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1.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294829

ABSTRACT

Passive delivery of antibodies to mucosal sites might be a valuable adjunct to COVID-19 vaccination to prevent infection, treat viral carriage, or block transmission. However, monoclonal IgG antibody therapies, currently used for treatment of severe infections, are unlikely to prove useful in mucosal sites where SARS-CoV-2 resides and replicates in early infection. Here, we investigated the feasibility of producing neutralising monoclonal IgA antibodies against SARS-COV-2. We identified two class-switched mAbs that express well as monomeric and secretory IgA variants with retained antigen binding affinities and increased stability in mucosal secretions compared to their IgG counterparts. SIgAs had stronger virus neutralisation activities than IgG mAbs and were able to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection in an in vivo murine model. Our findings provide a persuasive case for developing recombinant SIgAs for mucosal application as a new tool in the fight against COVID-19.

2.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293301

ABSTRACT

Passive delivery of antibodies to mucosal sites might be a valuable adjunct to COVID-19 vaccination to prevent infection, treat viral carriage, or block transmission. However, monoclonal IgG antibody therapies, currently used for treatment of severe infections, are unlikely to prove useful in mucosal sites where SARS-CoV-2 resides and replicates in early infection. Here, we investigated the feasibility of producing neutralising monoclonal IgA antibodies against SARS-COV-2. We identified two class-switched mAbs that express well as monomeric and secretory IgA variants with retained antigen binding affinities and increased stability in mucosal secretions compared to their IgG counterparts. SIgAs had stronger virus neutralisation activities than IgG mAbs and were able to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection in an in vivo murine model. Our findings provide a persuasive case for developing recombinant SIgAs for mucosal application as a new tool in the fight against COVID-19.

3.
Cell Rep ; 37(3): 109869, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517084

ABSTRACT

The dramatically expanding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) needs multiple effective countermeasures. Neutralizing nanobodies (Nbs) are a potential therapeutic strategy for treating COVID-19. Here, we characterize several receptor binding domain (RBD)-specific Nbs isolated from an Nb library derived from an alpaca immunized with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike glycoprotein (S); among them, three Nbs exhibit picomolar potency against SARS-CoV-2 live virus, pseudotyped viruses, and circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants. To improve their efficacy, various configurations of Nbs are engineered. Nb15-NbH-Nb15, a trimer constituted of three Nbs, is constructed to be bispecific for human serum albumin (HSA) and RBD of SARS-CoV-2. Nb15-NbH-Nb15 exhibits single-digit ng/ml neutralization potency against the wild-type and Delta variants of SARS-CoV-2 with a long half-life in vivo. In addition, we show that intranasal administration of Nb15-NbH-Nb15 provides effective protection for both prophylactic and therapeutic purposes against SARS-CoV-2 infection in transgenic hACE2 mice. Nb15-NbH-Nb15 is a potential candidate for both the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 through respiratory administration.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intranasal , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Bispecific/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Camelids, New World , Epitopes/chemistry , Female , Humans , Kinetics , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Protein Engineering/methods , Serum Albumin, Human/chemistry , Single-Domain Antibodies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-951873

ABSTRACT

We investigated the dynamics of seroconversion in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. During March 29-May 22, 2020, we collected serum samples and associated clinical data from 177 persons in London, UK, who had SARS-CoV-2 infection. We measured IgG against SARS-CoV-2 and compared antibody levels with patient outcomes, demographic information, and laboratory characteristics. We found that 2.0%-8.5% of persons did not seroconvert 3-6 weeks after infection. Persons who seroconverted were older, were more likely to have concurrent conditions, and had higher levels of inflammatory markers. Non-White persons had higher antibody concentrations than those who identified as White; these concentrations did not decline during follow-up. Serologic assay results correlated with disease outcome, race, and other risk factors for severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Serologic assays can be used in surveillance to clarify the duration and protective nature of humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
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