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1.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 74(5): 766-775, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763186

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The relative risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 disease severity among people with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) compared to those without RMDs is unclear. This study was undertaken to quantify the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in those with RMDs and describe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in these patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review using 14 databases from January 1, 2019 to February 13, 2021. We included observational studies and experimental trials in RMD patients that described comparative rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization, oxygen supplementation/intensive care unit (ICU) admission/mechanical ventilation, or death attributed to COVID-19. Methodologic quality was evaluated using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tools or the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Risk ratios (RRs) and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated, as applicable for each outcome, using the Mantel-Haenszel formula with random effects models. RESULTS: Of the 5,799 abstracts screened, 100 studies met the criteria for inclusion in the systematic review, and 54 of 100 had a low risk of bias. Among the studies included in the meta-analyses, we identified an increased prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with an RMD (RR 1.53 [95% CI 1.16-2.01]) compared to the general population. The odds of hospitalization, ICU admission, and mechanical ventilation were similar in patients with and those without an RMD, whereas the mortality rate was increased in patients with RMDs (OR 1.74 [95% CI 1.08-2.80]). In a smaller number of studies, the adjusted risk of outcomes related to COVID-19 was assessed, and the results varied; some studies demonstrated an increased risk while other studies showed no difference in risk in patients with an RMD compared to those without an RMD. CONCLUSION: Patients with RMDs have higher rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection and an increased mortality rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Hospitalization , Humans , Muscular Diseases , Respiration, Artificial , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 20: 23259582211056760, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555331

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has had an unprecedented worldwide impact, and Peru has had one of the highest COVID-19 case rates despite implementation of an early strict nationwide quarantine. Repercussions on Peru's healthcare system may impact vulnerable populations, particularly people with HIV (PWH). We explored knowledge of COVID-19 and the socioeconomic and health impact of the pandemic among middle-aged and older PWH. A cross-sectional telephone survey was administered to 156 PWH age ≥40 years receiving care in one of two large HIV clinics in Lima, Peru. The majority of PWH (age 52 ± 7.7 years, 41% female, 65% completed secondary school or less) were knowledgeable regarding COVID-19 symptoms and prevention methods. Nearly half of those employed prior to the pandemic reported job loss. Female sex (unadjusted prevalence ratio [PR] 1.85 [95%CI 1.27-2.69]), low educational level (PR 1.62 [1.06-2.48]) and informal work (PR 1.58 [1.06-2.36]) were risk factors for unemployment but not in adjusted models. Increased anxiety was reported in 64% and stress in 77%. COVID-19 has had a substantial socioeconomic and mental health impact on PWH living in Lima, Peru, particularly those with lower educational levels and informal workers. Efforts are needed to ensure continued medical care and socioeconomic support of PWH in Peru.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peru/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24 Suppl 6: e25810, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487489

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is the largest provider of HIV care in the United States. Changes in healthcare delivery became necessary with the COVID-19 pandemic. We compared HIV healthcare delivery during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic to a prior similar calendar period. METHODS: We included 27,674 people with HIV (PWH) enrolled in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study prior to 1 March 2019, with ≥1 healthcare encounter from 1 March 2019 to 29 February 2020 (2019) and/or 1 March 2020 to 28 February 2021 (2020). We counted monthly general medicine/infectious disease (GM/ID) clinic visits and HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) tests. We determined the percentage with ≥1 clinic visit (in-person vs. telephone/video [virtual]) and ≥1 VL test (detectable vs. suppressed) for 2019 and 2020. Using pharmacy records, we summarized antiretroviral (ARV) medication refill length (<90 vs. ≥90 days) and monthly ARV coverage. RESULTS: Most patients had ≥1 GM/ID visit in 2019 (96%) and 2020 (95%). For 2019, 27% of visits were virtual compared to 64% in 2020. In 2019, 82% had VL measured compared to 74% in 2020. Of those with VL measured, 92% and 91% had suppressed VL in 2019 and 2020. ARV refills for ≥90 days increased from 39% in 2019 to 51% in 2020. ARV coverage was similar for all months of 2019 and 2020 ranging from 76% to 80% except for March 2019 (72%). Women were less likely than men to be on ARVs or to have a VL test in both years. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the VA increased the use of virtual visits and longer ARV refills, while maintaining a high percentage of patients with suppressed VL among those with VL measured. Despite decreased in-person services during the pandemic, access to ARVs was not disrupted. More follow-up time is needed to determine whether overall health was impacted by the use of differentiated service delivery and to evaluate whether a long-term shift to increased virtual healthcare could be beneficial, particularly for PWH in rural areas or with transportation barriers. Programmes to increase ARV use and VL testing for women are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Veterans , Cohort Studies , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
5.
RMD Open ; 7(3)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We describe the early experiences of adults with systemic rheumatic disease who received the COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: From 2 April to 30 April 2021, we conducted an online, international survey of adults with systemic rheumatic disease who received COVID-19 vaccination. We collected patient-reported data on clinician communication, beliefs and intent about discontinuing disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) around the time of vaccination, and patient-reported adverse events after vaccination. RESULTS: We analysed 2860 adults with systemic rheumatic diseases who received COVID-19 vaccination (mean age 55.3 years, 86.7% female, 86.3% white). Types of COVID-19 vaccines were Pfizer-BioNTech (53.2%), Oxford/AstraZeneca (22.6%), Moderna (21.3%), Janssen/Johnson & Johnson (1.7%) and others (1.2%). The most common rheumatic disease was rheumatoid arthritis (42.3%), and 81.2% of respondents were on a DMARD. The majority (81.9%) reported communicating with clinicians about vaccination. Most (66.9%) were willing to temporarily discontinue DMARDs to improve vaccine efficacy, although many (44.3%) were concerned about rheumatic disease flares. After vaccination, the most reported patient-reported adverse events were fatigue/somnolence (33.4%), headache (27.7%), muscle/joint pains (22.8%) and fever/chills (19.9%). Rheumatic disease flares that required medication changes occurred in 4.6%. CONCLUSION: Among adults with systemic rheumatic disease who received COVID-19 vaccination, patient-reported adverse events were typical of those reported in the general population. Most patients were willing to temporarily discontinue DMARDs to improve vaccine efficacy. The relatively low frequency of rheumatic disease flare requiring medications was reassuring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Rheumatology , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
6.
Acad Med ; 96(9): 1233-1235, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246781

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted both that frontline workers face a new set of personal hazards in health care settings and that there are not well-established recommendations to address the broader risks to these workers and their families. Particularly vulnerable households include dual health care professional households, single-parent health care professional households, and households with health care professionals responsible for a high-risk family member (i.e., an older adult or immunocompromised person). While the demographics of these households are heterogeneous, it is expected that the professional and personal concerns specific to COVID-19 will be similar. These concerns include family safety, balancing full-time work with home-based schooling for children, the looming threat of illness to 1 or both partners, the potential of infecting high-risk family members, and the challenges of planning for the future during uncertain times. To elucidate these concerns in their department, the authors sought input from colleagues in dual health care professional households through an open-ended email communication. Respondents expressed a range of concerns centered on balancing professional and family responsibilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this commentary, the authors propose several recommendations in the areas of support networks, leadership and culture, and operations and logistics that health care institutions can adopt to minimize the burden on these vulnerable households during states of emergency. The successful implementation of these recommendations hinges on creating a work environment in which all health care providers feel comfortable voicing their concerns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Family , Health Personnel , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Occupational Diseases/economics , Occupational Diseases/psychology , Safety , Social Support , United States , Vulnerable Populations , Work-Life Balance
7.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 2(5): e254-e255, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-34911
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