic drugs and intraoperative advanced monitoring techniques. In addition, our role in understanding the pathophysiology and course of the disease is essential to ensure low morbidity and mortality of such cases in their most vulnerable perioperative period.

2.
J Neurosci Rural Pract ; 13(3): 376-381, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946024

ABSTRACT

Objectives Minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) of anesthetic agents has been considered a suitable measure of the potency of inhalational anesthetics. Furthermore, it is assumed that equi-MAC concentrations of different anesthetic agents have a similar potency in suppressing responses to painful stimuli. Isoflurane and sevoflurane are two commonly used volatile anesthetic agents in spine surgeries. Therefore, these agents' hypnotic and analgesic potencies should be distinguished and comprehended for the optimal administration of anesthesia. Consequently, we undertook this study to compare the analgesic and hypnotic potencies between these agents at equi-MAC concentrations, using the entropy monitor. Materials and Methods Forty patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery were randomly assigned to two groups receiving either isoflurane ( n = 20) or sevoflurane ( n = 20). After induction, maintenance of anesthesia was done with age-corrected 1.0 MAC of either isoflurane or sevoflurane. A standardized noxious stimulus was provided to all the patients after achieving a steady state of 1.0 MAC. The state entropy (SE), response entropy (RE), and RE-SE were recorded at baseline, prestimulus, and poststimulus time points in both groups. Statistical Analyses Data are presented as frequency and percentages for categorical variables and mean ± standard deviation for continuous variables. The comparison of categorical variables between the two groups was made using the Fisher's exact test, and the Student's t -test was used for continuous variables. A p -value of < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results At age-corrected 1.0 MAC, there was no significant difference in the SE, RE, and RE-SE in both the groups at any time point. Conclusion Our study shows that during a steady state of age-corrected 1.0 MAC single-agent anesthesia, sevoflurane and isoflurane have comparable analgesic and hypnotic potencies as measured by entropy indices when a standardized nociceptive stimulus is provided.

3.
A A Pract ; 16(6): e01593, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679159

ABSTRACT

Arterial tortuosity syndrome is a rare hereditary autosomal recessive connective tissue disorder characterized by elongation and tortuosity of the large- and medium-sized arteries. We present the case of a 13-year old child with arterial tortuosity syndrome who underwent occipital encephaloduroarteriomyosynangiosis for posterior circulation insufficiency. The constellation of clinical features in our patient portended significant anesthetic concerns, including difficult airway due to craniofacial abnormalities, risk of stroke, and myocardial infarction due to intracerebral and coronary arterial tortuosity and stenosis. The pertinent anesthetic implications are summarized, and we describe the anesthetic technique and use of multimodal neuromonitoring relevant for the case.


Subject(s)
Anesthetics , Cerebral Revascularization , Connective Tissue Diseases , Skin Diseases, Genetic , Adolescent , Arteries/abnormalities , Humans , Joint Instability , Skin Diseases, Genetic/surgery , Vascular Malformations
4.
J Neurosci Rural Pract ; 12(4): 718-725, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737506

ABSTRACT

Objectives Neurosurgical patients with cervical spine pathologies, craniofacial and craniovertebral junction anomalies, recurrent cervical spine, and posterior fossa surgeries frequently present with an airway that is anticipated to be difficult. Although the routine physical evaluation is nonaerosol-generating, Mallampati scoring, mouth opening, and assessment of lower cranial nerve function could potentially generate aerosols, imposing a greater risk of acquiring severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Moreover, airway evaluation requires the patient to remove the mask, thereby posing a greater risk to the assessing anesthesiologist. Thus, we designed this study to evaluate the efficacy of virtual airway assessment (VAA) done via telemedicine in comparison to direct airway assessment (DAA), and assess the feasibility of VAA as a part of the preanesthetic evaluation (PAE) of patients presenting for neurosurgery in the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods A total of 55 patients presenting for elective neurosurgical procedures were recruited in this prospective, observational study. The preoperative assessment of the airway was first done by a remote anesthetist via an encrypted video call, using a smartphone which served the purpose of telemedicine equipment, followed by a direct assessment by the attending anesthetist. The following parameters were assessed: mouth opening (MO), presence of any anomalies of tongue and palate, Mallampati classification (MPC) grading, thyromental distance (TMD), upper lip bite test (ULBT), neck movements, and Look-Evaluate-Mallampati-Obstruction-Neck mobility (LEMON) scoring system. Statistical Analysis Demographic parameters were expressed as mean ± SD. Agreement between the values obtained by VAA and DAA parameters were analyzed with the Kappa test. Results We observed a "perfect agreement" between the DAA and VAA with regard to MO. Assessment of ULBT, neck movements, and the LEMON score had an overall "almost perfect agreement" between the DAA and VAA. We also observed a "substantial agreement" between VAA and DAA during the assessment of MPC grading and TMD. Conclusion Our study shows that PAE and VAA via telemedicine can reliably be used as an alternative to direct physical preanesthetic consultation in the COVID-19 scenario. This could reduce unnecessary exposure of anesthesiologists to potential asymptomatic COVID-positive patients, thereby protecting the available skilled workforce, without any significant compromise to patient care.

6.
J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol ; 36(Suppl 1): S104-S109, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33100657

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global pandemic. A significant number of these patients would present to hospitals with neurological manifestations and neurosurgical emergencies requiring urgent treatment. The anesthesiologists should be prepared to manage these cases in an efficient and timely manner in the operating room, intensive care units, and interventional neuroradiology suites. The clinical course of the disease is in an evolving stage. As we acquire more knowledge about COVID-19, new recommendations and guidelines are being formulated and regularly updated. This article discusses the anesthetic management of urgent neurosurgical and neurointerventional procedures. In addition, a brief overview of intrahospital transport of neurologically injured patients has been addressed.

7.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(4): e13718, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Perioperative pain assessment and management in neurosurgical patients varies widely across the globe. There is lack of data from developing world regarding practices of pain assessment and management in neurosurgical population. This survey aimed to capture practices and perceptions regarding perioperative pain assessment and management in neurosurgical patients among anesthesiologists who are members of the Indian Society of Neuroanaesthesiology and Critical Care (ISNACC) and evaluated if hospital and pain characteristics predicted the use of structured pain assessment protocol and use of opioids for postoperative pain management. METHODS: A 26-item English language questionnaire was administered to members of ISNACC using Kwiksurveys platform after ethics committee approval. Our outcome measures were adoption of structured protocol for pain assessment and opioid usage for postoperative pain management. RESULTS: The response rate for our survey was 55.15% (289/524). One hundred eighteen (41%) responders informed that their hospital setup had a structured pain protocol while 43 (15%) responders reported using opioids for postoperative pain management. Predictors of the use of structured pain protocol were private setup (odds ratio [OR] 2.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.52-4.59; P = .001), higher pain intensity (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.21-0.64; P < .001) and use of pain scale (OR 7.94; 95% CI 3.99-15.81; P < .001) while availability of structured pain protocol (OR 2.04; 95% CI 1.02-4.05; P = .043) was the only significant variable for postoperative opioid use. CONCLUSIONS: Less than half of the Indian neuroanesthesiologists who are members of ISNACC use structured protocol for pain assessment and very few use opioids for postoperative pain management in neurosurgical patients.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Neurosurgery , Analgesics, Opioid , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pain Measurement , Pain, Postoperative/diagnosis , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy
8.
A A Pract ; 14(6): e01192, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784313

ABSTRACT

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive monitor of regional brain tissue oxygenation, and jugular venous oximetry (SjvO2) is a monitor of global cerebral oxygenation. We report the role of intraoperative multimodal monitoring of cerebral oxygenation in the anesthetic management of a patient with grade III intracranial arteriovenous malformation (AVM) presenting for surgical excision. Real-time monitoring of cerebral oxygenation is of much relevance in high-grade AVMs where anesthetic management is focused on neuroprotection and prevention of cerebral hypoxia. Besides, it also helps in prediction, early detection, and judicious management of perioperative complications, which are commonly encountered in high-grade AVMs.


Subject(s)
Anesthetics , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations , Humans , Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations/surgery , Jugular Veins , Oximetry
10.
J Neurosci Rural Pract ; 11(2): 267-273, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367982

ABSTRACT

Background Dexmedetomidine could be a suitable adjuvant in neuroanesthesia due to its analgesic and anesthetic-sparing properties with the added advantage of facilitating intraoperative neuromonitoring. However, its recovery profile is still debated upon, as in neuroanesthesia, a prompt recovery is essential for postoperative neurologic assessment. We designed this study to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine on the anesthetic and recovery profile of patients presenting for supratentorial neurosurgeries. Materials and Methods Forty adult patients undergoing supratentorial surgeries were recruited in this prospective, randomized, double-blinded study and were divided into two groups: group S and group SD. Both groups received sevoflurane and fentanyl for maintenance, whereas group SD alone received a low dose of dexmedetomidine infusion. Recovery parameters, opioid consumption, Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS) and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, incidence of nausea and vomiting, and intraoperative hemodynamics were analyzed. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the groups S and SD in case of recovery parameters-time taken (in minutes, presented as median with interquartile range [IQR]) for (1) eye-opening to command: 9.5 (8-18) versus 22.5 (5-47.5) ( p = 0.414); 2) following verbal command: 10.5 (8.25-29.5) versus 25 (10-28.75) ( p = 0.512); (3) extubation: 11 (9.25-22) versus 25 (10-30) ( p = 0.277); and (4) getting oriented to place, time, and date: 23 (20-52.75) versus 27.5 (25-36.5) ( p = 0.121). Fentanyl consumption was significantly less in group SD (451 ± 39.3) versus group S (524.3 ± 144.1) ( p = 0.034). The median RASS score with IQR and the median VAS scores with IQR were comparable between the groups at all time points. Of the 20 patients in group S, 5 had complaints of nausea and vomiting compared with none in the group SD, although it was not statistically significant. The hemodynamic parameters did not show a significant difference between the groups except for a surge in mean arterial pressure at 30 minutes in group S. Conclusion Low-dose dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to sevoflurane- and fentanyl-based anesthesia could provide stable hemodynamics and lesser anesthetics and opioid consumption, without adversely affecting the recovery profile in patients undergoing supratentorial neurosurgical procedures.

12.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 35(1): 209-212, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960222

ABSTRACT

One of the primary goals in Neuroanesthesia is to preserve cerebral oxygenation and protect the brain from secondary injuries. Seizures have severe implications in the intraoperative period, as it can instigate an increase in cerebral metabolism and oxygen demand, thus causing cerebral hypoxia. Detection of intraoperative seizures is imperative in neurosurgical cases as the ramifications of intracranial hypertension and cerebral hypoxia caused by it can affect patient prognosis and perioperative outcomes. We report a case of detecting intraoperative seizures with the aid of patient state index and near infrared spectroscopy. Multi-modality monitoring aided in the management of a time-sensitive complication, which could otherwise have possibly led to secondary brain insult.


Subject(s)
Brain , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Humans , Oxygen , Seizures
13.
J Neurosci Rural Pract ; 10(4): 715-717, 2019 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831995

ABSTRACT

Congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries (CC-TGAs) associated with a ventricular septal defect (VSD) presents with cyanotic spells and systemic complications such as brain abscess. In mesocardia, the heart lies in the midline with no apex seen on the left side. We report the anesthetic management of a child with CC-TGA, VSD, and mesocardia presenting with parietal brain abscess for neurosurgery. The significant anesthetic challenges include maintenance of peripheral vascular resistance lower than systemic vascular resistance, prevention of air embolism and paradoxical embolism, avoidance of hyperviscosity in addition to avoiding any rise in intracranial pressure, and maintenance of cerebral perfusion pressure.

16.
J Neurosci Rural Pract ; 10(3): 438-443, 2019 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602153

ABSTRACT

Background Patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) experience excruciating headache that is difficult to manage in resource-constrained settings. Pregabalin's (ß-isobutyl-GABA) analgesic, antiepileptic, and antiemetic properties make it an attractive adjuvant in pain management for these patients. Methods We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial on 40 aSAH patients undergoing aneurysmal clipping to assess the effect of perioperative pregabalin in decreasing perioperative headache, anesthetic, and opioid requirement. Patients received either pregabalin (75 mg) or placebo twice daily soon after admission till 24-hour postoperative, in addition to paracetamol 650 mg thrice daily. Headache assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) at five time points was compared using a mixed effects regression model. Results Pain assessed by VAS declined significantly more from the baseline in pregabalin recipients compared with placebo at preinduction (-3.6 vs.-1.8; p = 0.004), 12-hour (4.3 vs. 2.8; p = 0.014), and 24-hour postsurgery (4.7 vs. 2.9; p = 0.007), but not at the 6-hour postoperation (4.9 vs. 3.8; p = 0.065). Pregabalin recipients required a lower minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane to maintain a prespecified bispectral index of 40 and 60 (0.8 vs. 0.9; p = 0.014) and required fewer rescue analgesic doses in the 24  hours following surgery (1.8 vs. 3.3; p = 0.005). The intraoperative fentanyl requirement was not significantly different between the groups (10 µg/kg vs. 11.4 µg/kg; p = 0.065). There was no significant difference in the sedation scores. Conclusions Pregabalin 75 mg administered twice daily, during the perioperative period, was an effective adjunct in the management of the severe headache experienced by patients with aSAH and decreased the opioid and anesthetic requirement without significantly increasing sedation.

17.
Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim ; 47(5): 420-422, 2019 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572995

ABSTRACT

Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome also known as 'Crow Fukase syndrome' is a rare paraneoplastic disorder, first described by Crow and Fukase with distinctive features of polyradiculoneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy and skin changes. There is a paucity of literature about anaesthetic management of patients with POEMS syndrome with isolated case reports of surgery under general anaesthesia and central neuraxial blockade. We present here the anaesthetic management of a patient with POEMS syndrome posted for umbilical hernia repair, which was successfully managed with a transverse abdominis plane (TAP) block.

18.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 23(Suppl 2): S115-S119, 2019 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485118

ABSTRACT

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear fluid circulating in the intracranial and spinal compartments. Under normal conditions, the composition of CSF remains constant. However, in various neurological disease especially in acute conditions, the composition, quantity and its pressure can be altered. By measuring the levels of various CSF components using relevant techniques, diagnosis, severity and prognostication of neurological conditions like infections, subarachnoid hemorrhage, demyelinating conditions, tumor like conditions, etc. can be done. In this review, alterations in CSF components and its relevance to the emergency care physician to help in the management of patients are enumerated. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Hrishi AP, Sethuraman M. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Analysis and Interpretation in Neurocritical Care for Acute Neurological Conditions. Indian J Crit Care Med 2019;23(Suppl 2):S115-S119.

19.
Brain Circ ; 5(2): 90-93, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334362

ABSTRACT

One of the complications of carotid artery stenting (CAS) is iatrogenic vasospasm caused by mechanical irritation of the blood vessel lumen by a guidewire, catheter, stent retriever, or distal protection devices. Although often self-limiting, the mechanical vasospasm can cause reduction in the cerebral blood flow and result in catastrophic ischemia, especially when undetected and persistent. Real-time cerebral oximetry with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) could detect episodes of cerebral hypoxemia due to vasospasm and facilitate intervention for prevention of hypoxic brain injury during neuro-intervention procedures such as CAS. We present a case scenario where NIRS detected iatrogenic vasospasm even before the conventional tests could identify the event during CAS.

20.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 23(4): 186-187, 2019 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130791

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is a rare disorder that can present as an acute onset of pain and radicular symptoms that mimic disk herniation. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) can be defined as presence of air in the pleural space without apparent underlying lung disease or trauma. We describe a rare case of SSEH in cervical spine (C5-7) presenting with a novel association, a bilateral PSP, which has never been documented before. Both SSEH and spontaneous pneumothorax, though rare, can be associated with vasculopathy and our patient had signs of vasculopathy of intracranial vessels and pulmonary vasculature. Vasculopathy also needs to be considered while evaluating a case of PSP without emphysema-like changes (ELCs) and if diagnosed as the cause, pleurodesis could be considered as a part of the management to avoid the sequel of recurrent pneumothorax and prolonged ICU stay in this subset of patients. How to cite this article Thakkar K, Ajayan N, et al. A Mysterious Case of Spontaneous Cervical Epidural Hematoma and Bilateral Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax caused by a Rare Etiology. Indian J Crit Care Med 2019;23(4):186-187.

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