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1.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering ; 12552, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20241893

ABSTRACT

This work utilizes Sentinel-2A L1C remote sensing photographs from the years 2018, 2020, and 2022 to identify the different land use categories in the study area using the support vector machine (SVM) technique. The accuracy of categorization is greater than 90%. This research explores four factors of the dynamic change in land use in Hongta District from 2018 to 2022: the proportion of various types of land;the extent of something like the changing land usage;land use transfer;and the dynamic degree of the change in land use. According to the study's results, the proportion of cultivated and grassland land grew, while the quantity of barren and construction land fell by 1.90 percent, 0.03 percent, and 0.69 percent, respectively. The water system land portion of total area increased by 2.58 percent and 0.13 percent, respectively. After comparing the two research periods, the entire dynamic degree of the second stage is determined to be 3.5 percent lower than that of the first stage, and the pace of land use change is quite sluggish, which may be associated with the worldwide COVID-19 outbreak in 2020. The outcomes of the research may give the natural resources department the knowledge it needs to manage land resources properly. © 2023 SPIE.

2.
Cancer Research Conference: American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting, ACCR ; 83(7 Supplement), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20236023

ABSTRACT

Background: The interaction between checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) and Sars-COV-2 vaccines has been understudied. One potential complication in pts receiving CPI is immune-mediated adverse events (irAEs) resulting from overactivation of the immune system. It is unknown whether concurrent CPI and Sars-COV-2 vaccine administration increases the risk of irAEs. This retrospective study examined the incidence of severe irAEs in cancer patients receiving CPI therapy at the time of vaccination against Sars CoV-2. Method(s): Following IRB approval, pts with solid tumors who received any approved CPI since FDA authorization of the COVID-19 vaccine in December 2020 were identified via institutional electronic health record. Pts who received one or more doses of an authorized vaccine within 60 days of CPI treatment were included. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the incidence of severe irAE (one or more of the following: grade 3 AE or above, multi-system involvement, need for hospitalization). Secondary endpoints included time between CPI and vaccination, need for immunosuppressive therapy, and rate of discontinuation of CPI due to irAE. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Result(s): 290 pts with bladder, head/neck, liver, skin (melanoma, SCC), renal, and gynecologic cancer were included in analysis. The median age was 67 years (IQR: 59.0-74.0) and 66% pts were male. At the time of vaccination, 201 pts (69.3%) received CPI monotherapy, 53 pts (18.3%) received combination (combo) CPI therapy, and 36 pts (12.4%) received other therapies (chemo, TKIs, etc.) with CPI. The vaccine manufacturer was Pfizer Bio-N-Tech in 162 pts (55.9%), Moderna in 122 pts (42.1%), and Johnson and Johnson in 6 pts (2.1%). The number of vaccinations received was >/= 3 in 214 pts, 2 in 64 pts, and 1 in 11 pts. 30 pts (11.5%) experienced severe irAEs following vaccination. The rate of severe irAEs was 10.3% (30/290) in the total population [6% (12/201) with CPI monotherapy, 19% (10/53) with combo CPI, and 22% (8/36) in the combo CPI-other group]. Severe irAEs occurred after the first vaccine dose in 5 pts (16.7%), second dose in 16 pts (53.3%), and third dose in 9 pts (30%) pts. The median time between CPI treatment and vaccination in pts who experienced irAE was15.5 days (IQR: 10.2-23.0). Hospitalization was required for 19 patients (63.3%). 24 pts (80.0%) required immunosuppressive therapy with a median therapy duration of 98.5 days (IQR 40.2-173.0). 16 pts (53.5%) discontinued CPI therapy following severe irAEs Conclusion(s): In this retrospective study, we observed a 10.3% rate of severe irAE in cancer pts receiving CPI concurrently with COVID-19 vaccines. Further investigation in pts with additional cancer types is warranted to help determine best practice guidelines for COVID-19 vaccination in cancer patients receiving CPI.

3.
Medical Journal of Peking Union Medical College Hospital ; 12(1):18-26, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2320571

ABSTRACT

With the global outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019, the laboratory testing for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) has become the key to the epidemic prevention and control. Based on the questions, issues from the clinical practice and the latest research, the Sub-committee of Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Chinese Hospital Association proposed "Expert Consensus on Laboratory Testing for SARS-CoV-2". The consensus panel is composed by experts in clinical microbiology, molecular biology and immunology laboratory medicine. The consensus describes the technological characteristics, precautions of clinical application, and biosafety requirements. It also includes the coping strategies for the most frequent problems and the challenges in testing and results explanation of commonly used clinical methods including nucleic acid, antibody and antigen tests, and combined testing of nucleic acid and antibody. We expect this consensus could provide guidances and reference opinions on how to conduct the precise laboratory testing for SARS-CoV-2 on the epidemic prevention and control.Copyright © 2021, Peking Union Medical College Hospital. All rights reserved.

4.
Journal of Urology ; 209(Supplement 4):e1107, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2313621

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Radical prostatectomy lengths of stay decreased with ketorolac analgesia and adoption of robotic assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). During the COVID-19 pandemic, the transition to outpatient RARP freed up critically needed hospital beds. The healthcare cost reduction afforded by the shift to outpatient RARP and its effect on patient satisfaction has yet to be explored. We compared healthcare costs, patient satisfaction and complications for outpatient vs. inpatient RARP. METHOD(S): We identified and compared a series of consecutive RARP performed as outpatient vs. inpatient and determined the capacity cost rate for every resource, including personnel, equipment, and space. After the lifting of hospital restrictions, men were given the option of inpatient vs. outpatient RARP. We also administered a validated Patient Satisfaction Outcome Questionnaire (PSOQ) postoperatively and compared median scores in perceived outcomes and satisfaction. A time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) analysis was applied to compare the total costs of care for RARP performed. Finally, we captured complications within 30 days of surgery using the Clavien-Dindo classification. We used multivariable regression to adjust for age, race, BMI, and ASA classification to assess the impact of outpatient vs. inpatient RARP on complications. RESULT(S): There were no significant differences in patient characteristics for outpatient (n=145) vs. inpatient (n=80) RARP. When given the choice, 86.6% of men elected for outpatient vs. inpatient RARP. Outpatient RARP netted a $1387 (13.5%) cost reduction compared to inpatient RARP. There were no significant differences in outpatient vs. inpatient median satisfaction survey scores or complications within 30 days (11.0% vs. 11.3%, p=0.961). CONCLUSION(S): Outpatient RARP can be safely performed, with similar outcomes and compared to inpatient RARP. Outpatient RARP has significantly lower costs compared to inpatient RARP while maintaining similar patient satisfaction outcomes.

5.
Research in Transportation Business and Management ; 46, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2308961

ABSTRACT

The marine transport companies have been experiencing intense competition with the supply increasing faster than the demand, making most of them face input congestion. This paper applies the input congestion data envelopment analysis (DEA) model proposed by Tone and Sahoo (2004) to compute efficiency scores and input congestions of 159 major marine transport companies in the world during 2010-2019. The inputs include em-ployees, total assets, and capital whereas the output is net sales. The base year for monetary values is 2010. It is found that the annual ratios of input-congested marine companies are between 20.9% and 65.7%, indicating that input congestion is not an unusual phenomenon among these companies. This paper also applies a BCG-like analysis to consider inefficiency and input congestion at the same time. The Mann-Whitney U test shows that most of the marine transport companies in Asia, Europe, and the Americas face both inefficiency and input congestion problems during the data period. This analysis is able to provide the implications for shipping companies to conduct more precise and efficient resource allocation and coordination in the post Covid-19 era.

6.
Acs Applied Nano Materials ; 6(8):7011-7021, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2311658

ABSTRACT

Flexible humidity sensors with high sensitivity, fast response time, and outstanding reliability have the potential to revolutionize electronic skin, healthcare, and non-contact sensing. In this study, we employed a straightforward nanocluster deposition technique to fabricate a resistive humidity sensor on a flexible substrate, using molybdenum oxide nanoparticles (MoOx NPs). We systematically evaluated the humidity-sensing behaviors of the MoOx NP film-based sensor and found that it exhibited exceptional sensing capabilities. Specifically, the sensor demonstrated high sensitivity (18.2 near zero humidity), a fast response/recovery time (1.7/2.2 s), and a wide relative humidity (RH) detection range (0-95%). The MoOx NP film, with its closely spaced granular nanostructure and high NP packing density, exhibited insensitivity to mechanical deformation, small hysteresis, good repeatability, and excellent stability. We also observed that the device exhibited distinct sensing kinetics in the range of high and low RH. Specifically, for RH > 43%, the response time showed a linear prolongation with increased RH. This behavior was attributed to two factors: the higher physical adsorption energy of H2O molecules and a multilayer physical adsorption process. In terms of applications, our sensor can be easily attached to a mask and has the potential to monitor human respiration owing to its high sensing performance. Additionally, the sensor was capable of dynamically tracking RH changes surrounding human skin, enabling a non-contact sensing capability. More significantly, we tested an integrated sensor array for its ability to detect moisture distribution in the external environment, demonstrating the potential of our sensor for contactless human-machine interaction. We believe that this innovation is particularly valuable during the COVID-19 epidemic, where cross-infection may be averted by the extensive use of contactless sensing. Overall, our findings demonstrate the tremendous potential of MoOx NP-based humidity sensors for a variety of applications, including healthcare, electronic skin, and non-contact sensing.

7.
Journal of Hunger and Environmental Nutrition ; 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2293161

ABSTRACT

This research examined the association between COVID-19 cases and food insufficiency in the United States using repeated cross-sectional data from the Household Pulse Survey (April 23, 2020-May 24, 2021, n = 2,618,027). New daily cases averaged 65,160.93 throughout the study period. A 70,000-unit increase in COVID-19 cases was associated with a 13% higher odds of food insufficiency (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.12-1.15). Participants with mild (OR = 2.72, 95% CI: 2.61-2.84), moderate (OR = 4.58, 95% CI: 4.36-4.81), or severe (OR = 8.75, 95% CI: 8.42-9.09) anxiety/depression and Black participants (OR = 2.36, 95% CI: 2.29-2.44) had the highest odds of reporting food insufficiency during the pandemic.Copyright © 2023 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

8.
Medical Journal of Peking Union Medical College Hospital ; 13(3):402-411, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2305963

ABSTRACT

The epidemic of the highly contagious, long lasting and widely popular coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has imposed a huge burden to the global public health. As one of the key methods for early diagnosis of COVID-19 infection, rapid acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antigen testing has been gradually applied in China. To address concerns raised by both health care workers and the public, based on the latest research and clinical practices, the Sub-committee of the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of the Chinese Hospital Association proposed"Expert Consensus on Rapid SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Testing(2022)". The consensus panel is composed of experts from multiple disciplines, including laboratory medicine, clinical medicine, infection control, public health, research and development of in vitro diagnostic products. The consensus describes its principle, technological characteristics, results interpretation and, disposal recommendations, and analyzes the strategies and matters needing attention in different application scenarios. We expect the consensus to help correct understanding and application of rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen testing in the diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control of COVID-19.Copyright © 2022, Peking Union Medical College Hospital. All rights reserved.

9.
55th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HICSS 2022 ; 2022-January:316-325, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2296655

ABSTRACT

We leverage the lockdown of Wuhan, China in January 2020 in response to COVID-19 as a natural experiment to study its impacts on individuals' contributions to open source software (OSS) on GitHub - the world's largest OSS platform. We find that Wuhan developers' contributions decreased by 10.2% relative to those in Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan (HMT) regions in the five weeks after the lockdown. Moreover, the contributions of Wuhan developers who interacted more with local developers on GitHub were reduced more after the lockdown. We conjecture that the lack of face-to-face (F2F) collaboration for Wuhan developers is the main driver of their reduced contributions, providing important insights for OSS platforms and stakeholders. © 2022 IEEE Computer Society. All rights reserved.

10.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 41(6 Supplement):491, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2260643

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 vaccination recommendations for cancer patients (pts) are similar to the general population. The interaction between checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) and Sars-COV-2 vaccines has been understudied. One potential complication in pts receiving CPI is the occurrence of immune-mediated adverse events (irAEs) resulting from overactivation of the immune system. This retrospective study examined the incidence of severe irAEs in pts with bladder urothelial cancer (UC) treated with CPI therapy who received concurrent vaccinations against Sars-CoV-2. Method(s): Following IRB approval, UC pts who received any approved CPI treatment since FDA authorization of the first COVID-19 vaccine in December 2020 were identified via institutional electronic health record. Pts who received 1 or more doses of an authorized vaccine within 60 days of CPI treatment were included. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the incidence of severe irAE (defined as one or more of the following: grade 3 AE or above, multi-system involvement, need for hospitalization). Secondary endpoints included time between CPI and vaccination, need for immunosuppressive therapy, and rate of discontinuation. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Result(s): Forty pts were included in our analysis with a median age of 72.5 years (IQR: 66.0-79.2);82% pts were male. At the time of vaccination, 37 pts (92.5%) received CPI monotherapy, 2 pts (5.0%) received combination (combo) CPI therapy, and 1 pt (2.5%) received combo platinum-based chemotherapy and CPI. The vaccine manufacturer was Pfizer Bio-NTech in 22 pts (55.0%), Moderna in 17 pts (42.5%), and Johnson and Johnson in 1 pt (2.5%). Number of vaccinations received was>/= 3 in 27 pts, 2 in 11 pts, and 1 in 2 pts. Six pts (15.0%) experienced severe irAEs following vaccination, including nephritis, colitis, pneumonitis, DKA, and infusion-related reaction. Rates of severe irAEs were 16.2% (6/37) with CPI monotherapy, no severe irAEs occurred in the combo CPI and combo CPI-chemo groups. Severe irAEs occurred after the first vaccine dose in 1 pt (16.7%), second dose in 3 pts (50.0%), and third dose in 2 pts (33.3%) pts. The median time between CPI treatment and vaccination in this group was 22.0 days (IQR: 15.8-36.5. Hospitalization was required for all 6 patients (100%). Three pts (50.0%) required immunosuppressive therapy with a median therapy duration of 64.0 days (IQR 47.0-83.5). Five pts (83.3%) discontinued CPI therapy following severe irAEs. Conclusion(s): In this retrospective study, we observed a 15% rate severe irAE in UC pts receiving CPI concurrently with COVID-19 vaccines. Further investigation in pts with additional cancer types is warranted to help determine best practice guidelines for COVID-19 vaccination in cancer patients receiving CPI.

11.
Economic Research-Ekonomska Istrazivanja ; 36(1):536-561, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2245480

ABSTRACT

This paper investigates how oil price (OP) influences the prospects of green bonds by utilising the quantile-onquantile (QQ) method and researching the interactions between OP and green bond index (GBI) from 2011:M1 to 2021:M11. We find that impacts from OP on the GBI are positive in the short run. The positive effects indicate that high OP can promote the development of the green bond market, indicating that green bonds can be considered an asset to avoid OP shocks. However, in the medium and long term, there is a negative impact due to the oversupply of the oil market and the increase in green energy industry profits. These results are identical to the supply and demand-based correlation model of green bonds and oil price, which underlines a specific effect of OP on GBI. The GBI effect on OP is consistently positive across all quantiles. It indicates that green bonds cannot be considered efficient measures to alleviate the oil crisis due to the instability of the Middle East COVID-19 and the small scale of green bonds. The issuers of green bonds can make decisions based on OP. Understanding the relationship between OP and GBI is also beneficial for investors. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

12.
International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases ; 26(Supplement 1):384-385, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2230772

ABSTRACT

Background/Purpose: The 2019 outbreak of coronavirus disease COVID-19 causes immune system disruption. Recent studies reported that the decrease or depletion of regulatory T cell (Treg) may be responsible for overstimulation of the immune system and lung damage in patients with severe COVID-19. This study aims to find the molecular mechanisms and genetic biomarkers associated with Tregs in COVID-19, providing new ideas for the treatment of COVID-19. Method(s): RNA sequencing data of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 252 COVID-19 infected patients and 69 healthy controls (HC) were obtained from the GEO database. The Tregs composition of COVID-19 samples was quantified using the CIBERSORT deconvolution method. The differential genes (DEGs) were identified by the limma R package. Gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was used to identify the gene. Differentially expressed Tregs-related genes (DETregRGs) were obtained by intersecting DEGs with the highly related modular genes obtained in the previous step. The potential biological functions and pathways of DETregRGs were then explored. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were subsequently constructed to identify hub genes. In addition, the prediction of small molecule drugs for the potential treatment of COVID-19 was made using the CMap database. Result(s): After the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), the turquoise module was highly correlated with Treg expression and a total of 134 DEGs was identified as DETregRGs. These genes were mainly involved in GO biological processes, such as the inflammatory response, and T cell differentiation of thymus. Then, 11 hub genes (including RPS12, RPL21, RPS3A, CD8B, CD3D, TRAT1, RPS6, CD3E, CD28, RPL3, and CD4) were ranked based on Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) analysis. The TregRG score of COVID-19 patients showed significantly lower than HC, calculated by the 'singscore' algorithms. After the signature query of the CMap database, the KU-0063794, an mTOR inhibitor ranked second in the negative enrichment score, may restore immune system dysregulation caused by increased Th17 differentiation and decreased Treg differentiation during SARS-CoV- 2 infection. Conclusion(s): Our study examined in detail the molecular mechanisms underlying the inadequacy of Tregs in patients with COVID-19 infection. mTOR inhibitors may improve COVID-19 symptoms by expanding Tregs which may be one of the potential therapeutic methods that need further investigation. (Figure Presented).

13.
International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care ; 38(Supplement 1):S107, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2221691

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a useful tool in complex decision-making situations and has been used in medical fields to evaluate treatment options and drug selection. We aimed to provide valuable insights on the use ofMCDAin health care through examining the research focus of existing studies, major fields, major applications, most productive authors and countries, and most common journals in the domain using a scientometric and bibliometric analysis. Methods. Publications related to MCDA in health care were identified by searching the Web of Science Core Collection on 14 July 2021. Three bibliometric software programs (VOSviewer, Bibliometrix, and CiteSpace) were used to conduct the analysis. Results. A total of 410 publications were identified from 196 academic journals (average yearly growth rate of 32% from 1999 to 2021), with 23,637 co-cited references by 871 institutions from 70 countries or regions. The USA was the most productive country (n=80), while the Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (n=16), Universite de Montreal (n= 13), and Syreon Research Institute (n=12) were the most productive institutions. The biggest nodes in every cluster of author networks were Aos Alaa Zaidan, Mireille Goetghebeur, and Zoltan Kalo. The top journals in terms of number of articles (n=17) and citations (n=1,673) were Value in Health and the Journal of Medical Systems, respectively. The research hotspots mainly included the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), decision-making, health technology assessment, and healthcare waste management. In the recent literature there was more emphasis on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and fuzzy Technique for Order Preference by Similarities to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). Big data, telemedicine, TOPSIS, and the fuzzy AHP, which are well-developed and important themes, may be the trends in future research. Conclusions. This study provides a holistic picture of the MCDArelated literature published in health care. MCDA has a broad application in different topic areas and would be helpful for practitioners, researchers, and decision makers working in health care when faced with complex decisions. It can be argued that the door is still open for improving the role ofMCDAin health care, both in its technologies and its application.

14.
Infectious Diseases and Immunity ; 1(3):119-120, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2212961
15.
Advances in Science, Technology and Innovation ; : 241-248, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2173604

ABSTRACT

The theory of New Urbanism, which promotes high-density, mixed zoning, and high walkable communities, has had a profound influence on the design of many cities globally and played a certain positive role in urban health. However, under the current COVID-19 pandemic, this theory faces new challenges. This paper aims to analyze the influence of New Urbanism on urban health from different spacial scales and reflect on whether these design methods still apply to the post-pandemic era. A series of recommendations for urban systems at different levels are proposed for further improving health of cities and residents. A real-world scenario-based design case is used to demonstrate ideas for optimizing public spaces in the districts. This paper is expected to provide ideas for future urban development and renewal design leading to a healthier and more sustainable city. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

16.
Dianzi Keji Daxue Xuebao/Journal of the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China ; 51(6):928-936, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2203685

ABSTRACT

The research uses the network collaborative construction theory to construct a national scientific cooperation network during the COVID-19 epidemic period, aiming to describe the evolution patterns of scientific research cooperation and the impact on the cooperation during the epidemic period. From the perspective of the cooperation network, the research calculates the network features to investigate the evolution patterns of the scientific research cooperation network. The present work also calculates the national cooperation freshness to investigate the dynamic evolution of the cooperation center. Finally, the regression discontinuity design is used to estimate the impact of the epidemic on national scientific research cooperation. The results show that the outbreak of the epidemic strengthens the scientific research cooperation. Furthermore, China played an important role in the epidemic, especially in the early stage. Although the cooperation center has gradually shifted with the change of the affected areas, China is still an important collaborator. Finally, our work studies the cooperative behavior of countries during the epidemic through regression discontinuity design and finds that the epidemic has been promoting people's ability to cooperate in fighting against disasters. © 2022, Editorial Board of Journal of the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China. All right reserved.

17.
Sustainability (Switzerland) ; 14(18), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2066369

ABSTRACT

As a critical pattern to promote industrial growth and recover the economy, China has widely applied an electricity price-cutting policy, especially after the global spread of COVID-19. However, the current insufficient research indicates a noticeable knowledge gap around the actual outcome of this policy measure. This paper, therefore, aimed at filling this gap by focusing on the case of Zhejiang province. Recently, there have been three main kinds of price-cutting policies employed in Zhejiang, decreasing the general industrial electricity price, temporary electricity price-cutting, and targeted price reduction for large industries. Using a computable general equilibrium model that incorporates the Zhejiang electricity system’s operating characteristics, we simulated the economic impact of these electricity price adjustment policies. The results indicate that it was practical to promote the economy by reducing electricity prices, but the specific arrangements of policy have led to differences in economic stimulus consequences. This paper further obtained the multiplier effect in each industry. If electricity price adjustment policies were introduced only for industries with a higher comprehensive multiplier effect, the policy effectiveness would be further optimized. © 2022 by the authors.

19.
Journal of Chemical Education ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2028631

ABSTRACT

The high demand for N95 and surgical masks made of nonbiodegradable petroleum-based materials due to SARS-CoV-2 challenges the recycling industry and is proving to be unsustainable. Although woven fabric masks present a longer lifetime, they are less effective in protecting against viral particulates. Here, through an at-home course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE), we demonstrate that alginate and soy-based materials are attractive alternatives for mask fabrication: stacking calcium ion-cross-linked alginate films with soy protein isolate sheets enables electrostatic and size-exclusion filtration. State-of-the-art aerosol testing confirmed this conclusion. Furthermore, because our synthetic and at-home analytical approach relies on cheap, abundant, and food-grade materials, and requires no equipment beyond kitchenware, it has the potential to be broadly adopted for practical and educational purposes. © 2022 American Chemical Society and Division of Chemical Education, Inc.

20.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2005703

ABSTRACT

Background: Immune-mediated adverse events (irAEs) can be seen in patients (pts) receiving checkpoint inhibitors (CPI). It is unknown whether the immune response to vaccines against Sars-CoV-2 interacts with the immune activation from CPI therapy. In this retrospective study, we examined the incidence of severe irAEs in pts with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who received vaccines against Sars-CoV-2 during the course of their CPI therapy. Methods: Following IRB approval, RCC pts who received any CPI treatment since FDA authorization of the first COVID-19 vaccine in March 2021 were identified via institutional electronic health record. Pts who received one or more doses of an authorized vaccine within 60 days of CPI treatment were included. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the incidence of severe irAE (defined as one or more of the following: grade 3 AE or above, multi-system involvement, need for hospitalization). Secondary endpoints included time between CPI and vaccination, need for immunosuppressive therapy, and rate of discontinuation. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Sixty-five pts were included in our analysis with a median age of 66 years (IQR: 58.0, 73.0);80% pts were male. At the time of vaccination, 26 pts (40.0%) received CPI monotherapy, 12 pts (18.4%) received combination (combo) CPI therapy, and 27 pts (41.6%) received combo therapy with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) and CPI. The type of vaccine received was Pfizer Bio-NTech in 30 pts (46.2%), Moderna in 33 pts (50.7%), and Johnson and Johnson in 2 pts (3.1%). Six pts received only one vaccination (9.2%), 18 pts received two vaccinations (27.7%), and 40 pts received 3 or more vaccinations (61.5%). Eleven pts (16.9%) experienced severe irAEs following vaccination. Rates of severe irAEs was 3.8% (1/26) with CPI monotherapy, 25% (3/12) with combo CPI, and 25.9% (7/27) with combo CPI and TKI. Severe irAEs occurred after the first vaccine dose in 4 pts (36.4%), second dose in 3 pts (27.3%), and third dose in 4 pts (36.4%) pts. The median time between CPI treatment and vaccination in this group was 11.0 days (IQR: 7.5-15.5). Hospitalization was required for 6 patients (54.5%). Ten pts (90.9%) required immunosuppressive therapy with a median steroid duration of 85.5 days (IQR 36.8, 176.0). Six pts (54.5%) discontinued CPI therapy following severe irAEs. Conclusions: In this retrospective study, the observed rate of severe irAEs in RCC patients who received CPI and COVID-19 vaccine concomitantly was similar to historical controls, suggesting that there is no definite increase in the incidence of severe irAEs in pts undergoing CPI therapy and receiving COVID-19 vaccination. Future confirmatory studies are warranted.

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