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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311277

ABSTRACT

Background: Early evaluations of healthcare professional (HCP) COVID-19 risk occurred during insufficient personal protective equipment and disproportionate testing, contributing to perceptions of high patient-care related HCP risk. We evaluated HCP COVID-19 seropositivity after accounting for community factors and coworker outbreaks. Methods: : Prior to universal masking, we conducted a single-center retrospective cohort plus cross-sectional study. All HCP 1) seen by Occupational Health for COVID-like symptoms (regardless of test result) or assigned to 2) dedicated COVID-19 units, 3) units with a COVID-19 HCP outbreak, or 4) control units from 01/01/2020-04/15/2020 were offered serologic testing by an FDA-authorized assay plus a research assay against 67 respiratory viruses, including 11 SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Multivariable models assessed the association of demographics, job role, comorbidities, care of a COVID-19 patient, and geocoded socioeconomic status with positive serology. Results: : Of 654 participants, 87 (13.3%) were seropositive;among these 60.8% (N=52) had never cared for a COVID-19 patient. Being male (OR 1.79, CI 1.05-3.04, p=0.03), working in a HCP-outbreak unit (OR 2.21, CI 1.28-3.81, p<0.01), living in a community with low owner-occupied housing (OR=1.63, CI=1.00-2.64, p=0.05), and ethnically Latino (OR 2.10, CI 1.12-3.96, p=0.02) were positively-associated with COVID-19 seropositivity, while working in dedicated COVID-19 units was negatively-associated (OR 0.53, CI=0.30-0.94, p=0.03). The research assay identified 25 additional seropositive individuals (78 [12%] vs. 53 [8%], p<0.01). Conclusions: : Prior to universal masking, HCP COVID-19 risk was dominated by workplace and community exposures while working in a dedicated COVID-19 unit was protective, suggesting that infection prevention protocols prevent patient-to-HCP transmission.

2.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327271

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T cells that cross-react with common cold coronaviruses (CCCs) are present in both healthy donors and COVID-19 patients. However, whether these cross-reactive T cells play a role in COVID-19 pathogenesis versus protection remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we characterized cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, targeting genome-wide conserved epitopes in a cohort of 147 non-vaccinated COVID-19 patients, divided into six groups based on the degrees of disease severity. We compared the frequency, phenotype, and function of these SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells between severely ill and asymptomatic COVID-19 patients and correlated this with alpha-CCCs and beta-CCCs co-infection status. Compared with asymptomatic COVID-19 patients, the severely ill COVID-19 patients and patients with fatal outcomes: (i) Presented a broad leukocytosis and a broad CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lymphopenia;(ii) Developed low frequencies of functional IFN-gamma-producing CD134+CD138+CD4+ and CD134+CD138+CD8+ T cells directed toward conserved epitopes from structural, non-structural and regulatory SARS-CoV-2 proteins;(iii) Displayed high frequencies of SARS-CoV-2-specific functionally exhausted PD-1+TIM3+TIGIT+CTLA4+CD4+ and PD-1+TIM3+TIGIT+CTLA4+CD8+ T cells;and (iv) Displayed similar frequencies of co-infections with beta-CCCs strains but significantly fewer co-infections with alpha-CCCs strains. Interestingly, the cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2 epitopes that recalled the strongest CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in unexposed healthy donors (HD) were the most strongly associated with better disease outcome seen in asymptomatic COVID-19 patients. Our results demonstrate that, the critically ill COVID-19 patients displayed fewer co-infection with alpha-CCCs strain, presented broad T cell lymphopenia and higher frequencies of cross reactive exhausted SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In contrast, the asymptomatic COVID-19 patients, appeared to present more co-infections with alpha-CCCs strains, associated with higher frequencies of functional cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These findings support the development of broadly protective, T-cell-based, multi-antigen universal pan-Coronavirus vaccines.

3.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 163, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early evaluations of healthcare professional (HCP) COVID-19 risk occurred during insufficient personal protective equipment and disproportionate testing, contributing to perceptions of high patient-care related HCP risk. We evaluated HCP COVID-19 seropositivity after accounting for community factors and coworker outbreaks. METHODS: Prior to universal masking, we conducted a single-center retrospective cohort plus cross-sectional study. All HCP (1) seen by Occupational Health for COVID-like symptoms (regardless of test result) or assigned to (2) dedicated COVID-19 units, (3) units with a COVID-19 HCP outbreak, or (4) control units from 01/01/2020 to 04/15/2020 were offered serologic testing by an FDA-authorized assay plus a research assay against 67 respiratory viruses, including 11 SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Multivariable models assessed the association of demographics, job role, comorbidities, care of a COVID-19 patient, and geocoded socioeconomic status with positive serology. RESULTS: Of 654 participants, 87 (13.3%) were seropositive; among these 60.8% (N = 52) had never cared for a COVID-19 patient. Being male (OR 1.79, CI 1.05-3.04, p = 0.03), working in a unit with a HCP-outbreak unit (OR 2.21, CI 1.28-3.81, p < 0.01), living in a community with low owner-occupied housing (OR = 1.63, CI = 1.00-2.64, p = 0.05), and ethnically Latino (OR 2.10, CI 1.12-3.96, p = 0.02) were positively-associated with COVID-19 seropositivity, while working in dedicated COVID-19 units was negatively-associated (OR 0.53, CI = 0.30-0.94, p = 0.03). The research assay identified 25 additional seropositive individuals (78 [12%] vs. 53 [8%], p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Prior to universal masking, HCP COVID-19 risk was dominated by workplace and community exposures while working in a dedicated COVID-19 unit was protective, suggesting that infection prevention protocols prevent patient-to-HCP transmission. Prior to universal masking, HCP COVID-19 risk was dominated by workplace and community exposures while working in a dedicated COVID-19 unit was protective, suggesting that infection prevention protocols prevent patient-to-HCP transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Infection Control , Academic Medical Centers , Adult , California/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Regression Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
4.
J Immunol ; 206(11): 2566-2582, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207829

ABSTRACT

Over the last two decades, there have been three deadly human outbreaks of coronaviruses (CoVs) caused by SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, which has caused the current COVID-19 global pandemic. All three deadly CoVs originated from bats and transmitted to humans via various intermediate animal reservoirs. It remains highly possible that other global COVID pandemics will emerge in the coming years caused by yet another spillover of a bat-derived SARS-like coronavirus (SL-CoV) into humans. Determining the Ag and the human B cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell epitope landscapes that are conserved among human and animal coronaviruses should inform in the development of future pan-coronavirus vaccines. In the current study, using several immunoinformatics and sequence alignment approaches, we identified several human B cell and CD4+ and CD8+ T cell epitopes that are highly conserved in 1) greater than 81,000 SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences identified in 190 countries on six continents; 2) six circulating CoVs that caused previous human outbreaks of the common cold; 3) nine SL-CoVs isolated from bats; 4) nine SL-CoV isolated from pangolins; 5) three SL-CoVs isolated from civet cats; and 6) four MERS strains isolated from camels. Furthermore, the identified epitopes: 1) recalled B cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from both COVID-19 patients and healthy individuals who were never exposed to SARS-CoV-2, and 2) induced strong B cell and T cell responses in humanized HLA-DR1/HLA-A*02:01 double-transgenic mice. The findings pave the way to develop a preemptive multiepitope pan-coronavirus vaccine to protect against past, current, and future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Genome, Viral/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Viral Vaccines/immunology
5.
N Engl J Med ; 384(9): 795-807, 2021 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is associated with dysregulated inflammation. The effects of combination treatment with baricitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor, plus remdesivir are not known. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating baricitinib plus remdesivir in hospitalized adults with Covid-19. All the patients received remdesivir (≤10 days) and either baricitinib (≤14 days) or placebo (control). The primary outcome was the time to recovery. The key secondary outcome was clinical status at day 15. RESULTS: A total of 1033 patients underwent randomization (with 515 assigned to combination treatment and 518 to control). Patients receiving baricitinib had a median time to recovery of 7 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 6 to 8), as compared with 8 days (95% CI, 7 to 9) with control (rate ratio for recovery, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.32; P = 0.03), and a 30% higher odds of improvement in clinical status at day 15 (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 1.6). Patients receiving high-flow oxygen or noninvasive ventilation at enrollment had a time to recovery of 10 days with combination treatment and 18 days with control (rate ratio for recovery, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.08). The 28-day mortality was 5.1% in the combination group and 7.8% in the control group (hazard ratio for death, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.39 to 1.09). Serious adverse events were less frequent in the combination group than in the control group (16.0% vs. 21.0%; difference, -5.0 percentage points; 95% CI, -9.8 to -0.3; P = 0.03), as were new infections (5.9% vs. 11.2%; difference, -5.3 percentage points; 95% CI, -8.7 to -1.9; P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Baricitinib plus remdesivir was superior to remdesivir alone in reducing recovery time and accelerating improvement in clinical status among patients with Covid-19, notably among those receiving high-flow oxygen or noninvasive ventilation. The combination was associated with fewer serious adverse events. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04401579.).


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azetidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azetidines/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Purines/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
6.
N Engl J Med ; 383(19): 1813-1826, 2020 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-884844

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although several therapeutic agents have been evaluated for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), no antiviral agents have yet been shown to be efficacious. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous remdesivir in adults who were hospitalized with Covid-19 and had evidence of lower respiratory tract infection. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either remdesivir (200 mg loading dose on day 1, followed by 100 mg daily for up to 9 additional days) or placebo for up to 10 days. The primary outcome was the time to recovery, defined by either discharge from the hospital or hospitalization for infection-control purposes only. RESULTS: A total of 1062 patients underwent randomization (with 541 assigned to remdesivir and 521 to placebo). Those who received remdesivir had a median recovery time of 10 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 9 to 11), as compared with 15 days (95% CI, 13 to 18) among those who received placebo (rate ratio for recovery, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.49; P<0.001, by a log-rank test). In an analysis that used a proportional-odds model with an eight-category ordinal scale, the patients who received remdesivir were found to be more likely than those who received placebo to have clinical improvement at day 15 (odds ratio, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2 to 1.9, after adjustment for actual disease severity). The Kaplan-Meier estimates of mortality were 6.7% with remdesivir and 11.9% with placebo by day 15 and 11.4% with remdesivir and 15.2% with placebo by day 29 (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.52 to 1.03). Serious adverse events were reported in 131 of the 532 patients who received remdesivir (24.6%) and in 163 of the 516 patients who received placebo (31.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that remdesivir was superior to placebo in shortening the time to recovery in adults who were hospitalized with Covid-19 and had evidence of lower respiratory tract infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; ACTT-1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04280705.).


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Aged , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Young Adult
7.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835240

ABSTRACT

Over the last two decades, there have been three deadly human outbreaks of Coronaviruses (CoVs) caused by emerging zoonotic CoVs: SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and the latest highly transmissible and deadly SARS-CoV-2, which has caused the current COVID-19 global pandemic. All three deadly CoVs originated from bats, the natural hosts, and transmitted to humans via various intermediate animal reservoirs. Because there is currently no universal pan-Coronavirus vaccine available, two worst-case scenarios remain highly possible: (1) SARS-CoV-2 mutates and transforms into a seasonal "flu-like" global pandemic; and/or (2) Other global COVID-like pandemics will emerge in the coming years, caused by yet another spillover of an unknown zoonotic bat-derived SARS-like Coronavirus (SL-CoV) into an unvaccinated human population. Determining the antigen and epitope landscapes that are conserved among human and animal Coronaviruses as well as the repertoire, phenotype and function of B cells and CD4 + and CD8 + T cells that correlate with resistance seen in asymptomatic COVID-19 patients should inform in the development of pan-Coronavirus vaccines 1 . In the present study, using several immuno-informatics and sequence alignment approaches, we identified several human B-cell, CD4 + and CD8 + T cell epitopes that are highly conserved in: ( i ) greater than 81,000 SARS-CoV-2 human strains identified to date in 190 countries on six continents; ( ii ) six circulating CoVs that caused previous human outbreaks of the "Common Cold"; ( iii ) five SL-CoVs isolated from bats; ( iv ) five SL-CoV isolated from pangolins; ( v ) three SL-CoVs isolated from Civet Cats; and ( vi ) four MERS strains isolated from camels. Furthermore, we identified cross-reactive asymptomatic epitopes that: ( i ) recalled B cell, CD4 + and CD8 + T cell responses from both asymptomatic COVID-19 patients and healthy individuals who were never exposed to SARS-CoV-2; and ( ii ) induced strong B cell and T cell responses in "humanized" Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-DR/HLA-A*02:01 double transgenic mice. The findings herein pave the way to develop a pre-emptive multi-epitope pan-Coronavirus vaccine to protect against past, current, and potential future outbreaks.

8.
Am J Nephrol ; 51(5): 337-342, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-19673

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious, rapidly spreading viral disease with an alarming case fatality rate up to 5%. The risk factors for severe presentations are concentrated in patients with chronic kidney disease, particularly patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who are dialysis dependent. We report the first US case of a 56-year-old nondiabetic male with ESRD secondary to IgA nephropathy undergoing thrice-weekly maintenance hemodialysis for 3 years, who developed COVID-19 infection. He has hypertension controlled with angiotensin receptor blocker losartan 100 mg/day and coronary artery disease status-post stent placement. During the first 5 days of his febrile disease, he presented to an urgent care, 3 emergency rooms, 1 cardiology clinic, and 2 dialysis centers in California and Utah. During this interval, he reported nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and low-grade fevers but was not suspected of COVID-19 infection until he developed respiratory symptoms and was admitted to the hospital. Imaging studies upon admission were consistent with bilateral interstitial pneumonia. He was placed in droplet-eye precautions while awaiting COVID-19 test results. Within the first 24 h, he deteriorated quickly and developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), requiring intubation and increasing respiratory support. Losartan was withheld due to hypotension and septic shock. COVID-19 was reported positive on hospital day 3. He remained in critical condition being treated with hydroxychloroquine and tocilizumab in addition to the standard medical management for septic shock and ARDS. Our case is unique in its atypical initial presentation and highlights the importance of early testing.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Gastroenteritis/virology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Travel-Related Illness
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