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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 861050, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785349

ABSTRACT

It has been reported that multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOCs) including Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta can reduce neutralization by antibodies, resulting in vaccine breakthrough infections. Virus-antiserum neutralization assays are typically performed to monitor potential vaccine breakthrough strains. However, experiment-based methods took several weeks whether newly emerging variants can break through current vaccines or therapeutic antibodies. To address this, we sought to establish a computational model to predict the antigenicity of SARS-CoV-2 variants by sequence alone. In this study, we firstly identified the relationship between the antigenic difference transformed from the amino acid sequence and the antigenic distance from the neutralization titers. Based on this correlation, we obtained a computational model for the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein to predict the fold decrease in virus-antiserum neutralization titers with high accuracy (~0.79). Our predicted results were comparable to experimental neutralization titers of variants, including Alpha, Beta, Delta, Gamma, Epsilon, Iota, Kappa, and Lambda, as well as SARS-CoV. Here, we predicted the fold of decrease of Omicron as 17.4-fold less susceptible to neutralization. We visualized all 1,521 SARS-CoV-2 lineages to indicate variants including Mu, B.1.630, B.1.633, B.1.649, and C.1.2, which can induce vaccine breakthrough infections in addition to reported VOCs Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron. Our study offers a quick approach to predict the antigenicity of SARS-CoV-2 variants as soon as they emerge. Furthermore, this approach can facilitate future vaccine updates to cover all major variants. An online version can be accessed at http://jdlab.online.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immune Sera , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
2.
Buildings ; 12(3):257, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1699222

ABSTRACT

The construction industry is the backbone of most countries, but its carbon emissions are huge and growing rapidly, constraining the achievement of global carbon-peaking and carbon-neutrality goals. China’s carbon emissions are the highest in the world, and the construction industry is the largest contributor. Due to significant differences between provinces in pressure, potential, and motivation to reduce emissions, the “one-size-fits-all”emission reduction policy has failed to achieve the desired results. This paper empirically investigates the spatial and temporal evolution of carbon emissions in China’s construction industry and their decoupling relationship with economic growth relying on GIS tools and decoupling model in an attempt to provide a basis for the formulation of differentiated construction emission reduction policies and plans in China. The study shows that, firstly, the changes in carbon emissions and carbon intensity in the provincial construction industry are becoming increasingly complex, with a variety of types emerging, such as declining, “inverted U-shaped”, growing, “U-shaped”, and smooth fluctuating patterns. Secondly, the coefficient of variation is higher than 0.65 for a long time, indicating high spatial heterogeneity. However, spatial agglomeration and correlation are low, with only a few cluster-like agglomerations formed in the Pearl River Delta, Yangtze River Delta, Bohai Bay, Northeast China, and Loess and Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau regions. Thirdly, most provinces have not reached peak carbon emissions from the construction industry, with 25% having reached peak and being in the plateau stage, respectively. Fourthly, the decoupling relationship between carbon emissions from the construction industry and economic growth, as well as their changes, is increasingly diversified, and most provinces are in a strong and weak decoupling state. Moreover, a growing number of provinces that have achieved decoupling are moving backward to re-coupling, due to the impact of economic transformation and the outbreaks of COVID-19, with the degraded regions increasingly concentrated in the northeast and northwest. Fifthly, we classify China’s 30 provinces into Leader, Intermediate, and Laggard policy zones and further propose differentiated response strategies. In conclusion, studying the trends and patterns of carbon-emission changes in the construction industry in different regions, revealing their spatial differentiation and correlation, and developing a classification management strategy for low carbonized development of the construction industry help significantly improve the reliability, efficiency, and self-adaptability of policy design and implementation.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324595

ABSTRACT

Although perceived stress has been shown to play an important role in insomnia, little is known about the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relation. In particular, the outbreak of COVID-19 has undoubtedly had a significant impact on the physical and mental health of college students. The present study focused on Chinese college students during the COVID-19 pandemic and examined the mediating role of sense of security between perceived stress and insomnia and the moderating role of family cohesion. Chinese college students (N = 1,187) completed the measures of perceived stress, sense of security, insomnia, and family cohesion. The results indicated that perceived stress was significantly and positively associated with insomnia, and sense of security partially mediated this relation. Moderated mediation analysis further indicated that family cohesion moderated the relation between perceived stress and sense of security. This relation became weaker for college students with higher levels of family cohesion. Results highlight the significance of identifying the mechanisms that moderate the mediate paths between perceived stress and college students’ insomnia.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324254

ABSTRACT

Background: Our study aimed to find symptoms unique in pregnancy and to help the early diagnosis in pregnant women and to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 in postpartum women and their newborns. Methods Clinical data were reviewed and collected for 11 pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were consecutively admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University and Women and Children’s Hospital of Hubei Province, from Jan 26 to Feb 26, 2020. Results All the confirmed women didn’t have any exposure history and their early symptoms were mildly elevated temperate and fatigue. The chest CT scans of confirmed women can be atypical manifestations, such as bilateral pleural effusions and slightly increased densities. Eight of eleven confirmed women did not feel anything unusual until abnormalities were found on chest CT scans on admission screening test. All three groups had elevated white blood cell count, neutrophil count and lactate dehydrogenase, and reduced total protein.The infection did not increase the risk for premature delivery, premature rupture of membrane, or comorbidities in pregnancy. Conclusions Pregnant women were often asymptomatic and accidentally detected abnormalities on chest CT scan on admission which emphasize the importance of CT scan in prevalent areas of the COVID-19. Even after the laboratory confirmation, the manifestation of the CT scan could be atypical, which alerted the necessity of protection for healthcare workers. The COVID-19 did not increase the risk of complications in pregnant women and their neonates. Trial registration: This case series was approved by the institutional ethics board of Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University (No. 2020020) and Women and Children’s Hospital of Hubei Province(NO. LW035).

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311700

ABSTRACT

Background: Duodenal perforation is one of the rarer causes of acute abdomen in pregnancy, which is especially easy to be overlooked during the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) after delivery. Case presentation: Here, we report a case of duodenal perforation-induced septic shock with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the patient underwent emergency laparotomy after reporting to the hospital management department under strict protection. Her recovery in postoperative period in Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) was uneventful and she was transferred to a designated hospital for treatment of COVID-19 5 days later. Conclusions: : The establishment of emergency green channel for maternal health care, and timely and comprehensive multidisciplinary cooperation during the epidemic period, strengthen the standardized management of high-risk pregnancy, and better guarantee the safety of mothers and infants.

6.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687056

ABSTRACT

Omicron was designated by the WHO as a VOC on 26 November 2021, only 4 days after its sequence was first submitted. However, the impact of Omicron on current antibodies and vaccines remains unknown and evaluations are still a few weeks away. We analysed the mutations in the Omicron variant against epitopes. In our database, 132 epitopes of the 120 antibodies are classified into five groups, namely NTD, RBD-1, RBD-2, RBD-3, and RBD-4. The Omicron mutations impact all epitopes in NTD, RBD-1, RBD-2, and RBD-3, with no antibody epitopes spared by these mutations. Only four out of 120 antibodies may confer full resistance to mutations in the Omicron spike, since all antibodies in these three groups contain one or more epitopes that are affected by these mutations. Of all antibodies under EUA, the neutralisation potential of Etesevimab, Bamlanivimab, Casirivimab, Imdevima, Cilgavimab, Tixagevimab, Sotrovimab, and Regdanvimab might be dampened to varying degrees. Our analysis suggests the impact of Omicron on current therapeutic antibodies by the Omicron spike mutations may also apply to current COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , Computer Simulation , Mutation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/classification , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Databases, Factual , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/pharmacology , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
7.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med ; 2022: 8733598, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685764

ABSTRACT

Background: Lianhua Qingke (LH) tablets is an effective traditional Chinese medicine against various viral infections, especially in relieving coughing. However, its effects on COVID-19 are unknown. Methods: To examine the therapeutic effectiveness of LH tablets in COVID-19 patients with mild and common types, a randomized, multicenter, controlled study was carried out. COVID-19 cases were randomized to undergo routine treatment with or without LH tablets (4 tablets, three times a day) for 14 days. The primary endpoints were the rate of achieving clinical symptom resolution and the corresponding time. Results: There were 144 participants in the full analysis set (72 each in the LH and control groups). The LH group participants had elevated symptom alleviation rate at 14 days compared with control cases (FAS: 98.61% vs. 84.72%, p = 0.0026). In comparison with control group participants, the LH group participants had reduced median time to clinical symptom alleviation (median: 4 vs. 7 days, p < 0.0001). Higher resolution rates of coughing (98.44% vs. 84.51%, p = 0.0045) and expectoration (100% vs. 82.35%, p = 0.0268) were observed in the LH group. Times to recovery of fever (median: 2 vs. 3 days, p = 0.0007), coughing (median: 4 vs. 7 days, p < 0.0001), and expectoration (median: 3 vs. 6 days, p < 0.0001) were also notably shorter in the LH group. Moreover, the LH group had elevated improvement rates in chest computed tomography signs (FAS: 86.11% vs. 72.22%, p = 0.0402) and clinical cure at day 28 (FAS: 83.33% vs. 68.06%, p = 0.0326). However, no differences were found in the laboratory test and viral assay. Serious adverse events were not detected. Conclusion: These preliminary findings indicate LH tablets may be effective in symptomatic COVID-19, especially in relieving coughing. This trial was registered in Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR2100042069).

8.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-7, 2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684367

ABSTRACT

The present study mainly focused on college students during the COVID-19 outbreak and aimed to develop and examine a moderated mediation model between perceived stress and life satisfaction, with social adaptation during COVID-19 as a mediator, and emotional resilience as a moderator. A sample of 1032 college students participated in this study and completed questionnaires regarding perceived stress, social adaptation during COVID-19, emotional resilience, and life satisfaction. Findings indicated that 1) social adaptation during COVID-19 partially mediated the association between perceived stress and life satisfaction; and 2) emotional resilience moderated the relationship between perceived stress and social adaptation during COVID-19 as well as perceived stress and life satisfaction. These two relationships became stronger for college students with lower levels of emotional resilience. The results were discussed to illuminate the mechanism in relation to theoretical and practical implication for improving college students' life satisfaction during the period of the COVID-19 outbreak.

9.
Int J Ment Health Addict ; : 1-14, 2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676348

ABSTRACT

Despite the increase in proximity to one's family amid university closures during the COVID-19 pandemic, the mechanisms underlying how family cohesion influenced students' sleep remain understudied. Using a large sample of college students in China (N = 1,178) during the COVID-19 pandemic, the current study examined the serial mediating roles of sense of security and perceived stress on the effect of family cohesion on sleep disturbance. Generalized linear modeling serial mediation analysis with 1,000 resampled bootstrapping methods showed that sense of security and perceived stress were negatively and positively associated with sleep disturbance, respectively. Furthermore, sense of security and perceived stress fully mediated the indirect effect of family cohesion on sleep disturbances. Implications and conclusions are discussed.

10.
Nature ; 603(7902): 693-699, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641975

ABSTRACT

The Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant of SARS-CoV-2 emerged in November 2021 and is rapidly spreading among the human population1. Although recent reports reveal that the Omicron variant robustly escapes vaccine-associated and therapeutic neutralization antibodies2-10, the pathogenicity of the virus remains unknown. Here we show that the replication of Omicron is substantially attenuated in human Calu3 and Caco2 cells. Further mechanistic investigations reveal that Omicron is inefficient in its use of transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) compared with wild-type SARS-CoV-2 (HKU-001a) and previous variants, which may explain its reduced replication in Calu3 and Caco2 cells. The replication of Omicron is markedly attenuated in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts of infected K18-hACE2 mice compared with that of the wild-type strain and Delta (B.1.617.2) variant, resulting in its substantially ameliorated lung pathology. Compared with wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and the Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (1.351) and Delta variants, infection by Omicron causes the lowest reduction in body weight and the lowest mortality rate. Overall, our study demonstrates that the replication and pathogenicity of the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 in mice is attenuated compared with the wild-type strain and other variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Replication , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Caco-2 Cells , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virulence
12.
Zool Res ; 42(6): 834-844, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515719

ABSTRACT

Understanding the zoonotic origin and evolution history of SARS-CoV-2 will provide critical insights for alerting and preventing future outbreaks. A significant gap remains for the possible role of pangolins as a reservoir of SARS-CoV-2 related coronaviruses (SC2r-CoVs). Here, we screened SC2r-CoVs in 172 samples from 163 pangolin individuals of four species, and detected positive signals in muscles of four Manis javanica and, for the first time, one M. pentadactyla. Phylogeographic analysis of pangolin mitochondrial DNA traced their origins from Southeast Asia. Using in-solution hybridization capture sequencing, we assembled a partial pangolin SC2r-CoV (pangolin-CoV) genome sequence of 22 895 bp (MP20) from the M. pentadactyla sample. Phylogenetic analyses revealed MP20 was very closely related to pangolin-CoVs that were identified in M. javanica seized by Guangxi Customs. A genetic contribution of bat coronavirus to pangolin-CoVs via recombination was indicated. Our analysis revealed that the genetic diversity of pangolin-CoVs is substantially higher than previously anticipated. Given the potential infectivity of pangolin-CoVs, the high genetic diversity of pangolin-CoVs alerts the ecological risk of zoonotic evolution and transmission of pathogenic SC2r-CoVs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Evolution, Molecular , Pangolins/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , Genome, Viral , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/genetics
13.
EBioMedicine ; 73: 103643, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482542

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wildtype mice are not susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, including B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, and P.3, contain mutations in spike that has been suggested to associate with an increased recognition of mouse ACE2, raising the postulation that these SARS-CoV-2 variants may have evolved to expand species tropism to wildtype mouse and potentially other murines. Our study evaluated this possibility with substantial public health importance. METHODS: We investigated the capacity of wildtype (WT) SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-2 variants in infecting mice (Mus musculus) and rats (Rattus norvegicus) under in vitro and in vivo settings. Susceptibility to infection was evaluated with RT-qPCR, plaque assays, immunohistological stainings, and neutralization assays. FINDINGS: Our results reveal that B.1.1.7 and other N501Y-carrying variants but not WT SARS-CoV-2 can infect wildtype mice. High viral genome copies and high infectious virus particle titres are recovered from the nasal turbinate and lung of B.1.1.7-inocluated mice for 4-to-7 days post infection. In agreement with these observations, robust expression of viral nucleocapsid protein and histopathological changes are detected from the nasal turbinate and lung of B.1.1.7-inocluated mice but not that of the WT SARS-CoV-2-inoculated mice. Similarly, B.1.1.7 readily infects wildtype rats with production of infectious virus particles. INTERPRETATION: Our study provides direct evidence that the SARS-CoV-2 variant, B.1.1.7, as well as other N501Y-carrying variants including B.1.351 and P.3, has gained the capability to expand species tropism to murines and public health measures including stringent murine control should be implemented to facilitate the control of the ongoing pandemic. FUNDING: A full list of funding bodies that contributed to this study can be found in the Acknowledgements section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Tropism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Neutralization Tests , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Turbinates/pathology , Turbinates/virology , Virus Internalization
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 659419, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389180

ABSTRACT

Highly pathogenic virus infections usually trigger cytokine storms, which may have adverse effects on vital organs and result in high mortalities. The two cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ play key roles in the generation and regulation of cytokine storms. However, it is still unclear whether the cytokine with the largest induction amplitude is the same under different virus infections. It is unknown which is the most critical and whether there are any mathematical formulas that can fit the changing rules of cytokines. Three coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2), three influenza viruses (2009H1N1, H5N1 and H7N9), Ebola virus, human immunodeficiency virus, dengue virus, Zika virus, West Nile virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and enterovirus 71 were included in this analysis. We retrieved the cytokine fold change (FC), viral load, and clearance rate data from these highly pathogenic virus infections in humans and analyzed the correlations among them. Our analysis showed that interferon-inducible protein (IP)-10, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17 are the most common cytokines with the largest induction amplitudes. Equations were obtained: the maximum induced cytokine (max) FC = IFN-γ FC × (IFN-γ FC/IL-4 FC) (if IFN-γ FC/IL-4 FC > 1); max FC = IL-4 FC (if IFN-γ FC/IL-4 FC < 1). For IFN-γ-inducible infections, 1.30 × log2 (IFN-γ FC) = log10 (viral load) - 2.48 - 2.83 × (clearance rate). The clinical relevance of cytokines and their antagonists is also discussed.


Subject(s)
Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Models, Immunological , Virus Diseases/complications , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Viral Load/immunology , Virus Diseases/blood , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/virology
15.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(4): 333-336, 2021 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380102

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the infection rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among different populations in Wuhan, China. This cross-sectional survey-based study examined the results of SARS-CoV-2-specific serological tests and RT-PCR tests for 4,454 community residents and 4,614 healthcare workers performed from May 15 to May 29, 2020. The healthcare workers were classified as administrative and logistical staff (n = 1,378), non-first-line healthcare workers (n = 2,630), or first-line healthcare workers (n = 606) according to their frequency of contact with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients. The positive rates of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG, IgM, and RNA were 2.9%, 0.4%, and 0.1% for the community residents and 3.3%, 0.6%, and 0.2% for the healthcare workers, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the rates of the two groups. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that the frequency of contact with COVID-19 patients negatively correlated with the positive rates of RT-PCR (rs = -0.036, P = 0.016), but did not significantly correlate with the positive rates of IgM (rs = -0.006, P = 0.698) or IgG (rs = 0.017, P = 0.239). There was no statistically significant difference between the SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG, IgM, or RNA positive rates of the community residents and those of the healthcare workers. The positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was lower for the first-line healthcare workers than for the non-first-line healthcare workers and the administrative and logistical staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serology/methods
16.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 676914, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359246

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 has grown into a global pandemic. This study investigated the public psychosocial and behavioral responses through different time periods of the pandemic, and assessed whether these changes are different in age, gender, and region. Methods: A three-phase survey was conducted through the DaDui Social Q&A Software for COVID-19. A total of 13,214 effective responses of COVID-19 were collected. Statistical analysis was performed based on their basic information and psychosocial responses. Results: The degree of attention, understanding, and cooperation with preventive and control measures of the disease increased and then decreased. The panic level gradually increased with the epidemic process. The degree of satisfaction with management measures and of confidence in defeating COVID-19 increased throughout the survey. Compared with residents in other areas, respondents from the COVID-19 epicenter (Wuhan) reported a higher degree of self-protection during the outbreak and a significantly lower degree of satisfaction with respect to government prevention and control measures during all phases. Shortages of medical supplies and low testing capacity were reported as the biggest shortcoming in the prevention and control strategies during COVID-19, and an abundance of disorderly and inaccurate information from different sources was the primary cause of panic. Conclusions and Relevance: Major public health events elicit psychosocial and behavioral changes that reflect the different phases of the biologic curve. Sufficient medical supplies and improved organization and accurate information during epidemics may reduce panic and improve compliance with requested changes in behavior. We need to recognize this natural phenomenon and our public policy preparedness should attempt to move the social/psychological curve to the left in order to minimize and flatten the biologic curve.

17.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325607

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread over the world for more than one year. COVID-19 often develops life-threatening hypoxemia. Endothelial injury caused by the viral infection leads to intravascular coagulation and ventilation-perfusion mismatch. However, besides above pathogenic mechanisms, the role of alveolar edema in the disease progression has not been discussed comprehensively. Since the exudation of pulmonary edema fluid was extremely serious in COVID-19 patients, we bring out a hypothesis that severity of alveolar edema may determine the size of poorly-ventilated area and the blood oxygen content. Treatments to pulmonary edema (conservative fluid management, exogenous surfactant replacements and ethanol-oxygen vapor therapy hypothetically) may be greatly helpful for reducing the occurrences of severe cases. Given that late mechanical ventilation may cause mucus (edema fluid) to be blown deep into the small airways, oxygen therapy should be given at the early stages. The optimal time and blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) threshold for oxygen therapy are also discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Edema/pathology , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Humans
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(41): 11434-11448, 2020 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301138

ABSTRACT

The dried fruits of Amomum tsao-ko were first revealed to have hypoglycemic effects on db/db mice at a concentration of 200 mg/kg. In order to clarify the antidiabetic constituents, 19 new flavanol-fatty alcohol hybrids, tsaokoflavanols A-S (1-19), were isolated and determined by extensive spectroscopic data and ECD calculations. Most of the compounds showed α-glucosidase and PTP1B dual inhibition, among which 1, 2, 6, 11, and 18 exhibited obvious activity against α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 5.2-9.0 µM, 20-35 times stronger than that of acarbose (IC50, 180.0 µM); meanwhile, 6, 10-12, and 19 were PTP1B/TCPTP-selective inhibitors with IC50 values of 56.4-80.4 µM, 2-4 times stronger than that of suramin sodium (IC50, 200.5 µM). Enzyme kinetics study indicated that compounds 1, 2, 6, and 11 were α-glucosidase and PTP1B mixed-type inhibitors with Ki values of 13.0, 11.7, 2.9, and 5.3 µM and 142.3, 88.9, 39.2, and 40.8 µM, respectively. Docking simulations proved the importance of hemiacetal hydroxy, the orientation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl, and the length of alkyl in binding with α-glucosidase and PTP1B.


Subject(s)
Amomum/chemistry , Fatty Alcohols/chemistry , Flavanones/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Fatty Alcohols/isolation & purification , Flavanones/isolation & purification , Fruit/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1/chemistry , alpha-Glucosidases/chemistry
19.
Appl Res Qual Life ; : 1-19, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296959

ABSTRACT

The present study mainly focused on college students amidst the COVID-19 outbreak and aimed to develop and examine a moderated mediation model between access to epidemic information and life satisfaction. Friendship quality as a moderator, and perceived stress as a mediator. A sample of 1032 college students participated in this study and completed questionnaires regarding access to epidemic information, perceived stress, friendship quality, and life satisfaction. Findings indicated that 1) access to epidemic information was strongly related to life satisfaction; 2) perceived stress acts as a mediator in the positive relationship between access to epidemic information and life satisfaction; 3) friendship quality moderated the relationship between access to epidemic information and perceived stress as well as perceived stress and life satisfaction, and such that there was a stronger association between access to epidemic information and perceived stress for college students with high friendship quality. But the relationship between perceived stress and life satisfaction became weaker for college students with high friendship quality. The results illuminate the mechanism to theoretical and practical implications for improving college students' life satisfaction during the pandemic.

20.
Jpn J Nurs Sci ; 18(4): e12429, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230163

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Suspected patients with new coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) may suffer from unique mental health problems. However, the shortage of medical personnel and the infectiousness of the disease have challenged traditional psychological interventions. This study investigated the effects of a new WeChat-based psychological intervention on the mental health of suspected NCP patients. METHODS: This study included 48 participants (control group = 24 vs. intervention group = 24). The control group received conventional NCP nursing, and the intervention group received conventional NCP nursing and the WeChat psychological interventions. Participants completed the Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), and Acute Stress Disorder Scale (ASDS) on the day of, and the 14th day after, admission. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups (p > .05) regarding demographic characteristics, education, work status, anxiety, depression, or acute stress disorder on the day of admission (p > .05). On the 14th day after admission, the intervention group showed an improvement in anxiety (p < .05) and a significant improvement in depression and acute stress disorder compared with the control group (p < .01). CONCLUSION: The WeChat-based psychological interventions can have a positive effect on the mental health problems of suspected NCP patients.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Pneumonia , Anxiety/therapy , Humans , Pilot Projects , Psychosocial Intervention
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