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1.
Front Psychiatry ; 14: 1014866, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315447

ABSTRACT

Background: Emergency psychological responding professionals are recruited to help deal with psychological issues as the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues. We aimed to study the neural correlates of psychological states in these emergency psychological responding professionals after exposure to COVID-19 related trauma at baseline and after 1-year self-adjustment. Methods: Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) and multiscale network approaches were utilized to evaluate the functional brain activities in emergency psychological professionals after trauma. Temporal (baseline vs. follow-up) and cross-sectional (emergency psychological professionals vs. healthy controls) differences were studied using appropriate t-tests. The brain functional network correlates of psychological symptoms were explored. Results: At either time-point, significant changes in the ventral attention (VEN) and the default mode network (DMN) were associated with psychological symptoms in emergency psychological professionals. In addition, the emergency psychological professionals whose mental states improved after 1 year demonstrated altered intermodular connectivity strength between several modules in the functional network, mainly linking the DMN, VEN, limbic, and frontoparietal control modules. Conclusion: Brain functional network alterations and their longitudinal changes varied across groups of EPRT with distinctive clinical features. Exposure to emergent trauma does cause psychological professionals to produce DMN and VEN network changes related to psychological symptoms. About 65% of them will gradually adjust mental states, and the network tends to be rebalanced after a year.

2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1036586, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310598

ABSTRACT

This paper addresses the spatial pattern of urban biomedicine innovation networks by separately using four scales, i.e., the national scale, interregional scale, urban agglomeration scale, and provincial scale, on the basis of Chinese biomedicine patent data from the incoPat global patent database (GPD) (2001-2020) and using the method of social network analysis (SNA). Through the research, it is found that (1) on the national scale, the Chinese biomedicine innovation network becomes denser from west to the east as its complexity continuously increases. Its spatial structure takes the form of a radial network pattern with Beijing and Shanghai as its centers. The COVID-19 pandemic has not had an obvious negative impact on this network at present. (2) On the interregional scale, the strength of interregional network ties is greater than that of intraregional network ties. The eastern, central and western biomedicine innovation networks appear to be heterogeneous networks with regional central cities as the cores. (3) At the urban agglomeration scale, the strength of intraurban-agglomeration network ties is greater than that of interurban-agglomeration network ties. The three major urban agglomerations have formed radial spatial patterns with central cities as the hubs. (4) At the provincial scale, the intraprovincial networks have poor connectivity and low internal ties strength, which manifest as core-periphery structures with the provincial capitals as centers. Our research conclusion helps to clarify the current accumulation of technology and offer guidance for the development of China's biomedicine industry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Health Occupations , Asian People
3.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0283239, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288884

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Burnout in healthcare providers (HPs) might lead to negative consequences at personal, patient-care and healthcare system levels especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of burnout and the contributing variables, and to explore how, from health workforce management perspective, HPs' experiences related to carrying out COVID-19 duties would be associated with their burnout. METHODS: A cross-sectional, open online survey, informed by physical and psychological attributes reportedly related to burnout, the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), was completed by HPs in Macau, China during October and December 2021. Factors associated with burnout were analysed using multiple logistic regressions. RESULTS: Among the 498 valid responses, the participants included doctors (37.5%), nurses (27.1%), medical laboratory technologist (11.4%) and pharmacy professionals (10.8%), with the majority being female (66.1%), aged between 25-44years (66.0%), and participated in the COVID-19 duties (82.9%). High levels of burnout (personal (60.4%), work-related (50.6%) and client-related (31.5%)), anxiety (60.6%), and depression (63.4%) were identified. Anxiety and depression remained significantly and positively associated with all types of burnout after controlling for the strong effects of demographic and work factors (e.g. working in the public sector or hospital, or having COVID-19 duties). HPs participated in COVID-19 duties were more vulnerable to burnout than their counterparts and were mostly dissatisfied with the accessibility of psychological support at workplace (62.6%), workforce distribution for COVID-19 duties (50.0%), ability to rest and recover (46.2%), and remuneration (44.7%), all of which were associated with the occurrence of burnout. CONCLUSIONS: Personal, professional and health management factors were found attributable to the burnout experienced by HPs during the COVID-19 pandemic, requiring actions from individual and organizational level. Longitudinal studies are needed to monitor the trend of burnout and to inform effective strategies of this occupational phenomenon.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Humans , Female , Adult , Male , Macau , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Burnout, Psychological , Health Personnel
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e066246, 2022 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137788

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine how eHealth was adopted in pharmaceutical care (PC), the outcome reported and the contextual factors. DESIGN: Systematic literature review in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. DATA SOURCES: Literature was searched in six databases including PubMed, Scopus, Medline, Web of Science, Science Direct and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies which reported the usage experiences of eHealth in any aspects of PC by pharmacists during the COVID-19 pandemic, written in English or Chinese, and published in peer-reviewed journals between December 2019 and March 2022 were included. Opinion articles, conference abstracts, correspondence, letters and editorials were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: The literature search was completed on 15 April 2022. Two researchers independently conducted the literature search and extracted the data into an Excel table informed by the logic model with the key components of goals, input, activities, output and contextual factors. RESULTS: Forty-three studies were included in this review. During the COVID-19 pandemic, hospital pharmacists, community pharmacists and specialist pharmacists in 17 countries continued to educate, consult, monitor and manage the patients and the general public via phone calls, videoconferences, mobile applications, social media, websites and/or enhanced interoperability of electronic medical records. Assuring the continuity of pharmacy care, reduced need for hospital visits, and improved work accuracy and efficiency were the benefits of eHealth mostly reported. Contextual factors affecting the adoption of eHealth were multifaceted, prompting supporting actions at the levels of government, hospital/pharmacy, pharmacists and patients. CONCLUSION: This study revealed the wide adoption of eHealth in PC during the pandemic and the emerging evidence for its importance. Proper adoption of eHealth will help reshape the mode of pharmacy services to ensure continuity, quality and efficiency of care amid the challenges of the pandemic. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022299812.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Services , Telemedicine , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pharmacists
5.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2125815

ABSTRACT

This paper addresses the spatial pattern of urban biomedicine innovation networks by separately using four scales, i.e., the national scale, interregional scale, urban agglomeration scale, and provincial scale, on the basis of Chinese biomedicine patent data from the incoPat global patent database (GPD) (2001–2020) and using the method of social network analysis (SNA). Through the research, it is found that (1) on the national scale, the Chinese biomedicine innovation network becomes denser from west to the east as its complexity continuously increases. Its spatial structure takes the form of a radial network pattern with Beijing and Shanghai as its centers. The COVID-19 pandemic has not had an obvious negative impact on this network at present. (2) On the interregional scale, the strength of interregional network ties is greater than that of intraregional network ties. The eastern, central and western biomedicine innovation networks appear to be heterogeneous networks with regional central cities as the cores. (3) At the urban agglomeration scale, the strength of intraurban-agglomeration network ties is greater than that of interurban-agglomeration network ties. The three major urban agglomerations have formed radial spatial patterns with central cities as the hubs. (4) At the provincial scale, the intraprovincial networks have poor connectivity and low internal ties strength, which manifest as core-periphery structures with the provincial capitals as centers. Our research conclusion helps to clarify the current accumulation of technology and offer guidance for the development of China's biomedicine industry.

6.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 978661, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080211

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The decision about vaccinating children is subject to their parents' decision. To inform strategies that support full vaccination coverage, it is important to understand the parents' vaccination attitude and tendency to act. This study aims to investigate the intention and the factors affecting parents' decision-making about vaccinating their children. Methods: A cross-sectional, self-administered online questionnaire was completed by parents of children aged 3-12 yeas in Macao between 7 March and 17 April 2022. The survey tool was informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) which composes of the variable "intention" and three TPB constructs (Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control). Respondents rated their level of agreement on the construct statements using a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine if the TPB constructs were predictors of parents' intention. Results: A total of 1,217 parents completed the questionnaire. The majority of participants were mothers (83.2%), aged 31-40 years (62.7%), having two or more children (74.1%), had at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine (84.4%) and considered themselves knowledgeable about the vaccine (62.1%), all of which were significantly associated with the intention to vaccinate their children (all p < 0.05). Their intention varied from negative (19.1%), neutral (38.4%) to positive (42.5%). Respondents were mostly concerned about the serious side effects that the COVID-19 vaccine (mean = 3.96 ± 1.23), highly acknowledged the expectation by the school (mean = 3.94 ± 1.15) and the community (mean = 3.90 ± 1.19) of children vaccination, and rated highly the ease of making necessary arrangement (mean = 3.93 ± 1.25). In the multiple linear regression model which explained 63.5% of the variance in the intention-to-vaccinate their children, only Attitude (B = 0.52, p < 0.001) and Subjective Norm (B = 0.39, p < 0.001) were identified as strong predictors. The major reasons for not having intention were safety concerns (n = 646/699, 92.4%). Participants' most trusted local information sources were doctors (n = 682), government (n = 426) and healthcare professional organizations (n = 416). Conclusions: Vaccinating children with COVID-19 vaccine is a complex decision-making for parents. A key to a successful COVID-19 vaccination program is effective communication about the safety profile and the usage experiences warranting the integration of reliable information sources across different healthcare sectors.

7.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0275251, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054367

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic severely affected the disease management of patients with chronic illnesses such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to assess the effect of telemedicine management of diabetes in obese and overweight young and middle-aged patients with T2DM during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A single-center randomized control study was conducted in 120 obese or overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 24 kg/m2) young and middle-aged patients (aged 18-55 years) with T2DM. Patients were randomly assigned to the intervention (telemedicine) or control (conventional outpatient clinic appointment) group. After baseline assessment, they were home isolated for 21 days, received diet and exercise guidance, underwent glucose monitoring, and followed up for 6 months. Glucose monitoring and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) scores were evaluated at 22 days and at the end of 3 and 6 months. RESULTS: Ninety-nine patients completed the 6-month follow-up (intervention group: n = 52; control group: n = 47). On day 22, the fasting blood glucose (FBG) level of the intervention group was lower than that of the control group (p < 0.05), and the control group's SDS increased significantly compared with the baseline value (p < 0.05). At the end of 3 months, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and FBG levels in the intervention group decreased significantly compared with those in the control group (p < 0.01). At the end of 6 months, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in postprandial blood glucose, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels as well as waist-to-hip ratio compared with the control group (p < 0.05); moreover, the intervention group showed lower SDS scores than the baseline value (p < 0.05). Further, the intervention group showed a significant reduction in BMI compared with the control group at the end of 3 and 6 months (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Telemedicine is a beneficial strategy for achieving remotely supervised blood glucose regulation, weight loss, and depression relief in patients with T2DM. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04723550.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Telemedicine , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cholesterol , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Disease Outbreaks , Glycated Hemoglobin , Humans , Lipoproteins, LDL , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/therapy , Overweight/complications , Overweight/therapy , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Triglycerides
8.
Agriculture ; 12(8):1211, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023052

ABSTRACT

The main substances of rice are starches, which vary their metabolism during storage. We conducted a series of tests including rice physicochemical properties, edible quality, starch content and chain length distribution along with starch structure variation to disclose the shift of rice quality by observing the changes of rice during storage. The results showed that: (1) the rice deterioration occurred as time passed, and the germination rate decreased from 70.8% to 29.4% during the storage;(2) fatty acid values increased significantly during long-term storage;(3) electrical conductivity increased as time passed;and (4) the two-year-storage rice showed significantly decreased viscosity and edible quality after sensory evaluation, decreased hardness and damaged surface area of starch granules as storage time passed. Additionally, the damaged surface area of starch granules increased with storage time. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the short-range order and spiral degree of rice starch first decreased in the first year and then increased over the storage time. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction showed that the main starch of rice was A-type crystalline. Meanwhile, apparent amylose content increased from 31.00% to 33.85%, then decreased to 31.75%. The peak viscosity reduced from 2735.00 mPa·s to 2163.67 mPa·s and the disintegration value was brought down from 1377.67 mPa·s to 850.33 mPa·s. Based on the results, rice should not be stored for more than 2 years under suitable granary conditions to maintain it at a good quality.

9.
Ocean Coast Manag ; 230: 106339, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008009

ABSTRACT

The stability of shipping and port operations are crucial for international trade and global supply chain. However, the COVID-19 pandemic hit the shipping and port industry enormously in late 2019, and continues till now. It is important to identify the impacts of the pandemic on shipping and port operations and evaluate the potential economic impacts for better setting future development strategies and policies. A System Dynamics (SD) model is proposed to depict the impact transmission within the supply chain considering 5 sub-systems (shipping, port, transportation, manufacturing and social). Potential economic impacts which are represented by the shipping loss and port loss will be assessed. 6 scenarios with different epidemic durations and capacity recovery degrees have been set to investigate the economic impacts. The port of Shanghai, together with the container shipping business is selected as input for case study. Results indicate that in the first few months the port and carriers may suffer economic loss due to shrunken demand caused by COVID-19. But later carriers may enjoy an increase of income compared to non-pandemic scenario owing to strong recovery in most scenarios. Moreover, we found that manufacturing, transportation and port operation capacities would jointly affect the recovery process and economic impacts. The findings can facilitate policy makers in making port management and future industry development decisions.

10.
RNA Biol ; 19(1): 866-876, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908624

ABSTRACT

RNA translation is the rate-limiting step when cells synthesize proteins. Elevating translation efficiency (TE) is intuitively beneficial. Particularly, when viruses invade host cells, how to compete with endogenous RNAs for efficient translation is a major issue to be resolved. We collected millions of worldwide SARS-CoV-2 sequences during the past year and traced the dynamics of allele frequency of every mutation. We defined adaptive and deleterious mutations according to the rise and fall of their frequencies along time. For 5'UTR and synonymous mutations in SARS-CoV-2, the selection on TE is evident near start codons. Adaptive mutations generally decrease GC content while deleterious mutations increase GC content. This trend fades away with increasing distance to start codons. Mutations decreasing GC content near start codons would unravel the complex RNA structure and facilitate translation initiation, which are beneficial to SARS-CoV-2, and vice versa. During this evolutionary arms race between human and virus, SARS-CoV-2 tries to improve its cis elements to compete with host RNAs for rapid translation.


Subject(s)
Evolution, Molecular , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Selection, Genetic , 5' Untranslated Regions , COVID-19/virology , Codon, Initiator , Humans , Mutation , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
11.
Gates Open Research ; 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1835893

ABSTRACT

Background: Analysis of real-world data can be used to identify promising leads and dead ends among products being repurposed for clinical practice for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This paper uses real-world data from Cerner Labs collected from 90 source institutions in the United States to assess the potential impact of two viral vaccines on COVID-19 case fatality rates. Methods: We identified 373,032 polymerase chase reaction (PCR)-positive COVID-19 cases in the Cerner Labs database between 01-MAR-2020 and 31-DEC-2020 and identified patients that had received measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) or a recombinant adjuvanted varicella-zoster vaccine within the previous 5 years. We calculated heterogeneity scores to support interpretation of results across institutions, and used stepwise forward variable selection to construct covariable-based propensity scores. These scores were used to match cases and control for biasing and confounding issues inherent in observational data. Results: Neither the recombinant adjuvanted varicella-zoster vaccine nor MMR showed significant efficacy in prevention of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We could not derive clinically significant results on the impact of MMR for case fatality rates due to persistently high rates of heterogeneity between institutions. However, we were able to achieve acceptable levels of heterogeneity for the analysis of the recombinant adjuvanted varicella-zoster vaccine, and found a clinically meaningful benefit of reduced case fatality rate, with an odds ratio of 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.38 – 0.48). Conclusions: Using propensity score matching and heterogeneity statistics can help guide our interpretation of real-world data, and rigorous statistical methods are needed to reduce bias or disparities in data interpretation. Applying these methods to the impact of viral vaccines on COVID-19 case fatalities yields actionable findings for further analysis.

12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 218, 2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the intention of receiving COVID-19 vaccines is important to inform effective vaccination strategies. This study aimed to investigate such intention, identify the key influencing factors, and determine the most important intention predictors using a theoretically principled model. METHODS: An online, cross-sectional survey method was implemented in Macao in May 2021. People aged 18 years or above and residing in Macao for 12 months prior to the study were recruited through social media. Intention to receive COVID-19 vaccines and the main constructs of the protection motivation theory and the health belief model were the main measures encompassing threat appraisal, intrapersonal characteristics, cues to action, coping appraisal, past experiences and information seeking behavior. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression were used for data analysis. RESULTS: A total of 552 valid responses were received. Among the respondents, 79.5% aged between 25 and 54 years old, 59.4% were female, and 88% had a bachelor degree or above; 62.3% of the respondents indicated their intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination while 19.2% were hesitant and 18.5% did not have any intention. While 67.0% believed COVID-19 infection was life-threatening, only 19.0% thought they were at risk of getting infected. Control variables such as age, gender, education level, and having travel plans were significantly correlated with intention. Significant associations between intention with perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, maladaptive response reward, self-efficacy, response-efficacy, response cost, social attitude, social norm, past experience and information seeking behavior were identified (P < 0.05). The most important positive predictors of intention were "being able to make arrangement to receive the vaccine" (ß = 0.333, P < 0.001), "a sense of social responsibility" (ß = 0.326, P < 0.001), and "time off from work after vaccination" (ß = 0.169, P < 0.001), whereas "concerns over vaccine safety" (ß = - 0.124, P < 0.001) and "relying on online resources for vaccine information" (ß = - 0.065, P < 0.05) were negative predictors. Perceived severity in terms of COVID-19 being a life threatening illness was not a predictor of intention. CONCLUSION: This study reaffirmed that intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination is an ongoing concern in the combat of the pandemic. Multi-component strategies to enhance health literacy that supports well-informed decision-making, increase vaccination convenience, promote social responsibility, and provide time-off incentives are among the key considerations in designing and improve vaccination campaigns in Macao.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Intention , Macau , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
13.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265117, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742021

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the mortality and health care resource use among patients with severe or critical coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) in the first wave of pandemic in China. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the mortality, discharge rate, length of hospital stay, and use of invasive ventilation in severe or critical COVID-19 cases in China. We searched electronic databases for studies from China with no restrictions on language or interventions patients received. We screened records, extracted data and assessed the quality of included studies in duplicate. We performed the meta-analysis using random-effect models through a Bayesian framework. Subgroup analyses were conducted to examine studies by disease severity, study location and patient enrolment start date. We also performed sensitivity analysis using various priors, and assessed between-study heterogeneity and publication bias for the primary outcomes. RESULTS: Out of 6,205 titles and abstracts screened, 500 were reviewed in full text. A total of 42 studies were included in the review, of which 95% were observational studies (n = 40). The pooled 28-day and 14-day mortalities among severe or critical patients were 20.48% (7,136 patients, 95% credible interval (CrI), 13.11 to 30.70) and 10.83% (95% CrI, 6.78 to 16.75), respectively. The mortality declined over time and was higher in patients with critical disease than severe cases (1,235 patients, 45.73%, 95% CrI, 22.79 to 73.52 vs. 3,969 patients, 14.90%, 95% CrI, 4.70 to 39.57) and patients in Hubei compared to those outside Hubei (6,719 patients, 26.62%, 95% CrI, 13.11 to 30.70 vs. 244 patients, 5.88%, 95% CrI 2.03 to 14.11). The length of hospital stay was estimated at 18.48 days (6,847 patients, 95% CrI, 17.59 to 21.21), the 28-day discharge rate was 50.48% (3,645 patients, 95% CrI, 26.47 to 79.53), and the use of invasive ventilation rate was 13.46% (4,108 patients, 95% CrI, 7.61 to 22.31). CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic review and meta-analysis found high mortality among severe and critical COVID-19 cases. Severe or critical COVID-19 cases consumed a large amount of hospital resources during the outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Care , Length of Stay , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Humans , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Reg Stud Mar Sci ; 52: 102258, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699147

ABSTRACT

Sea ports are key nodes of global trade and economy, but are vulnerable to hazards, catastrophes and epidemic outbreaks. Since the emergence of COVID-19 infection at the end of 2019, the operations of seaports, especially container ports have been hit hard. This paper aims to explore the impacts of COVID-19 on container ports' operations, clarify the potential economic losses of ports and propose coping suggestions for recovery. Five scenarios of port recovery have been set and the revenues of the port under epidemic outbreaks are estimated. The economic loss could be modeled as the difference between original revenue a port should obtained without the impact of COVID-19 and the actual revenue considering the impact of COVID-19. The container port of Shanghai is selected as the case study. Results and sensitivity analysis reveal that slower the recovery develops, much more loss will be borne by the port. However, there is also a possibility that the port achieves increased income with a surging boom of shipping demand. The loss of port due, handling service, facility security fee and berthage charge are major losses. Besides, port handling efficiency and fleet structure are also found crucial for reducing economic losses. Reducing containership's handling time and serving larger ships would also help the port reduce economic losses.

15.
Frontiers of Engineering Management ; 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1653869

ABSTRACT

Today’s supply chain is becoming complex and fragile. Hence, supply chain managers need to create and unlock the value of the smart supply chain. A smart supply chain requires connectivity, visibility, and agility, and it needs be integrated and intelligent. The digital twin (DT) concept satisfies these requirements. Therefore, we propose creating a DT-driven supply chain (DTSC) as an innovative and integrated solution for the smart supply chain. We provide background information to explain the DT concept and to demonstrate the method for building a DTSC by using the DT concept. We discuss three research opportunities in building a DTSC, including supply chain modeling, real-time supply chain optimization, and data usage in supply chain collaboration. Finally, we highlight a motivating case from JD.COM, China’s largest retailer by revenue, in applying the DTSC platform to address supply chain network reconfiguration challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic.

16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4166-e4174, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560158

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We compared the efficacy of the antiviral agent, remdesivir, versus standard-of-care treatment in adults with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using data from a phase 3 remdesivir trial and a retrospective cohort of patients with severe COVID-19 treated with standard of care. METHODS: GS-US-540-5773 is an ongoing phase 3, randomized, open-label trial comparing two courses of remdesivir (remdesivir-cohort). GS-US-540-5807 is an ongoing real-world, retrospective cohort study of clinical outcomes in patients receiving standard-of-care treatment (non-remdesivir-cohort). Inclusion criteria were similar between studies: patients had confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, were hospitalized, had oxygen saturation ≤94% on room air or required supplemental oxygen, and had pulmonary infiltrates. Stabilized inverse probability of treatment weighted multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the treatment effect of remdesivir versus standard of care. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with recovery on day 14, dichotomized from a 7-point clinical status ordinal scale. A key secondary endpoint was mortality. RESULTS: After the inverse probability of treatment weighting procedure, 312 and 818 patients were counted in the remdesivir- and non-remdesivir-cohorts, respectively. At day 14, 74.4% of patients in the remdesivir-cohort had recovered versus 59.0% in the non-remdesivir-cohort (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.03: 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-3.08, P < .001). At day 14, 7.6% of patients in the remdesivir-cohort had died versus 12.5% in the non-remdesivir-cohort (aOR 0.38, 95% CI: .22-.68, P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: In this comparative analysis, by day 14, remdesivir was associated with significantly greater recovery and 62% reduced odds of death versus standard-of-care treatment in patients with severe COVID-19. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT04292899 and EUPAS34303.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Humans , Oxygen Saturation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Standard of Care , Treatment Outcome
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 653335, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348569

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The role of pharmacists in public health management is expected to grow into a key player in the continuing measures of managing the COVID-19 pandemic, especially in the community setting. However, their intention to provide essential public health services for combating the pandemic and the impact of their attitude and beliefs are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the intention-to-practice COVID-19-related responsibilities of pharmacists based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), identify the key factors predicting their intention, and explore the usefulness of the TPB model in predicting such an intention. Methods: A cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire was completed by pharmacists in Macao between May and August 2020. Quantitative responses regarding intention-to-practice COVID-19-related duties, and the four TPB variables [attitude (A), subjective norms (SN), perceived behavioral control (PBC), and past behavior (PB)] were measured. Cronbach's alpha and composite reliability were used to determine the reliability and validity of the tool. In addition to descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation was used to determine the strengths of the association, and multiple linear regression was used to predict the association between the intention and the four key variables. Results: More than half of the pharmacists practicing in Macao completed the questionnaire (296/520) giving a response rate of 56.9%. Among them, 75% were 26-40 years old and 56% were female. The majority of the participants (91.9%) demonstrated a positive intention to contribute to the COVID-19 infection management (mean = 4.19 ± 0.51). The mean scores for A, SN, PBC, and PB were 4.06 ± 0.52, 3.71 ± 0.58, 3.76 ± 0.65, and 4.03 ± 0.54, respectively. A (ß = 0.671), SN (ß = 0.608), PBC (ß = 0.563), and PB (ß = 0.829) were all positively correlated with intention (all P < 0.001). It was found that 72.5% of the variance in the intention-to-practice COVID-19-related duties could be explained by the TPB model using the four key variables with A and PB being two possible predictors. Conclusion: Pharmacists showed favorable A, SN, PBC, and intention in participating in COVID-19 management in the community setting. Specific training, enhanced stakeholder communication, and improved pharmacy management are essential to increase the willingness of pharmacists to take part in the COVID-19 pandemic and other public health emergencies alike in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmacists , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Intention , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(7): ofab278, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and has been shown to shorten time to recovery and improve clinical outcomes in randomized trials. METHODS: This was the final day 28 comparative analysis of data from a phase 3, randomized, open-label study comparing 2 remdesivir regimens (5 vs 10 days, combined for this analysis [remdesivir cohort]) and a real-world retrospective longitudinal cohort study of patients receiving standard-of-care treatment (nonremdesivir cohort). Eligible patients, aged ≥18 years, had confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), oxygen saturation ≤94% on room air or required supplemental oxygen, with pulmonary infiltrates. Propensity score matching (up to 1:10 ratio) was used to ensure comparable populations. We assessed day 14 clinical recovery (determined using a 7-point ordinal scale) and day 28 all-cause mortality (coprimary endpoints). RESULTS: A total of 368 (remdesivir) and 1399 (nonremdesivir) patients were included in the matched analysis. The day 14 clinical recovery rate was significantly higher among the remdesivir versus the nonremdesivir cohort (65.2% vs 57.1%; odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.90; P = 0.002). The day 28 mortality rate was significantly lower in the remdesivir cohort versus the nonremdesivir cohort (12.0% vs 16.2%; OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.47-.95; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Remdesivir was associated with significantly higher rates of day 14 clinical recovery, and lower day 28 mortality, compared with standard-of-care treatment in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. These data, taken together, support the use of remdesivir to improve clinical recovery and decrease mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection.

19.
Biol Sex Differ ; 12(1): 16, 2021 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the growing number of studies on the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), little is known about the association of menopausal status with COVID-19 outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, we included 336 COVID-19 inpatients between February 15, 2020 and April 30, 2020 at the Taikang Tongji Hospital (Wuhan), China. Electronic medical records including patient demographics, laboratory results, and chest computed tomography (CT) images were reviewed. RESULTS: In total, 300 patients with complete clinical outcomes were included for analysis. The mean age was 65.3 years, and most patients were women (n = 167, 55.7%). Over 50% of patients presented with comorbidities, with hypertension (63.5%) being the most common comorbidity. After propensity score matching, results showed that men had significantly higher odds than premenopausal women for developing severe disease type (23.7% vs. 0%, OR 17.12, 95% CI 1.00-293.60; p = 0.003) and bilateral lung infiltration (86.1% vs. 64.7%, OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.08-10.64; p = 0.04), but not for mortality (2.0% vs. 0%, OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.04-19.12, p = 1.00). However, non-significant difference was observed among men and postmenopausal women in the percentage of severe disease type (32.7% vs. 41.7%, OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.37-1.24, p = 0.21), bilateral lung infiltration (86.1% vs. 91.7%, OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.22-1.47, p = 0.24), and mortality (2.0% vs. 6.0%, OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.06-1.69, p = 0.25). CONCLUSIONS: Men had higher disease severity than premenopausal women, while the differences disappeared between postmenopausal women and men. These findings support aggressive treatment for the poor prognosis of postmenopausal women in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Postmenopause , Premenopause , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Treatment Outcome
20.
Drug Deliv Transl Res ; 11(4): 1340-1351, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1047033

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases, such as the coronavirus disease-19, SARS virus, Ebola virus, and AIDS, threaten the health of human beings globally. New viruses, drug-resistant bacteria, and fungi continue to challenge the human efficacious drug bank. Researchers have developed a variety of new antiviral and antibacterial drugs in response to the infectious disease crisis. Meanwhile, the development of functional materials has also improved therapeutic outcomes. As a natural material, chitosan possesses good biocompatibility, bioactivity, and biosafety. It has been proven that the cooperation between chitosan and traditional medicine greatly improves the ability of anti-infection. This review summarized the application and design considerations of chitosan-composed systems for the treatment of infectious diseases, looking forward to providing the idea of infectious disease therapy.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Biocompatible Materials/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Chitosan/administration & dosage , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/immunology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics , Anti-Infective Agents/immunology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacokinetics , Bandages/microbiology , Biocompatible Materials/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Chitosan/immunology , Chitosan/pharmacokinetics , Communicable Diseases/immunology , Communicable Diseases/metabolism , Humans , Wound Healing/drug effects , Wound Healing/physiology
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