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5.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics ; 22(10):6507-6521, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1848306

ABSTRACT

The canonical view of the northeast Asian anomalous anticyclone (NAAA) is a crucial factor for determining poor air quality (i.e., higher particulate matter, PM2.5 concentrations) in the North China Plain (NCP) on the interannual timescale. However, there is considerable intraseasonal variability in the NAAA in early winter (November–January), and the corresponding mechanism of its impacts on PM2.5 pollution in the NCP is not well understood. Here, we find that the intraseasonal NAAA usually establishes quickly on day 3 prior to its peak day with a duration of 8 d, and its evolution is closely tied to the Rossby wave from upstream (i.e., the North Atlantic). Moreover, we find that the NAAA with a westward tilt might be mainly related to the wavenumbers 3–4. Further results reveal that against this background, the probability of regional PM2.5 pollution for at least 3 d in the NCP is as high as 69 % (80 % at least 2 d) in the Nov–Jan (NDJ) period 2000–2021. In particular, air quality in the NCP tends to deteriorate on day 2 prior to the peak day and reaches a peak on the next day with a life cycle of 4 d. In the course of PM2.5 pollution, a shallower atmospheric boundary layer and stronger surface southerly wind anomaly associated with the NAAA in the NCP appear 1 d earlier than poor air quality, which provides dynamic and thermal conditions for the accumulation of pollutants and finally occurrence of the PM2.5 pollution on the following day. Furthermore, we show that the stagnant air leading to poor air quality is determined by the special structure of temperature in the vertical direction of the NAAA, while weak ventilation conditions might be related to a rapid build-up of the NAAA. The present results quantify the impact of the NAAA on PM2.5 pollution in the NCP on the intraseasonal timescale.

6.
Frontiers in microbiology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837950

ABSTRACT

Canine coronavirus (CCoV) and feline coronavirus (FCoV) are endemic in companion animals. Due to their high mutation rates and tendencies of genome recombination, they pose potential threats to public health. The molecular characteristics and genetic variation of both CCoV and FCoV have been thoroughly studied, but their origin and evolutionary dynamics still require further assessment. In the present study, we applied a comprehensive approach and analyzed the S, M, and N genes of different CCoV/FCoV isolates. Discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and phylogenetic analysis showed that the FCoV sequences from Chinese isolates were closely related to the FCoV clusters in Netherlands, while recombination analysis indicated that of S N-terminal domain (NTD) was the most susceptible region of mutation, and recombination of this region is an important cause of the emergence of new lineages. Natural selection showed that CCoV and FCoV subgenotypes were in selection constraints, and CCoV-IIb was in strong positive selection. Phylodynamics showed that the mean evolution rate of S1 genes of CCoV and FCoV was 1.281 × 10–3 and 1.244 × 10–3 subs/site/year, respectively, and the tMRCA of CCoV and FCoV was about 1901 and 1822, respectively. Taken together, our study centered on tracing the origin of CCoV/FCoV and provided ample insights into the phylogeny and evolution of canine and feline coronaviruses.

8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1126-1134, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774287

ABSTRACT

It is important to know the safety and efficacy of vaccination in immunocompromised people living with HIV (PLWH), but currently, there is limited data on the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines' safety and immune responses in PLWH. In this prospective observational study, 139 PLWH and 120 healthy controls were enrolled and monitored for 21-105 days after a two-dose vaccination. The safety, anti-receptor binding domain IgG (anti-RBD-IgG) and anti-spike-IgG responses, and RBD-specific memory B cell (MBC) responses were evaluated. The overall adverse events within seven days were reported in 12.9% (18/139) of PLWH and 13.3% (16/120) of healthy controls. No serious adverse events occurred in both groups. Overall, the seroprevalence of anti-RBD-IgG in PLWH was significantly decreased (87.1% vs. 99.2%; p<0.001). The geometric mean end-point titer (GMT) of anti-RBD-IgG in PLWH was also reduced, especially in patients with CD4 counts <200 cells/µL, regardless of age, gender, or HIV viral load. GMTs of anti-RBD-IgG in both PLWH and healthy controls declined gradually over time. Similar results were also observed in the anti-spike-IgG response. The frequency of RBD-specific MBCs in PLWH decreased (p<0.05), and then remained stable over time. Lastly, through multivariate analysis, we found the factors that predicted a less robust response to inactivated vaccines in PLWH were a low CD4 count and long time interval after vaccination. In conclusion, inactivated vaccines are well-tolerated in PLWH but with low immunogenicity. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and booster doses should be given priority in PLWH, especially in patients with low CD4 counts.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT05043129..


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
9.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265117, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742021

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the mortality and health care resource use among patients with severe or critical coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) in the first wave of pandemic in China. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the mortality, discharge rate, length of hospital stay, and use of invasive ventilation in severe or critical COVID-19 cases in China. We searched electronic databases for studies from China with no restrictions on language or interventions patients received. We screened records, extracted data and assessed the quality of included studies in duplicate. We performed the meta-analysis using random-effect models through a Bayesian framework. Subgroup analyses were conducted to examine studies by disease severity, study location and patient enrolment start date. We also performed sensitivity analysis using various priors, and assessed between-study heterogeneity and publication bias for the primary outcomes. RESULTS: Out of 6,205 titles and abstracts screened, 500 were reviewed in full text. A total of 42 studies were included in the review, of which 95% were observational studies (n = 40). The pooled 28-day and 14-day mortalities among severe or critical patients were 20.48% (7,136 patients, 95% credible interval (CrI), 13.11 to 30.70) and 10.83% (95% CrI, 6.78 to 16.75), respectively. The mortality declined over time and was higher in patients with critical disease than severe cases (1,235 patients, 45.73%, 95% CrI, 22.79 to 73.52 vs. 3,969 patients, 14.90%, 95% CrI, 4.70 to 39.57) and patients in Hubei compared to those outside Hubei (6,719 patients, 26.62%, 95% CrI, 13.11 to 30.70 vs. 244 patients, 5.88%, 95% CrI 2.03 to 14.11). The length of hospital stay was estimated at 18.48 days (6,847 patients, 95% CrI, 17.59 to 21.21), the 28-day discharge rate was 50.48% (3,645 patients, 95% CrI, 26.47 to 79.53), and the use of invasive ventilation rate was 13.46% (4,108 patients, 95% CrI, 7.61 to 22.31). CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic review and meta-analysis found high mortality among severe and critical COVID-19 cases. Severe or critical COVID-19 cases consumed a large amount of hospital resources during the outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Care , Length of Stay , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Humans , Severity of Illness Index
10.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329792

ABSTRACT

Almost two years since the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak in 2019, and it is still pandemic over the world. SARS-COV-2 continuing to mutate and evolve, which further exacerbated the spread of the epidemic. Omicron variant, as an emerging mutation recently in South Africa, spreaded fastly to other countries worldwide. However, the gene charicterstic of Omicron and the effect on epitopes are still unclear. In this study, we retrieved 800 SARS-CoV-2 full-length sequences from GISAID database on 14 December 2021 (Alpha 110, Beta 101, Gamma 108, Delta 110, Omicron 107, Lambda 98, Mu 101, GH/490R 65). Overall, 1320 amino acid (AA) sites were mutated in these 800 SARS-CoV-2 sequences. Covariant network analysis showed that the covariant network of Omicron variant was significantly different from other variants. Further, 218 of the 1320 AA sites were occurred in the S gene, including 78 high-frequency mutations (>90%). Notably, we identified 25 unique AA mutations in Omicron, which may affect the transmission and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2. Finally, we analyzed the effect of Omicron on epitope peptide. As expected, 64.1% mutations (25/39) of Omicron variants were in epitopes, which was significantly higher than in other variants. These mutations may cause a poor response to vaccines to Omicron variants. In conclusion, Omicron variants, as an emerging mutation, should be alerted for us due that it may lead to poor vaccine response, and more data is needed to evaluate the virulence and vaccines responses to this variants.

12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312645

ABSTRACT

The recent COVID-19 pandemic has become a major threat to human health and well-being. Non-pharmaceutical interventions such as contact tracing solutions are important to contain the spreads of COVID-19-like infectious diseases. However, current contact tracing solutions are fragmented with limited use of sensing technologies and centered on monitoring the interactions between individuals without an analytical framework for evaluating effectiveness. Therefore, we need to first explore generic architecture for contact tracing in the context of today's Internet of Things (IoT) technologies based on a broad range of applicable sensors. A new architecture for IoT based solutions to contact tracing is proposed and its overall effectiveness for disease containment is analyzed based on the traditional epidemiological models with the simulation results. The proposed work aims to provide a framework for assisting future designs and evaluation of IoT-based contact tracing solutions and to enable data-driven collective efforts on combating current and future infectious diseases.

13.
Liver Int ; 42(6): 1287-1296, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The safety and antibody responses of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus infection is still unclear, and exploration in safety and antibody responses of COVID-19 vaccination in CHB patients is significant in clinical practice. METHODS: 362 adult CHB patients and 87 healthy controls at an interval of at least 21 days after a full-course vaccination (21-105 days) were enrolled. Adverse events (AEs) were collected by questionnaire. The antibody profiles at 1, 2 and 3 months were elucidated by determination of anti-spike IgG, anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgG, and RBD-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 blocking antibody. SARS-CoV-2 specific B cells were also analysed. RESULTS: All AEs were mild and self-limiting, and the incidence was similar between CHB patients and controls. Seropositivity rates of three antibodies were similar between CHB patients and healthy controls at 1, 2 and 3 months, but CHB patients had lower titers of three antibodies at 1 month. Compared to healthy controls, HBeAg-positive CHB patients had higher titers of three antibodies at 3 months (all P < .05) and a slower decline in antibody titers. Frequency of RBD-specific B cells was positively correlated with titers of anti-RBD IgG (OR = 1.067, P = .004), while liver cirrhosis, antiviral treatment, levels of HBV DNA, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total bilirubin (TB) were not correlated with titers of anti-RBD IgG. CONCLUSIONS: Inactivated COVID-19 vaccines were well tolerated, and induced effective antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 in CHB patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Respirology ; 27(3): 245, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625589
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488702

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly threatened the health and well-being of humanity. Contact tracing (CT) as an important non-pharmaceutical intervention is essential to containing the spread of such an infectious disease. However, current CT solutions are fragmented with limited use of sensing and computing technologies in a scalable framework. These issues can be well addressed with the use of the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies. Therefore, we need to overview the principle, motivation, and architecture for a generic IoT-based CT system (IoT-CTS). A novel architecture for IoT-CTS solutions is proposed with the consideration of peer-to-peer and object-to-peer contact events, as well as the discussion on key topics, such as an overview of applicable sensors for CT needs arising from the COVID-19 transmission methods. The proposed IoT-CTS architecture aims to holistically utilize essential sensing mechanisms with the analysis of widely adopted privacy-preserving techniques. With the use of generic peer-to-peer and object-to-peer sensors based on proximity and environment sensing mechanisms, the infectious cases with self-directed strategies can be effectively reduced. Some open research directions are presented in the end.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internet of Things , Contact Tracing , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Chinese Journal of Emergency Medicine ; 29(5):629-633, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1319759

ABSTRACT

Objective: To perform a statistical analysis of the ABO blood group distribution of COVID-19 convalescents, and further analyze the ABO blood group distribution in COVID-19 convalescents with different plasma antibody titer against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

18.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ; 59(1): 89-100, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139384

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a significant global event in the history of infectious diseases. The SARS-CoV-2 appears to have originated from bats but is now easily transmissible among humans, primarily through droplet or direct contact. Clinical features of COVID-19 include high fever, cough, and fatigue which may progress to ARDS. Respiratory failure can occur rapidly after this. The primary laboratory findings include lymphopenia and eosinopenia. Elevated D-dimer, procalcitonin, and CRP levels may correlate with disease severity. Imaging findings include ground-glass opacities and patchy consolidation on CT scan. Mortality is higher in patients with hypertension, cardiac disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer, and COPD. Elderly patients are more susceptible to severe disease and death, while children seem to have lower rates of infection and lower mortality. Diagnostic criteria and the identification of persons under investigation have evolved as more data has emerged. However, the approach to diagnosis is still very variable from region to region, country to country, and even among different hospitals in the same city. The importance of a clinical pathway to implement the most effective and relevant diagnostic strategy is of critical importance to establish the control of this virus that is responsible for more and more deaths each day.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Algorithms , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Critical Pathways , Early Diagnosis , Evidence-Based Practice , False Negative Reactions , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Medical History Taking , Pandemics , Patient Isolation , Quarantine , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
Int Rev Immunol ; 41(2): 217-230, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093424

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) triggered by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) erupted in Hubei Province of China in December 2019 and has become a pandemic. Severe COVID-19 patients who suffer from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ dysfunction have high mortality. Several studies have shown that this is closely related to the cytokine release syndrome (CRS), often loosely referred to as cytokine storm. IL-6 is one of the key factors and its level is positively correlated with the severity of the disease. The molecular mechanisms for CRS in COVID-19 are related to the effects of the S-protein and N-protein of the virus and its ability to trigger NF-κB activation by disabling the inhibitory component IκB. This leads to activation of immune cells and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α. Other mechanisms related to IL-6 include its interaction with GM-CSF and interferon responses. The pivotal role of IL-6 makes it a target for therapeutic agents and studies on tocilizumab are already ongoing. Other possible targets of treating CRS in COVID-19 include IL-1ß and TNF-α. Recently, reports of a CRS like illness called multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) in children have surfaced, with a variable presentation which in some cases resembles Kawasaki disease. It is likely that the immunological derangement and cytokine release occurring in COVID-19 cases is variable, or on a spectrum, that can potentially be governed by genetic factors. Currently, there are no approved biological modulators for the treatment of COVID-19, but the urgency of the pandemic has led to numerous clinical trials worldwide. Ultimately, there is great promise that an anti-inflammatory modulator targeting a cytokine storm effect may prove to be very beneficial in reducing morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Morbidity , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
20.
Bioanalysis ; 13(2): 77-88, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1022113

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread globally since its first report and become a worldwide pandemic. In response to the outbreak of COVID-19, Center for Medical Device Evaluation, NMPA (CMDE) initiated emergency review and approval procedures to accelerate the process of reviewing emergent medical products and issued the Key Points of Technical Review for the Registration of SARS-CoV-2 Antigen/Antibody Tests (Key Points) to provide the requirements on the technical review of the tests. With uncontrolled spread and evolution of COVID-19 in the world, continuous prevention and measurements are necessary for fighting this pandemic and SARS-CoV-2 antigen/antibody tests are still urgently needed. This article is an attempt to expand clarification of the Key Points to wider audiences based on current understanding of SARS-CoV-2 to facilitate the development and application of SARS-CoV-2 antigen/antibody tests.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , China , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cross Reactions , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Limit of Detection , Pandemics , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results
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