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2.
Biomedicines ; 10(7)2022 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928477

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a member of the genus Betacoronavirus. This virus was first detected in December 2019, and the situation quickly escalated to cause a global pandemic within a few months. COVID-19 had caused more than 5.5 million deaths as of January 2022. Hence, the urgency of effective vaccination contributed to the fastest rate of vaccine development seen to date (i.e., within 1.5 years). Despite reports of good vaccine efficacy without severe systemic reactions at the clinical trial stage, hypersensitivity reactions have been reported following worldwide vaccination campaigns. We provide a brief review regarding the structure of SARS-CoV-2. We also review the most acceptable types of vaccines in terms of safety profiles, namely the BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, and AZD1222 vaccines. This review aims to facilitate an understanding of the possible immune mechanisms regarding COVID-19-vaccination-related hypersensitivity reactions, such as thrombosis and thrombocytopenia, cutaneous adverse reactions, myocarditis, and perimyocarditis.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917525

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D has been described as an essential nutrient and hormone, which can cause nuclear, non-genomic, and mitochondrial effects. Vitamin D not only controls the transcription of thousands of genes, directly or indirectly through the modulation of calcium fluxes, but it also influences the cell metabolism and maintenance specific nuclear programs. Given its broad spectrum of activity and multiple molecular targets, a deficiency of vitamin D can be involved in many pathologies. Vitamin D deficiency also influences mortality and multiple outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Active and native vitamin D serum levels are also decreased in critically ill patients and are associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) and in-hospital mortality. In addition to regulating calcium and phosphate homeostasis, vitamin D-related mechanisms regulate adaptive and innate immunity. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections have a role in excessive proinflammatory cell recruitment and cytokine release, which contribute to alveolar and full-body endothelial damage. AKI is one of the most common extrapulmonary manifestations of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There are also some correlations between the vitamin D level and COVID-19 severity via several pathways. Proper vitamin D supplementation may be an attractive therapeutic strategy for AKI and has the benefits of low cost and low risk of toxicity and side effects.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcium , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/metabolism , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use
4.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 121(4): 766-777, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Efficacy and safety data of heterologous prime-boost vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 remains limited. METHODS: We recruited adult volunteers for homologous or heterologous prime-boost vaccinations with adenoviral (ChAdOx1, AstraZeneca) and/or mRNA (mRNA-1273, Moderna) vaccines. Four groups of prime-boost vaccination schedules were designed: Group 1, ChAdOx1/ChAdOx1 8 weeks apart; Group 2, ChAdOx1/mRNA-1273 8 weeks apart; Group 3, ChAdOx1/mRNA-1273 4 weeks apart; and Group 4, mRNA-1273/mRNA-1273 4 weeks apart. The primary outcome was serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers and neutralizing antibody titers against B.1.1.7 (alpha) and B.1.617.2 (delta) variants on day 28 after the second dose. Adverse events were recorded up until 84 days after the second dose. RESULTS: We enrolled 399 participants with a median age of 41 years and 75% were female. On day 28 after the second dose, the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers of both heterologous vaccinations (Group 2 and Group 3) were significantly higher than that of homologous ChAdOx1 vaccination (Group 1), and comparable with homologous mRNA-1273 vaccination (Group 4). The heterologous vaccination group had better neutralizing antibody responses against the alpha and delta variant as compared to the homologous ChAdOx1 group. Most of the adverse events (AEs) were mild and transient. AEs were less frequent when heterologous boosting was done at 8 weeks rather than at 4 weeks. CONCLUSION: Heterologous ChAdOx1/mRNA-1273 vaccination provided higher immunogenicity than homologous ChAdOx1 vaccination and comparable immunogenicity with the homologous mRNA-1273 vaccination. Our results support the safety and efficacy of heterologous prime-boost vaccination using the ChAdOx1 and mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccines. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT05074368).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunity , Vaccination
6.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; : 1-4, 2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795533

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a case of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination. STUDY DESIGN: Case report. RESULTS: A 36-year-old healthy Taiwanese female was presented with flashing lights in the right eye two days after the first dose of Medigen Vaccine Biologics Corporation (MVC) coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) vaccine. Examination of the retina revealed multiple white dots in the posterior pole extending to the mid-periphery. Disruption of ellipsoid zone on optical coherence tomography, early hyperfluorescence on fluorescein angiography, late hypo-cyanescence on indocyanine green angiography, and paracentral scotoma on visual field test were consistent with MEWDS. At four-week follow-up, the patient's fundus lesions resolved, and symptoms subsided without treatment. CONCLUSION: Resembling previous post-vaccine MEWDs cases, the symptoms are self-limited, and the visual prognosis is excellent. The presented case demonstrates MEWDS following MVC COVID-19 vaccine and suggests the immune-mediated basis for MEWDS in predisposed patients.

7.
Sustainability ; 14(8):4664, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1785987

ABSTRACT

The evolution of the internet has increased the development of virtual communities. This has created an enabling environment for hospitality industry owners to interact, share and exchange information and ideas virtually. The COVID-19 pandemic has been a further catalyst in the dramatic expansion of virtual communities. This study aims to fill the gap by investigating the adoption of professional knowledge by the hospitality industry during the COVID-19 pandemic. Employing a sample of 285 employees, this study found that self- and socially regulated learning affects knowledge adoption outcomes. In addition, technological innovation and benefits affect self- and socially regulated learning. These findings allow us to provide theoretical and practical implications.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315048

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused a large-scale outbreak and has rapidly spread across China and multiple countries. We reported countermeasures in infection control for diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2) infection and the experiences of point of care diagnostics and medical quarantine for presumed SARS-CoV-2-infected subjects. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on subjects came to Chung Shan Medical University Hospital with suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection during January to March, 2020. We performed the real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction testing (rRT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2-infection and reported the results of testing and treatment. A total of 212 participants were enrolled due to suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Five of those were confirmed COVID-19 cases after monitoring for a period of 14 days and were cured. The time to rRT-PCR test conversion after treatment is variate. The infection control measures of home quarantine and mandatory medical quarantine combined with rapid diagnosis seem to postpone the speed of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection at once in Taiwan. Due to lack of vaccination and confirmed antiviral therapy, it is important to strictly abide by the infection control measures.

10.
Surg Endosc ; 36(7): 5501-5509, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669809

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Innovations in surgical instruments have made single-port surgery more widely accepted and lead to a reduced demand for surgical assistants. As COVID-19 has ravaged the world, maintaining minimum medical staffing requirements and proper social distancing have become major topics of interest. We sought to evaluate the feasibility of applying the unisurgeon approach in single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery aided by a robotic camera holder. METHODS: Operative time, blood loss, setup time, postoperative hospital stays, and the number of participating surgeons in single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic lung resections were gathered for investigation after the introduction of the ENDOFIXexo robotic endoscope holder system. In this cohort, we collected 213 patients who underwent single port video thoracoscope surgery, including 57 patients underwent robotic endoscope arm assisted surgery and case-matched 52 patients in the robotic arm-assisted group with patients in the human-assisted group through propensity score-matched analysis. RESULTS: In wedge resection, a single surgeon was able to completely operate on all lobes of target lesions. However, for anatomical resections, namely segmentectomy, the success rate was 95%, and for lobectomy, the success rate was only 64%. No significant differences between setup times, blood loss, or operative times between the two groups were observed. CONCLUSIONS: When an experienced uniport surgeon is assisted by a robotic endoscope holder, wedge resection is the most suitable procedure to be performed through unisurgeon single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery without increasing setup time, operative time, or short-term complications. Verification of the technique's applicability for use in anatomic resections requires further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Endoscopes , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Operative Time , Pneumonectomy/methods , Retrospective Studies , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted/methods
11.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2022 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650411

ABSTRACT

An outbreak occurred in Wanhua District of Taipei City. It was traced to a cluster infection originating from a teahouse. To prevent further large-scaled community spread, the Taipei City Government established the first community rapid test screening station. This report describes the station's strategy and performance and key factors that contributed to its operation. The project involves collaboration among various departments of Taipei City Government, including the health, environmental, police, transportation, and fire departments. The station provides rapid screening, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, and immediate isolation and follow-up medical services upon the detection of a positive case. These services are accessible to local residents and are intended to ease hospitals' burdens. In 36 days, a total of 8532 people were tested, and 419 confirmed cases were identified. Over the same period, the weekly number of positive cases in Wanhua District decreased from 356 to 40, and the PCR positive rate decreased from 21.7% to 1.2%. The policy of establishing rapid screening station, contact tracing and mask wearing policy are key strategies for interrupting chains of transmission of COVID-19. This intervention has become a model for preventing the spread of the epidemic and establishing community rapid screening stations in Taiwan.

12.
Cell Res ; 32(3): 269-287, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634806

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants and potentially other highly pathogenic sarbecoviruses in the future highlights the need for pan-sarbecovirus vaccines. Here, we discovered a new STING agonist, CF501, and found that CF501-adjuvanted RBD-Fc vaccine (CF501/RBD-Fc) elicited significantly stronger neutralizing antibody (nAb) and T cell responses than Alum- and cGAMP-adjuvanted RBD-Fc in mice. Vaccination of rabbits and rhesus macaques (nonhuman primates, NHPs) with CF501/RBD-Fc elicited exceptionally potent nAb responses against SARS-CoV-2 and its nine variants and 41 S-mutants, SARS-CoV and bat SARSr-CoVs. CF501/RBD-Fc-immunized hACE2-transgenic mice were almost completely protected against SARS-CoV-2 challenge, even 6 months after the initial immunization. NHPs immunized with a single dose of CF501/RBD-Fc produced high titers of nAbs. The immunized macaques also exhibited durable humoral and cellular immune responses and showed remarkably reduced viral load in the upper and lower airways upon SARS-CoV-2 challenge even at 108 days post the final immunization. Thus, CF501/RBD-Fc can be further developed as a novel pan-sarbecovirus vaccine to combat current and future outbreaks of sarbecovirus diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , T-Lymphocytes
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409569

ABSTRACT

The potential influence of the COVID-19 pandemic has changed the status of school education and further accelerated the revolution of regular teaching method. This study compared the learning effectiveness and learning strategies of vocational high school students in flipped teaching and traditional teaching modes. By adopting flipped teaching on an electronics course throughout the entire academic year, this study aimed to explore the effect of learning strategies of the students under flipped teaching. The subjects of this study were 85 sophomore students majoring in Electrical Engineering. This study randomly selected one class as the control group (n = 43), and adopted the regular teaching method while another class was selected as the experimental group (n = 42), and employed the flipped teaching method. This study used the "Learning strategy scale of students in vocational high schools" as the instrument. The students' scores of the Testing Center for Technological and Vocational Education Test were used to evaluate their learning effectiveness. The results of this study indicate that students under the flipped teaching model made remarkable progress in the electronics course and the learning outcomes remained significant after a long period of time. Moreover, they made notable changes in their learning strategies, including "learning motivation", "reading and exams", "self-testing", and "problem solving strategies".


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Nursing , Curriculum , Electronics , Humans , Pandemics , Problem-Based Learning , SARS-CoV-2 , Teaching
14.
JMIR Med Educ ; 7(2): e23980, 2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has stunted medical education activities, resulting in most conferences being cancelled or postponed. To continue professional education during this crisis, web-based conferences can be conducted via livestream and an audience interaction platform as an alternative. OBJECTIVE: The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic has affected human connections worldwide. Conventional conferences have been replaced by web-based conferences. However, web-based conferencing has its challenges and limitations. This paper reports the logistics and preparations required for converting an international, on-site, multidisciplinary conference into a completely web-based conference within 3 weeks during the pandemic. METHODS: The program was revised, and a teleconference system, live recording system, director system setup, and broadcasting platform were arranged to conduct the web-based conference. RESULTS: We used YouTube (Alphabet Inc) and WeChat (Tencent Holdings Limited) for the web-based conference. Of the 24 hours of the conventional conference, 21.5 hours (90%) were retained in the web-based conference via live broadcasting. The conference was attended by 71% (37/52) of the original international faculties and 71% (27/38) of the overall faculties. In total, 61 out of 66 presentations (92%) were delivered. A special session-"Dialysis access management under the impact of viral epidemics"-was added to replace precongress workshops and competitions. The conference received 1810, 1452, and 1008 visits on YouTube and 6777, 4623, and 3100 visits on WeChat on conference days 1, 2, and 3, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Switching from a conventional on-site conference to a completely web-based format within a short period is a feasible method for maintaining professional education in a socially responsible manner during a pandemic.

15.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 1889-1898, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The annual medical litigation rate has increased yearly since 1987 in Taiwan. Policy makers keep going medical legislation reforms. The effectiveness of legislation reforms to reduce malpractice litigation risk is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether medical legislation reform helps reduce the risk of medical litigation. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This retrospective study used national data obtained from Ministry of Health and Welfare in Taiwan. The period analyzed was from 1987 to 2018. The annual medical litigation rate was determined, types of medical negligence litigation were compared, medical appraisal results were summarized, and the importance of medical legislation was identified. INTERVENTIONS: After legislation reform vs before legislation reform. MEASUREMENTS: The main outcome showed trends in medical dispute assessments over time by adjusting for the general population (per 1, 000, 000 people). We established 2004 and 2012 as the 2 cut-points for further analysis of medical appraisal results due to legislation reform. RESULTS: With legislation reforms, the annual medical litigation rate decreased from 26.68 cases per million people in 2012 to 16.41 cases per million people in 2018. The annual medical litigation rate declined by approximately 38% from 2012 to 2018. Medical appraisal results were malpractice cases in 22.1% before Medical Care Act (2004 Reform) compared with 18.8% from 2004 to 2012 (odds ratio [OR], 0.82; 95% CI, 0.727-0.924; p=0.001), and 6.4% after mediation system introduced in 2012 (odds ratio [OR], 0.243; 95% CI, 0.205-0.288; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Medical legislation reform has reduced the risk of malpractice litigation over time.

16.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 65(4)2021 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142997

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus (CoV) disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has claimed many lives worldwide and is still spreading since December 2019. The 3C-like protease (3CLpro) and papain-like protease (PLpro) are essential for maturation of viral polyproteins in SARS-CoV-2 life cycle and thus regarded as key drug targets for the disease. In this study, 3CLpro and PLpro assay platforms were established, and their substrate specificities were characterized. The assays were used to screen collections of 1,068 and 2,701 FDA-approved drugs. After excluding the externally used drugs which are too toxic, we totally identified 12 drugs as 3CLpro inhibitors and 36 drugs as PLpro inhibitors active at 10 µM. Among these inhibitors, six drugs were found to suppress SARS-CoV-2 with the half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) below or close to 10 µM. This study enhances our understanding on the proteases and provides FDA-approved drugs for prevention and/or treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Kinetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Substrate Specificity , Vero Cells
17.
BMJ Simul Technol Enhanc Learn ; 7(2): 121, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116358
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