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1.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292227

ABSTRACT

International flights have accelerated the global spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Determination of the optimal quarantine period for international travelers is crucial to prevent the local spread caused by imported COVID-19 cases. We performed a retrospective epidemiological study using 491 imported COVID-19 cases in Chengdu, China, to describe the characteristic of the cases and estimate the time from arrival to confirmation for international travelers using nonparametric survival methods. Among the 491 imported COVID-19 cases, 194 (39.5%) were asymptomatic infections. The mean age was 35.6 years (SD=12.1 years) and 83.3% were men. The majority (74.1%) were screened positive for SARS-CoV-2, conducted by Chengdu Customs District, the People’s Republic of China. Asymptomatic cases were younger than presymptomatic or symptomatic cases ( P <0.01). The daily number of imported COVID-19 cases displayed jagged changes. 95% of COVID-19 cases were confirmed by PT-PCR within 14 days (95% CI : 13-15) after arriving in Chengdu. A 14-day quarantine measure can ensure non-infection among international travelers with a 95% probability. Policymakers may consider an extension of the quarantine period to minimize the negative consequences of the COVID-19 confinement and prevent the international spread of COVID-19. Nevertheless, the government should consider the balance between COVID-19 and socioeconomic development, which may cause more serious social and health crises.

2.
Disease Surveillance ; 36(6):587-592, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1395020

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of imported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases detected in Chengdu, Sichuan, and provide scientific basis for the prevention and control of COVID-19.

3.
J Aerosol Sci ; 152: 105693, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392358

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought an unprecedented crisis to the global health sector. When discharging COVID-19 patients in accordance with throat or nasal swab protocols using RT-PCR, the potential risk of reintroducing the infection source to humans and the environment must be resolved. Here, 14 patients including 10 COVID-19 subjects were recruited; exhaled breath condensate (EBC), air samples and surface swabs were collected and analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in four hospitals with applied natural ventilation and disinfection practices in Wuhan. Here we discovered that 22.2% of COVID-19 patients (n = 9), who were ready for hospital discharge based on current guidelines, had SARS-CoV-2 in their exhaled breath (~105 RNA copies/m3). Although fewer surface swabs (3.1%, n = 318) tested positive, medical equipment such as face shield frequently contacted/used by healthcare workers and the work shift floor were contaminated by SARS-CoV-2 (3-8 viruses/cm2). Three of the air samples (n = 44) including those collected using a robot-assisted sampler were detected positive by a digital PCR with a concentration level of 9-219 viruses/m3. RT-PCR diagnosis using throat swab specimens had a failure rate of more than 22% in safely discharging COVID-19 patients who were otherwise still exhaling the SARS-CoV-2 by a rate of estimated ~1400 RNA copies per minute into the air. Direct surface contact might not represent a major transmission route, and lower positive rate of air sample (6.8%) was likely due to natural ventilation (1.6-3.3 m/s) and regular disinfection practices. While there is a critical need for strengthening hospital discharge standards in preventing re-emergence of COVID-19 spread, use of breath sample as a supplement specimen could further guard the hospital discharge to ensure the safety of the public and minimize the pandemic re-emergence risk.

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(17): 11557-11567, 2021 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371582

ABSTRACT

The lockdown due to COVID-19 created a rare opportunity to examine the nonlinear responses of secondary aerosols, which are formed through atmospheric oxidation of gaseous precursors, to intensive precursor emission reductions. Based on unique observational data sets from six supersites in eastern China during 2019-2021, we found that the lockdown caused considerable decreases (32-61%) in different secondary aerosol components in the study region because of similar-degree precursor reductions. However, due to insufficient combustion-related volatile organic compound (VOC) reduction, odd oxygen (Ox = O3 + NO2) concentration, an indicator of the extent of photochemical processing, showed little change and did not promote more decreases in secondary aerosols. We also found that the Chinese provinces and international cities that experienced reduced Ox during the lockdown usually gained a greater simultaneous PM2.5 decrease than other provinces and cities with an increased Ox. Therefore, we argue that strict VOC control in winter, which has been largely ignored so far, is critical in future policies to mitigate winter haze more efficiently by reducing Ox simultaneously.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/prevention & control , China , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Oxygen , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 14(8): 1133-1137, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1342055

ABSTRACT

AIM: To explore the ocular features of corona virus disease (COVID)-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 detection in tears and conjunctival scrapes in non-severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This is a multicenter observational clinical study with no intervention conducted from Jan 25th to March 1st, 2020. Clinical data and samples of tears and conjunctival scraping were collected in consecutive laboratory-confirmed, non-severe COVID-19 patients from three hospitals. COVID-19 virus was analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) kits. RESULTS: Totally 255 laboratory-confirmed, non-severe COVID-19 patients were recruited for ocular manifestation investigation. Of them, 54.9% were females, with a mean age of 49.4y. None of the patients has evidence of uveitis; 11 patients (4.3%) complained of mild asthenopia; 2 (0.8%) had mild conjunctival congestion and serous secretion. Twenty-five of them had performed tears and conjunctival scrape for COVID-19 virus detection, with 4 yield possible positive results in the nucleoprotein gene. One of them were asymptomatic with normal chest CT and positive pharyngeal swab result. CONCLUSION: Ocular manifestations are neither common nor specific in non-severe COVID-19 patients. Meanwhile, COVID-19 virus nucleotides can be detected in the tears and conjunctival scrape samples, warranting further research on the transmissibility by the ocular route.

6.
Geophys Res Lett ; 48(8): e2020GL091591, 2021 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124648

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 lockdown in 2020, large-scale industrial and transportation emissions were reduced, but high PM2.5 concentration still occurred. This study investigated the variation of particle number size distribution during the lockdown, and analyzed the characteristics of new particle formation (NPF) events and its potential impact on haze formation. Through measurement conducted in urban Beijing during the first 3 months of 2020, and comparison with year-over-year data, the decrease of primary Aitken-mode particles was observed. However, frequencies, formation rates and growth rates of NPF events remained stable between 2020 and 2019 in the same period. As a result, >25 nm particles produced by NPF events, would play a more important role in serving as the haze formation "seeds" compared to those produced by primary emissions. This finding emphasizes the significance on the understanding of NPF mechanisms when making pollution mitigation policy in the future.

7.
Macau Journal of Nursing ; 19(2):25-29, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-994110

ABSTRACT

Patients with advanced kidney disease are more susceptible to Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (NPC) infection than other people because of the detrimental immune system with the patients. It is important for health professionals to protect the patients with advanced kidney disease in their daily services. This article describes preventive strategies taken by health professionals in the kidney ward in a hospital in Mianyang, Sichuan, China, including establishment of an executive team, development of dialysis procedures, investigation of admitted patients epidemiology history related to NCP, and training of health professionals. Thanks to the implementation of these measures, together with the overall success of control in Mianyang, no NCP infections were detected among the patients in the ward. While these measures might have been affective during NCP epidemic, they may also be effective to control hospital-associated infections in other circumstances.

8.
Front Psychol ; 11: 582436, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971101

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During the COVID-19 outbreak, many citizens were asked to stay at home in self-quarantine, which can pose a significant challenge with respect to remaining physically active and maintaining mental health. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of inadequate physical activity, anxiety, and depression and to explore the relationship of physical activity with anxiety and depression symptoms among Chinese college students during quarantine. Method: Using a web-based cross-sectional survey, we collected data from 1,396 Chinese college students. Anxiety and depression were assessed with the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), respectively. The data on physical activity were collected by types of physical activity and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF). Results: During the COVID-19 outbreak, about 52.3% of Chinese college students had inadequate physical activity. The rates of anxiety and depression symptoms were 31.0 and 41.8%, respectively. A high level of physical activity (ß = -0.121, P < 0.001) was significantly closely associated with low anxiety, while a moderate (ß = -0.095, P = 0.001), or high (ß = -0.179, P < 0.001) level of physical activity was significantly closely associated with reduced depression after adjusting confounding demographic factors. Moreover, specific types of physical activity, such as stretching and resistance training, were negatively correlated with both anxiety and depression; doing household chores was negatively correlated with depression. Conclusion: Our findings highlight specific levels and types of home-based physical activities that need to be taken into consideration to protect the mental health of college students during the COVID-19 epidemic.

9.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol ; 13(11): 2753-2757, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962127

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has spread around the world and poses a challenge to clinical frontline nursing staff. In the early stage of the epidemic, our hospital responded promptly and added pertinent prevention measures on the basis of the existing fever clinic (FC) to ensure zero infection of medical staff and patients. The experience of the fever screening site establishment, epidemiologic investigation procedure amelioration, and integrated fever management will be introduced in the communication.

10.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 9(9): e1182, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796073

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Asymptomatic and symptomatic patients may transmit severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but their clinical features and immune responses remain largely unclear. We aimed to characterise the clinical features and immune responses of asymptomatic and symptomatic patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Methods: We collected clinical, laboratory and epidemiological records of patients hospitalised in a coronavirus field hospital in Wuhan. We performed qualitative detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) using archived blood samples. Results: Of 214 patients with SARS-CoV-2, 26 (12%) were asymptomatic at hospital admission and during hospitalisation. Most asymptomatic patients were ≤ 60 years (96%) and females (65%) and had few comorbidities (< 16%). Serum levels of white and red blood cells were higher in asymptomatic than in symptomatic patients (P-values < 0.05). During hospitalisation, IgG seroconversion was commonly observed in both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients (85% versus 94%, P-value = 0.07); in contrast, IgM seroconversion was less common in asymptomatic than in symptomatic patients (31% versus 74%, P-value < 0.001). The median time from the first virus-positive screening to IgG or IgM seroconversion was significantly shorter in asymptomatic than in symptomatic patients (median: 7 versus 14 days, P-value < 0.01). Furthermore, IgG/IgM seroconversion rates increased concomitantly with the clearance of SARS-CoV-2 in both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. At the time of virus clearance, IgG/IgM titres and plasma neutralisation capacity were significantly lower in recovered asymptomatic than in recovered symptomatic patients (P-values < 0.01). Conclusion: Asymptomatic and symptomatic patients exhibited different kinetics of IgG/IgM responses to SARS-CoV-2. Asymptomatic patients may transmit SARS-CoV-2, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

11.
Financ Res Lett ; : 101743, 2020 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733850

ABSTRACT

This paper investigates the risk spillover between China's crude oil futures and international crude oil futures by constructing upside and downside VaR connectedness networks. The findings show that China's crude oil futures behave as a net risk receiver in the global crude oil system, in which Brent and WTI play the leading roles in risk transmission in the system. The dynamic results indicate that the risk spillover between Chinese and international crude oil futures presents obvious time-varying characteristics and has risen sharply since the beginning of 2020, induced by the COVID-19 pandemic.

12.
Financ Res Lett ; 36: 101528, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728553

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of coronavirus (COVID-19) has dramatic impacts on financial markets all over the world. It has created an unprecedented level of risk, causing investors to suffer significant loses in a very short period of time. This paper aims to map the general patterns of country-specific risks and systemic risks in the global financial markets. It also analyses the potential consequence of policy interventions, such as the US' decision to implement a zero-percent interest rate and unlimited quantitative easing (QE), and to what extent these policies may introduce further uncertainties into global financial markets.

13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21429, 2020 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696106

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: The COVID-19 cases increased very fast in January and February 2020. The mortality among critically ill patients, especially the elder ones, is relatively high. Considering many patients died of severe inflammation response, it is urgent to develop effective therapeutic strategies for these patients. The human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) have shown good capabilities to modulate the immune response and repair the injured tissue. Therefore, investigating the potential of hUCMSCs to the treatment of COVID-19 critically ill patients is necessary. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 65-year-old woman felt fatigued and had a fever with body temperature of 38.2C, coughed up white foaming sputum. After 1 day, she had chest tightness with SPO2 of 81%, and blood pressure of 160/91 mm Hg. DIAGNOSE: According to the guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus infected pneumonia (Trial 4th Edition), COVID-19 was diagnosed, based on the real-time RT-PCR test of SARS-CoV-2. INTERVENTIONS: After regular treatment for 12 days, the inflammation symptom of the patient was still very severe and the potential side effects of corticosteroid were observed. Then, allogenic hUCMSCs were given 3 times (5 × 10 cells each time) with a 3-day interval, together with thymosin α1 and antibiotics daily injection. OUTCOMES: After these treatments, most of the laboratory indexes and CT images showed remission of the inflammation symptom. The patient was subsequently transferred out of ICU, and the throat swabs test reported negative 4 days later. LESSONS: These results indicated the clinical outcome and good tolerance of allogenic hUCMSCs transfer.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Combined Modality Therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thymalfasin/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
15.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(9): 596, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612190
16.
J Clin Virol ; 128: 104397, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-226251

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. The disease has rapidly spread from Wuhan to other regions. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical manifestations and epidemiological characteristics of patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in Hunan Province in 2020. STUDY DESIGN: From January 19 to February 7, 2020, 33 patients with positive in nucleic acid test of pharyngeal swab were retrospectively collected and analyzed. RESULTS: There are 33 COVID-19 patients (16 male, 17 female), and the median age was 46 years. Nineteen patients (48 %) were associated with a family cluster outbreak. Seventeen patients (52 %) had traveled or lived in Hubei Province. These patients are early mild cases, most common symptoms are fever [23 (70 %)] and cough [13 (39 %)]. Most patients' white blood cell counts are normal, while they manifest as significant reduction in lymphocytes [17/28 (61 %)]. The levels of c-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate suggest a typical viral infection. Procalcitonin did not increase and D-dimer increased slightly. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels have elevated in most patients. CT images of these patients showed bilateral multiple plaques or nodular ground-glass opacities (68.4 %). Fecal nucleic acid results were positive in eight COVID-19 patients accompanied with diarrhea. Tear nucleic acid results were negative in six COVID-19 patients. And four asymptomatic patients were infected with SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical symptoms, laboratory results and imaging reports of patients with COVID-19 in Hunan area are significantly different from those in Wuhan area. For non-Wuhan epidemic areas, more attention should be paid to nucleic acid test results of throat swabs and stools, and it is not easily to diagnose based on clinical symptoms and CT results. Reduced whole blood lymph count can be used as an adjuvant diagnosis of early SARS-CoV-2 infection. Attention should be paid to asymptomatic carriers, which is of great significance for the control of the global epidemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cough/virology , Diarrhea/virology , Feces/virology , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Clin Chim Acta ; 507: 94-97, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is highly infectious and requires early detection, isolation, and treatment. We tried to find some useful information by analyzing the covid-19 screening data, so as to provide help for clinical practice. METHOD: We collected nucleic acid and hematology data from 2510 patients for COVID-19 infection for retrospective analysis. RESULT: COVID-19 and influenza A and B infection rates were 1.3%, 3%, and 3%, respectively. COVID-19 nucleic acid was detected in stool but not in tear samples from 8 positive patients. Among the 32 patients with COVID-19, 15 (47%) and 16 (50%) patients showed decreased lymphocyte count and lymphocyte ratio, 21(66%) and 24(75%) patients showed decreased eosinophil count and eosinophil ratio, and 18 (56%) patients showed increased C-reactive protein. Ten hematological indicators significantly differed in the blood of patients with COVID-19 and those with influenza A and B (P < 0.05). Eighteen hematological indicators significantly differed between patients with COVID-19 and negative patients (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The positive rate of influenza A and B infection was higher than that of COVID-19. When pharyngeal swab collection may cause infection, fecal samples can be examined. Evaluation of pharyngeal swab and fecal samples can improve the positive rate of nucleic acid detection. The COVID-19 can cause some hematological indices changes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Mass Screening/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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