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1.
[Unspecified Source]; 2020.
Preprint in English | [Unspecified Source] | ID: ppcovidwho-292791

ABSTRACT

New therapeutics are urgently needed to inhibit SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the on-going Covid-19 pandemic. Nsp15, a uridine-specific endoribonuclease found in all coronaviruses, processes viral RNA to evade detection by RNA-activated host defense systems, making it a promising drug target. Previous work with SARS-CoV-1 established that Nsp15 is active as a hexamer, yet how Nsp15 recognizes and processes viral RNA remains unknown. Here we report a series of cryo-EM reconstructions of SARS-CoV-2 Nsp15. The UTP-bound cryo-EM reconstruction at 3.36 Å resolution provides molecular details into how critical residues within the Nsp15 active site recognize uridine and facilitate catalysis of the phosphodiester bond, whereas the apo-states reveal active site conformational heterogeneity. We further demonstrate the specificity and mechanism of nuclease activity by analyzing Nsp15 products using mass spectrometry. Collectively, these findings advance understanding of how Nsp15 processes viral RNA and provide a structural framework for the development of new therapeutics.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 636, 2021 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387325

ABSTRACT

Nsp15, a uridine specific endoribonuclease conserved across coronaviruses, processes viral RNA to evade detection by host defense systems. Crystal structures of Nsp15 from different coronaviruses have shown a common hexameric assembly, yet how the enzyme recognizes and processes RNA remains poorly understood. Here we report a series of cryo-EM reconstructions of SARS-CoV-2 Nsp15, in both apo and UTP-bound states. The cryo-EM reconstructions, combined with biochemistry, mass spectrometry, and molecular dynamics, expose molecular details of how critical active site residues recognize uridine and facilitate catalysis of the phosphodiester bond. Mass spectrometry revealed the accumulation of cyclic phosphate cleavage products, while analysis of the apo and UTP-bound datasets revealed conformational dynamics not observed by crystal structures that are likely important to facilitate substrate recognition and regulate nuclease activity. Collectively, these findings advance understanding of how Nsp15 processes viral RNA and provide a structural framework for the development of new therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Endoribonucleases/chemistry , Endoribonucleases/ultrastructure , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/ultrastructure , Amino Acid Sequence , Catalytic Domain , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , Models, Chemical , Models, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Uridine Triphosphate/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
3.
Cell ; 184(11): 2955-2972.e25, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237636

ABSTRACT

Natural antibodies (Abs) can target host glycans on the surface of pathogens. We studied the evolution of glycan-reactive B cells of rhesus macaques and humans using glycosylated HIV-1 envelope (Env) as a model antigen. 2G12 is a broadly neutralizing Ab (bnAb) that targets a conserved glycan patch on Env of geographically diverse HIV-1 strains using a unique heavy-chain (VH) domain-swapped architecture that results in fragment antigen-binding (Fab) dimerization. Here, we describe HIV-1 Env Fab-dimerized glycan (FDG)-reactive bnAbs without VH-swapped domains from simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected macaques. FDG Abs also recognized cell-surface glycans on diverse pathogens, including yeast and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike. FDG precursors were expanded by glycan-bearing immunogens in macaques and were abundant in HIV-1-naive humans. Moreover, FDG precursors were predominately mutated IgM+IgD+CD27+, thus suggesting that they originated from a pool of antigen-experienced IgM+ or marginal zone B cells.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , Polysaccharides/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/immunology , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Dimerization , Epitopes/immunology , Glycosylation , HIV Antibodies/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/chemistry , Macaca mulatta , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/chemistry , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics , Vaccines/immunology , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/chemistry , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics
4.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 27(10): 925-933, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-662441

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus (CoV) spike (S) protein, involved in viral-host cell fusion, is the primary immunogenic target for virus neutralization and the current focus of many vaccine design efforts. The highly flexible S-protein, with its mobile domains, presents a moving target to the immune system. Here, to better understand S-protein mobility, we implemented a structure-based vector analysis of available ß-CoV S-protein structures. Despite an overall similarity in domain organization, we found that S-proteins from different ß-CoVs display distinct configurations. Based on this analysis, we developed two soluble ectodomain constructs for the SARS-CoV-2 S-protein, in which the highly immunogenic and mobile receptor binding domain (RBD) is either locked in the all-RBDs 'down' position or adopts 'up' state conformations more readily than the wild-type S-protein. These results demonstrate that the conformation of the S-protein can be controlled via rational design and can provide a framework for the development of engineered CoV S-proteins for vaccine applications.


Subject(s)
Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Binding Sites , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Microscopy, Electron/methods , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains , Protein Subunits/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
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