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Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263330


The development of reliable and robust diagnostic tests is one of the most efficient methods to limit the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, most laboratory diagnostics for COVID-19, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), are expensive, time-consuming, and require highly trained professional operators. On the other hand, the lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) is a simpler, cheaper device that can be operated by unskilled personnel easily. Unfortunately, the current technique has some limitations, mainly inaccuracy in detection. This review article aims to highlight recent advances in novel lateral flow technologies for detecting SARS-CoV-2 as well as innovative approaches to achieve highly sensitive and specific point-of-care testing. Lastly, we discuss future perspectives on how smartphones and Artificial Intelligence (AI) can be integrated to revolutionize disease detection as well as disease control and surveillance.

COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Testing/economics , Humans , Immunoassay , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Smartphone
Anal Chim Acta ; 1239: 340651, 2023 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2122257


Epidemiological control and public health monitoring during the outbreaks of infectious viral diseases rely on the ability to detect viral pathogens. Here we demonstrate a rapid, sensitive, and selective nanotechnology-enhanced severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection based on the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) responses from the plasma-engineered, variant-specific antibody-functionalized silver microplasma-engineered nanoassemblies (AgMEN) interacting with the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins. The three-dimensional (3D) porous AgMEN with plasmonic-active nanostructures provide a high sensitivity to virus detection via the remarkable SERS signal collection. Moreover, the variant-specific antibody-functionalization on the SERS-active AgMEN enabled the high selectivity of the SARS-CoV-2 S variants, including wild-type, Alpha, Delta, and Omicron, under the simulated human saliva conditions. The exceptional ultrahigh sensitivity of our SERS biosensor was demonstrated via SARS-CoV-2 S and N proteins at the detection limit of 1 fg mL-1 and 0.1 pg mL-1, respectively. Our work demonstrates a versatile SERS-based detection platform can be applied for the ultrasensitive detection of virus variants, infectious diseases, and cancer biomarkers.

COVID-19 , Nanostructures , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Limit of Detection , Nanostructures/chemistry
J Formos Med Assoc ; 121(8): 1425-1430, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983427


BACKGROUND: As a result of the COVID-19 global pandemic, many intellectual property (IP) owners have signed on to the "Open COVID Pledge", an agreement that makes corporate and university IP available free of charge for the purpose of facilitating the development of technologies that will end the pandemic and minimize the impact of disease. Joining this pledge is relatively straightforward for already-disclosed IPs. However, few, if any, has considered how to encourage owners of "non-disclosed patent applications" and "trade secrets" to sign on to this meaningful pledge. In other words, so far there is no proposal to extend the Open COVID Pledge for confidential pending patents and trade secrets. METHODS: We propose an innovative and flexible framework to cover both non-disclosed patent applications and trade secrets to mobilize inventors to participate in the Open COVID Pledge. RESULTS: By focusing on immediate publication of the patent-applying technology and extending provisional right to such applications which is subject to the Open Pledge during this pandemic, our recommendations are workable for inventors who would like to pledge their non-disclosed technologies for the detection, prevention and treatment of the COVID-19, in the meantime preserving their IP rights for the post-pledge period. CONCLUSION: This paper offers a way forward to guide pledgers and implementers who are interested in supporting the effort by addressing some of the issues associated with the free sharing of non-disclosed patent applications and trade secrets in the fight against COVID-19.

COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Intellectual Property , Technology , Universities
Pharmaceutics ; 14(5)2022 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896912


Smart nanoexosomes are nanosized structures enclosed in lipid bilayers that are structurally similar to the viruses released by a variety of cells, including the cells lining the respiratory system. Of particular importance, the interaction between smart nanoexosomes and viruses can be used to develop antiviral drugs and vaccines. It is possible that nanoexosomes will be utilized and antibodies will be acquired more successfully for the transmission of an immune response if reconvalescent plasma (CP) is used instead of reconvalescent plasma exosomes (CPExo) in this concept. Convalescent plasma contains billions of smart nanoexosomes capable of transporting a variety of molecules, including proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA among other viral infections. Smart nanoexosomes are released from virus-infected cells and play an important role in mediating communication between infected and uninfected cells. Infections use the formation, production and release of smart nanoexosomes to enhance the infection, transmission and intercellular diffusion of viruses. Cell-free smart nanoexosomes produced by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could also be used as cell-free therapies in certain cases. Smart nanoexosomes produced by mesenchymal stem cells can also promote mitochondrial function and heal lung injury. They can reduce cytokine storms and restore the suppression of host antiviral defenses weakened by viral infections. This study examines the benefits of smart nanoexosomes and their roles in viral transmission, infection, treatment, drug delivery and clinical applications. We also explore some potential future applications for smart nanoexosomes in the treatment of viral infections.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 20: 1593-1602, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757256


"Precision medicine" has revolutionized how we respond to diseases by using an individual's genomic data and lifestyle and environment-related information to create an effective personalized treatment. However, issues surrounding regulations, medical insurance payments and the use of patients' medical data, have delayed the development of precision medicine and made it difficult to achieve "true" personalization. We therefore recommend that precision medicine be transformed into precision health: a novel and generalized platform of tools and methods that could prevent, manage, and treat disease at a population level. "Precision health," one of six core strategic industries highlighted in Taiwan's vision for 2030, uses various physiological data, genomic data, and external factors, to develop unique "preventative" solutions or therapeutic strategies. For Taiwan to implement precision health, it has to address three challenges: (1) the high-cost issue of precision health; (2) the harmonization issues surrounding integration and transmission of specimen and data; (3) the legal issue of combining information and communications technology (ICT) with Artificial Intelligence (AI) for medical use. In this paper, we propose an innovative framework with six recommendations for facilitating the development of precision health in Taiwan, including a novel model of precise telemedicine with AI-aided technology. We then describe how these tools can be proactively applied in early response to the COVID-19 crisis. We believe that precision health represents an important shift to more proactive and preventive healthcare that enables people to lead healthier lives.