Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 19 de 19
Filter
1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-338366

ABSTRACT

Immunization with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines has greatly reduced coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related deaths and hospitalizations, but waning immunity and the emergence of variants capable of immune escape indicate the need for novel SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. An intranasal parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5)-vectored COVID-19 vaccine CVXGA1 has been proven efficacious in animal models and blocks contact transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in ferrets. CVXGA1 vaccine is currently in human clinical trials in the United States. This work investigates the immunogenicity and efficacy of CVXGA1 and other PIV5-vectored vaccines expressing additional antigen SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein (N) or SARS-CoV-2 variant spike (S) proteins of beta, delta, gamma, and omicron variants against homologous and heterologous challenges in hamsters. A single intranasal dose of CVXGA1 induces neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 WA1 (ancestral), delta variant, and omicron variant and protects against both homologous and heterologous virus challenges. Compared to mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, neutralizing antibody titers induced by CVXGA1 were well-maintained over time. When administered as a boost following two doses of a mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, PIV5-vectored vaccines expressing the S protein from WA1 (CVXGA1), delta, or omicron variants generate higher levels of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies compared to three doses of a mRNA vaccine. In addition to the S protein, the N protein provides added protection as assessed by the highest body weight gain post-challenge infection. Our data indicates that PIV5-vectored COVID-19 vaccines, such as CVXGA1, can serve as booster vaccines against emerging variants. Importance With emerging new variants of concern (VOC), SARS-CoV 2 continues to be a major threat to human health. Approved COVID-19 vaccines have been less effective against these emerging VOCs. This work demonstrates the protective efficacy, and strong boosting effect, of a new intranasal viral-vectored vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 variants in hamsters.

2.
Hum Gene Ther ; 33(7-8): 389-403, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806227

ABSTRACT

While SARS-CoV2 vaccines have shown an unprecedented success, the ongoing emergence of new variants and necessity to adjust vaccines justify the development of alternative prophylaxis and therapy approaches. Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy using a secreted CoV2 decoy receptor protein (sACE2-Ig) would involve a one-time intervention resulting in long-term protection against airway infection, viremia, and extrapulmonary symptoms. We recently developed a technically simple and portable in vivo hematopoietic HSC transduction approach that involves HSC mobilization from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood stream and the intravenous injection of an integrating, helper-dependent adenovirus (HDAd5/35++) vector system. Considering the abundance of erythrocytes, in this study, we directed sACE2-Ig expression to erythroid cells using strong ß-globin transcriptional regulatory elements. We performed in vivo HSC transduction of CD46-transgenic mice with an HDAd-sACE2-Ig vector. Serum sACE2-Ig levels reached 500-1,300 ng/mL after in vivo selection. At 22 weeks, we used genetically modified HSCs from these mice to substitute the hematopoietic system in human ACE2-transgenic mice, thus creating a model that is susceptible to SARS-CoV2 infection. Upon challenge with a lethal dose of CoV2 (WA-1), sACE2-Ig expressed from erythroid cells of test mice diminishes infection sequelae. Treated mice lost significantly less weight, had less viremia, and displayed reduced cytokine production and lung pathology. The second objective of this study was to assess the safety of in vivo HSC transduction and long-term sACE2-Ig expression in a rhesus macaque. With appropriate cytokine prophylaxis, intravenous injection of HDAd-sACE2-Ig into the mobilized animal was well tolerated. In vivo transduced HSCs preferentially localized to and survived in the spleen. sACE2-Ig expressed from erythroid cells did not affect erythropoiesis and the function of erythrocytes. While these pilot studies are promising, the antiviral efficacy of the approach has to be improved, for example, by using of decoy receptors with enhanced neutralizing capacity and/or expression of multiple antiviral effector proteins.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Genetic Therapy/methods , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/metabolism , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viremia/metabolism
3.
JCI Insight ; 7(10)2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDMeasuring the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 enables assessment of past infection and protective immunity. SARS-CoV-2 infection induces humoral and T cell responses, but these responses vary with disease severity and individual characteristics.METHODSA T cell receptor (TCR) immunosequencing assay was conducted using small-volume blood samples from 302 individuals recovered from COVID-19. Correlations between the magnitude of the T cell response and neutralizing antibody (nAb) titers or indicators of disease severity were evaluated. Sensitivity of T cell testing was assessed and compared with serologic testing.RESULTSSARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses were significantly correlated with nAb titers and clinical indicators of disease severity, including hospitalization, fever, and difficulty breathing. Despite modest declines in depth and breadth of T cell responses during convalescence, high sensitivity was observed until at least 6 months after infection, with overall sensitivity ~5% greater than serology tests for identifying prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Improved performance of T cell testing was most apparent in recovered, nonhospitalized individuals sampled > 150 days after initial illness, suggesting greater sensitivity than serology at later time points and in individuals with less severe disease. T cell testing identified SARS-CoV-2 infection in 68% (55 of 81) of samples with undetectable nAb titers (<1:40) and in 37% (13 of 35) of samples classified as negative by 3 antibody assays.CONCLUSIONThese results support TCR-based testing as a scalable, reliable measure of past SARS-CoV-2 infection with clinical value beyond serology.TRIAL REGISTRATIONSpecimens were accrued under trial NCT04338360 accessible at clinicaltrials.gov.FUNDINGThis work was funded by Adaptive Biotechnologies, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, NIAID, Fred Hutchinson Joel Meyers Endowment, Fast Grants, and American Society for Transplantation and Cell Therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States
4.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(646): eabn1252, 2022 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784766

ABSTRACT

New variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continue to arise and prolong the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, we used a cell-free expression workflow to rapidly screen and optimize constructs containing multiple computationally designed miniprotein inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2. We found the broadest efficacy was achieved with a homotrimeric version of the 75-residue angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) mimic AHB2 (TRI2-2) designed to geometrically match the trimeric spike architecture. Consistent with the design model, in the cryo-electron microscopy structure TRI2-2 forms a tripod at the apex of the spike protein that engaged all three receptor binding domains simultaneously. TRI2-2 neutralized Omicron (B.1.1.529), Delta (B.1.617.2), and all other variants tested with greater potency than the monoclonal antibodies used clinically for the treatment of COVID-19. TRI2-2 also conferred prophylactic and therapeutic protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge when administered intranasally in mice. Designed miniprotein receptor mimics geometrically arrayed to match pathogen receptor binding sites could be a widely applicable antiviral therapeutic strategy with advantages over antibodies in greater resistance to viral escape and antigenic drift, and advantages over native receptor traps in lower chances of autoimmune responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
5.
Elife ; 112022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776585

ABSTRACT

Despite mass public health efforts, the SARS-CoV2 pandemic continues as of late 2021 with resurgent case numbers in many parts of the world. The emergence of SARS-CoV2 variants of concern (VoCs) and evidence that existing vaccines that were designed to protect from the original strains of SARS-CoV-2 may have reduced potency for protection from infection against these VoC is driving continued development of second-generation vaccines that can protect against multiple VoC. In this report, we evaluated an alphavirus-based replicating RNA vaccine expressing Spike proteins from the original SARS-CoV-2 Alpha strain and recent VoCs delivered in vivo via a lipid inorganic nanoparticle. Vaccination of both mice and Syrian Golden hamsters showed that vaccination induced potent neutralizing titers against each homologous VoC but reduced neutralization against heterologous challenges. Vaccinated hamsters challenged with homologous SARS-CoV2 variants exhibited complete protection from infection. In addition, vaccinated hamsters challenged with heterologous SARS-CoV-2 variants exhibited significantly reduced shedding of infectious virus. Our data demonstrate that this vaccine platform can be updated to target emergent VoCs, elicits significant protective immunity against SARS-CoV2 variants and supports continued development of this platform.


Since 2019, the SARS-CoV-2 virus has spread worldwide and caused hundreds of millions of cases of COVID-19. Vaccines were rapidly developed to protect people from becoming severely ill from the virus and decrease the risk of death. However, new variants ­ such as Alpha, Beta and Omicron ­ have emerged that the vaccines do not work as well against, contributing to the ongoing spread of the virus. One way to overcome this is to create a vaccine that can be quickly and easily updated to target new variants, like the vaccine against influenza. Many of the vaccines made against COVID-19 use a new technology to introduce the RNA sequence of the spike protein on the surface of SARS-CoV-2 into our cells. Once injected, our cells use their own machinery to build the protein, or 'antigen', so the immune system can learn how to recognize and destroy the virus. Here, Hawman et al. have renovated an RNA vaccine they made in 2020 which provides immunity against the original strain of SARS-CoV-2 in monkeys and mice. In the newer versions of the vaccine, the RNA was updated with a sequence that matches the spike protein on the Beta or Alpha variant of the virus. Both the original and updated vaccines were then administered to mice and hamsters to see how well they worked against SARS-CoV-2 infections. The experiment showed that all three vaccines caused the animals to produce antibodies that can neutralize the original, Alpha and Beta strains of the virus. Vaccinated hamsters were then infected with one of the three variants ­ either matched or mismatched to their vaccination ­ to see how much protection each vaccine provided. All the vaccines reduced the amount of virus in the animals after infection and mitigated damage in their lungs. But animals that received a vaccine which corresponded to the SARS-CoV-2 strain they were infected with had slightly better protection. These findings suggest that these vaccines work best when their RNA sequence matches the strain responsible for the infection; however, even non-matched vaccines still provide a decent degree of protection. Furthermore, the data demonstrate that the vaccine platform created by Hawman et al. can be easily updated to target new strains of SARS-CoV-2 that may emerge in the future. Recently, the Beta variant of the vaccine entered clinical trials in the United States (led by HDT Bio) to evaluate whether it can be used as a booster in previously vaccinated individuals as well as unvaccinated participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cricetinae , Humans , Mice , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
6.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327298

ABSTRACT

In late 2021, the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant of concern (VoC) was reported with many mutations in the viral spike protein that were predicted to enhance transmissibility and allow viral escape of neutralizing antibodies. Within weeks of the first report of B.1.1.529, this VoC has rapidly spread throughout the world, replacing previously circulating strains of SARS-CoV-2 and leading to a resurgence in COVID-19 cases even in populations with high levels of vaccine- and infection-induced immunity. Initial studies have shown that B.1.1.529 is less sensitive to protective antibody conferred by previous infections and vaccines developed against earlier lineages of SARS-CoV-2. The ability of B.1.1.529 to spread even among vaccinated populations has led to a global public health demand for updated vaccines that can confer protection against B.1.1.529. We report here the rapid development of a replicating RNA vaccine expressing the B.1.1.529 spike and show that this B.1.1.529-targeted vaccine is immunogenic in mice and hamsters. Interestingly, we found that mice previously immunized with A.1-specific vaccines failed to elevate neutralizing antibody titers against B.1.1.529 following B.1.1.529-targeted boosting, suggesting pre-existing immunity may impact the efficacy of B.1.1.529-targeted boosters. Furthermore, we found that our B.1.1.529-targeted vaccine provides superior protection compared to the ancestral A.1-targeted vaccine in hamsters challenged with the B.1.1.529 VoC after a single dose of each vaccine. One Sentence Summary Rapidly developed RNA vaccine protects against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant

7.
JCI Insight ; 7(6)2022 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673605

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 provokes a robust T cell response. Peptide-based studies exclude antigen processing and presentation biology, which may influence T cell detection studies. To focus on responses to whole virus and complex antigens, we used intact SARS-CoV-2 and full-length proteins with DCs to activate CD8 and CD4 T cells from convalescent people. T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing showed partial repertoire preservation after expansion. Resultant CD8 T cells recognize SARS-CoV-2-infected respiratory tract cells, and CD4 T cells detect inactivated whole viral antigen. Specificity scans with proteome-covering protein/peptide arrays show that CD8 T cells are oligospecific per subject and that CD4 T cell breadth is higher. Some CD4 T cell lines enriched using SARS-CoV-2 cross-recognize whole seasonal coronavirus (sCoV) antigens, with protein, peptide, and HLA restriction validation. Conversely, recognition of some epitopes is eliminated for SARS-CoV-2 variants, including spike (S) epitopes in the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta variant lineages.

8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 117: 287-294, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670581

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study assesses and compares the performance of different swab types and specimen collection sites for SARS-CoV-2 testing, to reference standard real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and viral culture. METHODS: Symptomatic adults with COVID-19 who visited routine COVID-19 testing sites used spun polyester and FLOQSwabs to self-collect specimens from the anterior nares and tongue. We evaluated the self-collected specimen from anterior nares and tongue swabs for the nucleocapsid (N) or spike (S) antigen of SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR and then compared these results with results from RT-PCR and viral cultures from nurse-collected nasopharyngeal swabs. RESULTS: Diagnostic sensitivity was highest for RT-PCR testing conducted using specimens from the anterior nares collected on FLOQSwabs (84%; 95% CI 68-94%) and spun polyester swabs (82%; 95% CI 66-92%), compared to RT-PCR tests conducted using specimens from nasopharyngeal swabs. Relative to viral culture from nasopharyngeal swabs, diagnostic sensitivities were higher for RT-PCR and antigen testing of anterior nares swabs (91-100%) than that of tongue swabs (18-81%). Antigen testing of anterior nares swabs had higher sensitivities against viral culture (91%) than against nasopharyngeal RT-PCR (38-70%). All investigational tests had high specificity compared with nasopharyngeal RT-PCR. Spun polyester swabs are equally effective as FLOQSwabs for anterior nasal RT-PCR testing. CONCLUSIONS: We found that anterior nares specimens were more sensitive than tongue swab specimens or antigen testing for detecting SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. Thus, self-collected anterior nares specimens may represent an alternative method for diagnostic SARS-CoV-2 testing in some settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Nasopharynx , Nucleocapsid/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/methods , Tongue
10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296710

ABSTRACT

Despite mass public health efforts, the SARS-CoV2 pandemic continues as of late-2021 with resurgent case numbers in many parts of the world. The emergence of SARS-CoV2 variants of concern (VoC) and evidence that existing vaccines that were designed to protect from the original strains of SARS-CoV-2 may have reduced potency for protection from infection against these VoC is driving continued development of second generation vaccines that can protect against multiple VoC. In this report, we evaluated an alphavirus-based replicating RNA vaccine expressing Spike proteins from the original SARS-CoV-2 Alpha strain and recent VoCs delivered in vivo via a lipid inorganic nanoparticle. Vaccination of both mice and Syrian Golden hamsters showed that vaccination induced potent neutralizing titers against each homologous VoC but reduced neutralization against heterologous challenges. Vaccinated hamsters challenged with homologous SARS-CoV2 variants exhibited complete protection from infection. In addition, vaccinated hamsters challenged with heterologous SARS-CoV-2 variants exhibited significantly reduced shedding of infectious virus. Our data demonstrate that this vaccine platform elicits significant protective immunity against SARS-CoV2 variants and supports continued development of this platform.

11.
[Unspecified Source]; 2020.
Preprint in English | [Unspecified Source] | ID: ppcovidwho-292778

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for the ability to rapidly develop effective countermeasures for emerging biological threats, such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We have developed a generalized computational design strategy to rapidly engineer de novo proteins that precisely recapitulate the protein surface targeted by biological agents, like viruses, to gain entry into cells. The designed proteins act as decoys that block cellular entry and aim to be resilient to viral mutational escape. Using our novel platform, in less than ten weeks, we engineered, validated, and optimized de novo protein decoys of human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), the membrane-associated protein that SARS-CoV-2 exploits to infect cells. Our optimized designs are hyperstable de novo proteins (∼18-37 kDa), have high affinity for the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) and can potently inhibit the virus infection and replication in vitro. Future refinements to our strategy can enable the rapid development of other therapeutic de novo protein decoys, not limited to neutralizing viruses, but to combat any agent that explicitly interacts with cell surface proteins to cause disease.

12.
JCI Insight ; 6(24)2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518199

ABSTRACT

Kidneys are critical target organs of COVID-19, but susceptibility and responses to infection remain poorly understood. Here, we combine SARS-CoV-2 variants with genome-edited kidney organoids and clinical data to investigate tropism, mechanism, and therapeutics. SARS-CoV-2 specifically infects organoid proximal tubules among diverse cell types. Infections produce replicating virus, apoptosis, and disrupted cell morphology, features of which are revealed in the context of polycystic kidney disease. Cross-validation of gene expression patterns in organoids reflects proteomic signatures of COVID-19 in the urine of critically ill patients indicating interferon pathway upregulation. SARS-CoV-2 viral variants alpha, beta, gamma, kappa, and delta exhibit comparable levels of infection in organoids. Infection is ameliorated in ACE2-/- organoids and blocked via treatment with de novo-designed spike binder peptides. Collectively, these studies clarify the impact of kidney infection in COVID-19 as reflected in organoids and clinical populations, enabling assessment of viral fitness and emerging therapies.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/urine , COVID-19/urine , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/virology , Kidney/virology , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Apoptosis , Bowman Capsule/cytology , Bowman Capsule/virology , COVID-19/complications , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Gene Knockout Techniques , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/metabolism , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Organoids/metabolism , Podocytes/virology , Polycystic Kidney Diseases , Proteome , Receptors, Coronavirus/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Transcriptome , Vero Cells , Viral Tropism , Virus Replication
13.
Elife ; 102021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339712

ABSTRACT

Many host RNA sensors are positioned in the cytosol to detect viral RNA during infection. However, most positive-strand RNA viruses replicate within a modified organelle co-opted from intracellular membranes of the endomembrane system, which shields viral products from cellular innate immune sensors. Targeting innate RNA sensors to the endomembrane system may enhance their ability to sense RNA generated by viruses that use these compartments for replication. Here, we reveal that an isoform of oligoadenylate synthetase 1, OAS1 p46, is prenylated and targeted to the endomembrane system. Membrane localization of OAS1 p46 confers enhanced access to viral replication sites and results in increased antiviral activity against a subset of RNA viruses including flaviviruses, picornaviruses, and SARS-CoV-2. Finally, our human genetic analysis shows that the OAS1 splice-site SNP responsible for production of the OAS1 p46 isoform correlates with protection from severe COVID-19. This study highlights the importance of endomembrane targeting for the antiviral specificity of OAS1 and suggests that early control of SARS-CoV-2 replication through OAS1 p46 is an important determinant of COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
2',5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Cell Line , Gene Editing , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
15.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183285

ABSTRACT

RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm often disrupt nucleocytoplasmic transport to preferentially translate their own transcripts and prevent host antiviral responses. The Sarbecovirus accessory protein ORF6 has previously been shown to be a major inhibitor of interferon production in both severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here, we show SARS-CoV-2-infected cells display an elevated level of nuclear mRNA accumulation compared to mock-infected cells. We demonstrate that ORF6 is responsible for this nuclear imprisonment of host mRNA, and using a cotransfected reporter assay, we show this nuclear retention of mRNA blocks expression of newly transcribed mRNAs. ORF6's nuclear entrapment of host mRNA is associated with its ability to copurify with the mRNA export factors, Rae1 and Nup98. These protein-protein interactions map to the C terminus of ORF6 and can be abolished by a single amino acid mutation in Met58. Overexpression of Rae1 restores reporter expression in the presence of SARS-CoV-2 ORF6. SARS-CoV ORF6 also interacts with Rae1 and Nup98. However, SARS-CoV-2 ORF6 more strongly copurifies with Rae1 and Nup98 and results in significantly reduced expression of reporter proteins compared to SARS-CoV ORF6, a potential mechanism for the delayed symptom onset and presymptomatic transmission uniquely associated with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We also show that both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 ORF6 block nuclear import of a broad range of host proteins. Together, these data support a model in which ORF6 clogs the nuclear pore through its interactions with Rae1 and Nup98 to prevent both nuclear import and export, rendering host cells incapable of responding to SARS-CoV-2 infection.IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is an RNA virus with a large genome that encodes multiple accessory proteins. While these accessory proteins are not required for growth in vitro, they can contribute to the pathogenicity of the virus. We demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2-infected cells accumulate poly(A) mRNA in the nucleus, which is attributed to the accessory protein ORF6. Nuclear entrapment of mRNA and reduced expression of newly transcribed reporter proteins are associated with ORF6's interactions with the mRNA export proteins Rae1 and Nup98. SARS-CoV ORF6 also shows the same interactions with Rae1 and Nup98. However, SARS-CoV-2 ORF6 more strongly represses reporter expression and copurifies with Rae1 and Nup98 compared to SARS-CoV ORF6. Both SARS-CoV ORF6 and SARS-CoV-2 ORF6 block nuclear import of a wide range of host factors through interactions with Rae1 and Nup98. Together, our results suggest ORF6's disruption of nucleocytoplasmic transport prevents infected cells from responding to the invading virus.


Subject(s)
Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins/metabolism , Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus , Binding Sites , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Mutation , Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins/genetics , Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins/genetics , Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Proteins/genetics , Protein Binding , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics
16.
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(3): 478-492, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082779

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients often develop severe cardiovascular complications, but it remains unclear if these are caused directly by viral infection or are secondary to a systemic response. Here, we examine the cardiac tropism of SARS-CoV-2 in human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) and smooth muscle cells (hPSC-SMCs). We find that that SARS-CoV-2 selectively infects hPSC-CMs through the viral receptor ACE2, whereas in hPSC-SMCs there is minimal viral entry or replication. After entry into cardiomyocytes, SARS-CoV-2 is assembled in lysosome-like vesicles and egresses via bulk exocytosis. The viral transcripts become a large fraction of cellular mRNA while host gene expression shifts from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism and upregulates chromatin modification and RNA splicing pathways. Most importantly, viral infection of hPSC-CMs progressively impairs both their electrophysiological and contractile function, and causes widespread cell death. These data support the hypothesis that COVID-19-related cardiac symptoms can result from a direct cardiotoxic effect of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Cells, Cultured , Humans , RNA Splicing/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Internalization
17.
Am J Pathol ; 191(2): 222-227, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1025412

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic has infected millions of individuals in the United States and caused hundreds of thousands of deaths. Direct infection of extrapulmonary tissues has been postulated, and using sensitive techniques, viral RNA has been detected in multiple organs in the body, including the kidney. However, direct infection of tissues outside of the lung has been more challenging to demonstrate. This has been in part due to misinterpretation of electron microscopy studies. In this perspective, we will discuss what is known about coronavirus infection, some of the basic ultrastructural cell biology that has been confused for coronavirus infection of cells, and rigorous criteria that should be used when identifying pathogens by electron microscopy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Microscopy, Electron , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Lung/ultrastructure , Lung/virology , Microscopy, Electron/methods , United States , Virus Diseases
18.
J Infect Dis ; 223(7): 1120-1131, 2021 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To determine how serologic antibody testing outcome links with virus neutralization of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), we evaluated individuals for SARS-CoV-2 antibody level and viral neutralization. METHODS: We compared serum Ig levels across platforms of viral antigens and antibodies with 15 positive and 30 negative SARS-CoV-2 controls followed by viral neutralization assessment. We then applied these platforms to a clinically relevant cohort of 114 individuals with unknown histories of SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: In controls, the best-performing virus-specific antibody detection platforms were SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG (sensitivity 87%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value [PPV] 100%, negative predictive value [NPV] 94%), spike IgG3 (sensitivity 93%, specificity 97%, PPV 93%, NPV 97%), and nucleocapsid protein (NP) IgG (sensitivity 93%, specificity 97%, PPV 93%, NPV 97%). Neutralization of positive and negative control sera showed 100% agreement. Twenty individuals with unknown history had detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with 16 demonstrating virus neutralization. Spike IgG3 provided the highest accuracy for predicting serologically positive individuals with virus neutralization activity (misidentified 1/20 unknowns compared to 2/20 for RBD and NP IgG). CONCLUSIONS: The coupling of virus neutralization analysis to a spike IgG3 antibody test is optimal to categorize patients for correlates of SARS-CoV-2 immune protection status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Neutralization Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , False Positive Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
19.
Science ; 370(6521): 1208-1214, 2020 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-913668

ABSTRACT

We developed a de novo protein design strategy to swiftly engineer decoys for neutralizing pathogens that exploit extracellular host proteins to infect the cell. Our pipeline allowed the design, validation, and optimization of de novo human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) decoys to neutralize severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The best monovalent decoy, CTC-445.2, bound with low nanomolar affinity and high specificity to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) showed that the design is accurate and can simultaneously bind to all three RBDs of a single spike protein. Because the decoy replicates the spike protein target interface in hACE2, it is intrinsically resilient to viral mutational escape. A bivalent decoy, CTC-445.2d, showed ~10-fold improvement in binding. CTC-445.2d potently neutralized SARS-CoV-2 infection of cells in vitro, and a single intranasal prophylactic dose of decoy protected Syrian hamsters from a subsequent lethal SARS-CoV-2 challenge.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cricetinae , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Directed Molecular Evolution/methods , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Protein Engineering/methods , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL