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1.
Biomedicines ; 10(4)2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834702

ABSTRACT

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are the most abundant white blood cells in the circulation. These cells act as the fast and powerful defenders against environmental pathogenic microbes to protect the body. In addition, these innate inflammatory cells can produce a number of cytokines/chemokines/growth factors for actively participating in the immune network and immune homeostasis. Many novel biological functions including mitogen-induced cell-mediated cytotoxicity (MICC) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), exocytosis of microvesicles (ectosomes and exosomes), trogocytosis (plasma membrane exchange) and release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been successively discovered. Furthermore, recent investigations unveiled that PMNs act as a double-edged sword to exhibit paradoxical activities on pro-inflammation/anti-inflammation, antibacteria/autoimmunity, pro-cancer/anticancer, antiviral infection/COVID-19-induced immunothrombotic dysregulation. The NETs released from PMNs are believed to play a pivotal role in these paradoxical activities, especially in the cytokine storm and immunothrombotic dysregulation in the recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In this review, we would like to discuss in detail the molecular basis for these strange activities of PMNs.

3.
Biomedicines ; 10(4):773, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762736

ABSTRACT

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are the most abundant white blood cells in the circulation. These cells act as the fast and powerful defenders against environmental pathogenic microbes to protect the body. In addition, these innate inflammatory cells can produce a number of cytokines/chemokines/growth factors for actively participating in the immune network and immune homeostasis. Many novel biological functions including mitogen-induced cell-mediated cytotoxicity (MICC) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), exocytosis of microvesicles (ectosomes and exosomes), trogocytosis (plasma membrane exchange) and release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been successively discovered. Furthermore, recent investigations unveiled that PMNs act as a double-edged sword to exhibit paradoxical activities on pro-inflammation/anti-inflammation, antibacteria/autoimmunity, pro-cancer/anticancer, antiviral infection/COVID-19-induced immunothrombotic dysregulation. The NETs released from PMNs are believed to play a pivotal role in these paradoxical activities, especially in the cytokine storm and immunothrombotic dysregulation in the recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In this review, we would like to discuss in detail the molecular basis for these strange activities of PMNs.

5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 649583, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282392

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused multiple deaths worldwide. Since no specific therapies are currently available, treatment for critically ill patients with COVID-19 is supportive. The most severe patients need sustained life support for recovery. We herein describe the course of a critically ill COVID-19 patient with multi-organ failure, including acute respiratory failure, acute kidney injury, and fulminant cytokine release syndrome (CRS), who required mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. This patient with a predicted high mortality risk was successfully managed with a careful strategy of oxygenation, uremic toxin removal, hemodynamic support, and most importantly, cytokine-targeted intervention for CRS, including cytokine/endotoxin removal, anti-cytokine therapy, and immune modulation. Comprehensive cytokine data, CRS parameters, and biochemical data of extracorporeal removal were provided to strengthen the rationale of this strategy. In this report, we demonstrate that timely combined hemoperfusion with cytokine adsorptive capacity and anti-cytokine therapy can successfully treat COVID-19 patients with fulminant CRS. It also highlights the importance of implementing cytokine-targeted therapy for severe COVID-19 guided by the precise measurement of disease activity.

6.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(5): 1269-1273, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728694

ABSTRACT

Until now, there are no approved treatment against COVID-19. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was hypothesized to be active against SARS-CoV2 via antiviral and anti-inflammatory effect; however, HCQ for COVID-19 in clinical use remained debating. In this preliminary report, we presented six patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. They were treated with HCQ for 14 days from the day of COVID-19 diagnosis. Serial viral load from respiratory specimens were performed every other day. Cytokine profile was checked before HCQ initiation and on the 14th day of HCQ treatment. All patients receiving HCQ completed 14-day course without complication. Among the six patients, the mean duration from symptom onset to last detectable viral load was 34 ± 12 days, which was similar to those without specific treatment in previous reports. Low level of interferon-gamma was noted in all patients of different stage of infection and three patients had elevation of IL-17 level. Prolonged virus shedding is still observed regardless HCQ. The impact of HCQ on cytokine kinetics remained unclear; however, IL-17 could be an inflammatory marker for disease status monitor and a potential therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Cytokines , Humans , Kinetics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
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