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Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; 33(11):1035-1039, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1934808


Objective: To analyze the incidence and epidemic characteristics of local cases infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Yangpu District of Shanghai, China, and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19).

Front Public Health ; 9: 740800, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775894


Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter pollution (APMP) is a global health issue that directly affects the human respiratory system. Thus, we estimated the spatiotemporal trends in the burden of APMP-related respiratory diseases from 1990 to 2019. Methods: Based on the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, data on the burden of APMP-related respiratory diseases were analyzed by age, sex, cause, and location. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to analyze the temporal trends in the burden of different respiratory diseases over the 30 years. Results: Globally, in 2019, APMP contributed the most to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with 695.1 thousand deaths and 15.4 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs); however, the corresponding age-standardized death and DALY rates declined from 1990 to 2019. Similarly, although age-standardized death and DALY rates since 1990 decreased by 24% and 40%, respectively, lower respiratory infections (LRIs) still had the second highest number of deaths and DALYs attributable to APMP. This was followed by tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer, which showed increased age-standardized death and DALY rates during the past 30 years and reached 3.78 deaths per 100,000 persons and 84.22 DALYs per 100,000 persons in 2019. Among children aged < 5 years, LRIs had a huge burden attributable to APMP, whereas for older people, COPD was the leading cause of death and DALYs attributable to APMP. The APMP-related burdens of LRIs and COPD were relatively higher among countries with low and low-middle socio-demographic index (SDI), while countries with high-middle SDI showed the highest burden of TBL cancer attributable to APMP. Conclusions: APMP contributed substantially to the global burden of respiratory diseases, posing a significant threat to human health. Effective actions aimed at air pollution can potentially avoid an increase in the PM2.5-associated disease burden, especially in highly polluted areas.

Air Pollution , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Adult , Aged , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Global Burden of Disease , Humans , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328744


The current global epidemiology of COVID-19 is now characterized by the emergence and rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant on a global scale 1,2 . Despite the variant’s prompt predominance, there remain knowledge gaps in its origin and evolution history 3–6 . Here, we show that Omicron lineage SARS-CoV-2 is characterized by the feature of chimera. It was generated by genomic recombination of two early PANGO lineages of SARS-CoV-2. In the recombination event, strains with medium or high circulating intensity like SARS-CoV-2/human/USA/COR-21-434196/2021 belonging to PANGO lineage BA.1 provided the fundamental genome and served as the major parents, while the rare lineage strains like SARS-CoV-2/human/IRN/Ir-3/2019 belonging to B.35, as the minor parents, hybridized their genomic fractions into the major genomes at position 21593-23118nt. This recombination event results in 22 amino acid residue substitutions for the variant of Omicron, including 16 in the pivotal RBD of the spike protein. These substitutions have led to some subtle variations in the spatial structure and the affinity to hACE2 receptor of the spike protein 7,8 , thereby raising concerns about the effectiveness of available vaccines and antibody therapeutics 9–12 . The global spread and explosive growth of the SARS-CoV-2 in human population increase opportunities for future recombination 13–15 .