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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2041799

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a particularly transmissible virus that causes a severe respiratory disease known as COVID-19. Safe and effective vaccines are urgently needed to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein elicits most neutralizing antibodies during viral infection and is an ideal antigen for vaccine development. In particular, RBD expressed by E. coli is amenable to low cost and high-yield manufacturability. The adjuvant is necessitated to improve the immunogenicity of RBD. IC28, a TLR5-dependent adjuvant, is a peptide from bacterial flagellin. Mannan is a ligand of TLR-4 or TLR-2 and a polysaccharide adjuvant. Here, IC28 and mannan were both covalently conjugated with RBD from E. coli. The conjugate (RBD-IC28-M) elicited high RBD-specific IgG titers, and a neutralization antibody titer of 201.4. It induced high levels of Th1-type cytokines (IFN-gamma) and Th2-type cytokines (IL-5 and IL-10), along with high antigenicity and no apparent toxicity to the organs. The mouse sera of the RBD-IC28-M group competitively interfered with the interaction of RBD and ACE2. Thus, conjugation with IC28 and mannan additively enhanced the humoral and cellular immunity. Our study was expected to provide the feasibility to develop an affordable, easily scalable, effective vaccine SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.

2.
Current Pharmaceutical Design ; 28(22):1779, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022254
3.
Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University (Medical Sciences) ; 43(5):797-801, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010485

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the clinical features of Omicron and Delta cases, so as to provide scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Methods: The case-control study method was used to retrospectively analyze the clinical data of the Omicron cases admitted to the designated hospital for the treatment of COVID-19 in Xi'an from December 2021 to January 2022. and the Delta cases admitted during the same period were used as the control group. The demographic data, epidemiological history, vaccination status, clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, nucleic acid and antibody levels, and outcomes of patients in the two groups were collected and compared. Results: A total of 21 patients were included in the study, 5 were Omicron patients and 16 were Delta cases. The mean age of the patients in the two groups were (38.20±15.07) and (37.69±10.39) years, respectively.The time interval between the last vaccination and the diagnosis was (145.40±77.92) days and (159.00±99.74) days, respectively. For the initial symptoms, the patients with Omicron were mainly characterized by throat discomfort (3, 60%), cough and sputum (2, 40%), and the patients with Delta were mainly characterized by throat discomfort (5, 31.25%), fatigue (5, 31.25%), cough and sputum (4, 25%). On admission, laboratory tests showed that 60% of Omicron patients had low lymphocytes and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and 50% of patients in the delta group had elevated hemoglobin. The Ct values of ORFlab gene, N gene and E gene with Omicron were lower than those with Delta. And the difference of E gene between the two groups was statistically significant (t=-2.711, P=0.024). IgG antibody levels increased in both groups.The time for nucleic acid to turn negative with Omicron was (28.20±5.89) days, and it was (18.50±7.73) days with Delta, and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (t=2.565, P=0.019). The length of hospitalization with Omicron was (30.60±4.88) days, and that with Delta was (22.13±7.81) days, and the difference was statistically significant (t=2.270, P =0.035). Conclusions: The initial symptoms of Omicron patients are mainly throat discomfort, cough and sputum. The clinical manifestations are generally mild. The nucleic acid test Ct value is lower. The time for nucleic acid to turn negative and the time for hospitalization are longer, and the potential infectiousness is stronger. Those eligible for vaccination should complete the full course of vaccination and booster vaccination as soon as possible. At the same time, the management of "early detection, early reporting, early isolation, and early treatment" should be implemented.

4.
Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University (Medical Sciences) ; 43(5):658-662, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010481

ABSTRACT

In the emergency of the outbreak of COVID-19 in December 2019, Shaanxi Provincial Health Committee mobilized several medical teams from major hospitals in the province, and, by relying on Xi'an Chest Hospital, jointly established an anti COVID-19 consortium to control and eradicate the epidemic in a short time. Information support is an important guarantee for winning this battle. In order to realize the efficient cooperation among multiple medical teams, we have carried out some exploratory and innovative information support services on the basis of the original information system of the chest hospital. In this process, we have gone through some detours. Some compromises were made on some problems that could not be solved in the short term. Finally, in an environment full of uncertainty, a set of information support management system with basically smooth operation was built through rapid trial and error adjustment. The system mainly includes the following aspects: support of the organizational structure and operation process of the anti-epidemic consortium, support for medical collaboration related businesses of multiple medical teams, and support for statistical reports and online meetings. Information support has played a very important role in this action, and this practice has also accumulated experience for us to deal with similar situations in the future.

5.
6th International Conference on Transportation Information and Safety, ICTIS 2021 ; : 1443-1447, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948786

ABSTRACT

Carbon emission is largely reduced during the COVID-19 due to the lockdown. However, the accurate impact in the personal transport sector after the epidemic is still not clear. To accurately measure the travel pattern variation effects on utility factor of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV s) due to COVID-19, travel pattern, charging pattern, and utility factors (UF) are compared in a typical city based on actual travel data before and after the pandemic. The result shows that the number of trips and the daily vehicle kilometers travelled decreased significantly during the pandemic while the average daily travel mileage increased quickly after the pandemic and is only 9% lower than that before the pandemic. Some consumers even travel longer with personal vehicles to avoid possible health risks from public transportation. The electricity utility factor after the pandemic is 0.022 larger compared to that before the pandemic due to the variation of travel patterns, a 60-km-range PHEV has a pre-pandemic standard UF of 0.745 and a post-pandemic standard UF of 0.767. Besides, the actual UF is 15% smaller compared to the standard UF due to the actual charging frequency in reality. © 2021 IEEE.

6.
Journal of Architecture and Planning ; 22(1-2):37-52, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1940174

ABSTRACT

The continuous transfer of knowledge within an industrial cluster is a key element for the cluster to maintain its long-term competitiveness. In recent years, various shocks have occurred frequently, and issues related to the resilience of regional economies and industrial clusters have attracted attention. These shocks may also hinder the transfer of knowledge within industrial clusters, thereby limiting the development of industrial clusters. However, most of the previous studies have focused on economic performance, and little attention has been paid to how knowledge exchanges within the firms in cluster are affected by shocks. Therefore, this study adopted a resilience perspective, examined the evolution of innovation modes and proximity within industrial clusters, and constructed a four-quadrant analytical framework consisting of two types of proximity and two types of innovation modes, respectively. We attempted to examine whether shocks cause the shift of innovation modes and proximity in the four-quadrant analytical framework to fill the aforementioned gap. In order to further explored its connotation and make future policy advice more valuable, this study used the concept of life cycle development of clusters to analyze evolution. We took the Hsinchu Science Park as the research object, and used the global financial crisis in 2008 and the Covid-19 in 2020 as the shocks to compare the change of innovation modes and proximity at different life cycle stage. © 2021, Chung Hua University. All rights reserved.

7.
Medical Imaging 2022: Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment ; 12035, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1901882

ABSTRACT

The Medical Imaging and Data Resource Center (MIDRC) is a multi-institutional effort to accelerate medical imaging machine intelligence research and create a publicly available image repository/commons as well as a sequestered database for performance evaluation and benchmarking of algorithms. After de-identification, approximately 80% of the medical images and associated meta-data will become part of the open repository and 20% will be sequestered and kept separate from the open commons. To ensure that both the public, open dataset and the sequestered dataset are representative of the population available, demographic characteristics across the two datasets must be balanced. Our method uses multidimensional stratified sampling where several demographic variables of interest are sequentially used to separate the data into individual strata, each representing a unique combination of variables. Within each stratum, patients are randomly assigned to the open set (80%) or the sequestered set (20%). Thus, for p variables of interest, the balance of the pdimensional distribution of variable combinations can be controlled. This algorithm was used on an example COVID-19 dataset containing image exams of 4662 patients using the variables of race, age, sex at birth, and ethnicity, each containing 8, 8, 2, and 4 categories, respectively. After stratification of this dataset into the two subsets, resulting distributions of each variable matched the distribution from the original dataset with a maximum percent difference from its original fraction of 0.4%. These results demonstrate that the implemented process of multi-dimensional sequential stratified sampling can partition a large database while maintaining balance across several variables. © 2022 SPIE. All rights reserved.

8.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):152-153, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880804

ABSTRACT

Background: Neurological manifestations are a major complication of sudden acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and likely contribute to symptoms of "long COVID". Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie neuropathogenesis in infection is critical for identifying or developing viable therapeutic strategies. While neurological injury in infection is varied, cerebrovascular disease is seen at a high frequency among patients over 50 years of age. Additionally, microhemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic injury are often described in brain autopsy series of human subjects who died from COVID-19. Here, we report neuropathology in aged SARS-CoV-2 infected non-human primates (NHPs) is consistent with that observed in aged human subjects and provide insight into the underlying cause. Methods: Four adult Rhesus macaques and four African green monkeys were inoculated with the 2019-nCoV/USA-WA1/2020strain of SARS-CoV-2 via a multi-route mucosal or aerosol challenge. Two of each species were included as age-matched controls. Frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and brainstem were interrogated through histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques to identify and characterize the observed pathology. Results: Like humans, pathology was variable but included wide-spread inflammation with nodular lesions, neuronal injury, and microhemorrhages. Neuronal degeneration and apoptosis were confirmed with FluoroJade C and cleaved caspase 3 IHC, which showed foci of positivity, particularly among cerebellar Purkinje cells. This was seen even among infected animals that did not develop severe respiratory disease but was not seen in age-matched controls. Significant upregulation of the alpha subunit of hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF1-α), indicative of tissue hypoxia, was observed in brain of all infected animals, regardless of disease severity. Sparse virus was detected in brain endothelial cells but did not associate with the severity of CNS injury. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 infected NHPs are a viable animal model for advancing our current understanding of infection-associated neuropathogenesis. Upregulation of HIF1-α in brain of infected animals suggests cerebral hypoxia may underlie or contribute to neuroinflammation and neuronal injury/death and may provide some insight into neurological manifestations observed among asymptomatic patients or those only suffering mild disease.

9.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):302-303, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880351

ABSTRACT

Background: The greater Chicagoland area has recorded over 10,000 COVID-related deaths and nearly 600,000 cases since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in March of 2020. SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has continually changed over that time, with some variants evolving to become more transmissible or more resistant to neutralizing antibody responses. Methods: To better understand how viral genetic variation has contributed to differences in COVID-19 pathogenesis and patient outcome, we established a biobank of residual diagnostic samples from adult patients who tested positive for COVID-19 in a PCR-based test at Northwestern Memorial Hospital. Thus far, we have collected samples from 6448 out-patients and 632 in-patients. Of these, we have performed whole genome sequencing and viral load calculations on 1373 samples. Clinical and demographic information, including composite measures of disease severity, were extracted from available electronic health records. These data were assessed for longitudinal patterns and for specific association with viral lineage. Results: We found that the early epidemic in March of 2020 was defined by three distinct lineages reflecting the outbreaks in China (19B/A), Washington state (19B/A.1), and New York state (19A/B.1). By November of 2020, we saw a large increase in the number of confirmed cases, dominated by the 20G clade. This lineage remained predominant until March of 2021, when the Alpha and Gamma variants of concern became more established. These were recently supplanted by the Delta variant, which now accounts for over 90% of Chicago cases. At the height of the pandemic in November of 2020, case counts peaked at over 5000 cases per day, but hospitalizations, ICU admissions, and deaths over this period remained flat. Statistical testing revealed that the predominant clade at that time, 20G, was associated with better outcomes and less severe disease as measured by clinical measures of patient deterioration, even when controlling for patient demographics. These results suggest that a viral variant associated with less severe disease was predominant in late 2020 before the emergence of the more transmissible variants of concern. Conclusion: Current work is being done to determine if the less severe outcomes associated with this clade also contributed to more asymptomatic transmission, potentially contributing to the high case counts recorded over this period. These data emphasize the need for continued genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 to character.

10.
Chinese Journal of Disease Control and Prevention ; 26(3):343-346 and 356, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822640

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the utilization of HIV testing services and related influencing factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) on COVID-19. Methods From September to November 2020, an electronic questionnaire survey was conducted on MSM in the AIDS Vct of Longhua CDC and the Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen, The rank sum test was used to compare the changes in the utilization of HIV testing services in different situations of various factors, and ordinal multinomial logistic regression model was established to analyze the influencing factors of the utilization of HIV testing services. Results A total of 30.4% MSM were reported reduction in the use of HIV testing services. Logistic regression analysis showed that highly panic of COVID-19 reducing the frequency of anal sex (OR=0.056, 95% CI: 0.021-0.150, P < 0.001), being advised not going to testing agency (OR=0.538, 95% CI: 0.297-0.975, P=0.041), and being infected of COVID-19 (OR=21.979, 95% CI: 4.369-110.559, P < 0.001) had higher chance of reduction in the used of HIV testing services. Conclusion The HIV testing service utilization is decreased in MSM during COVID-19. It is necessary to pay more attention to this convenience when formulating and implementing epidemic prevention and control measures.

11.
Atmosphere ; 13(4):18, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820162

ABSTRACT

Studies on droplet transmission are needed to understand the infection mechanism of SARS-CoV-2. This research investigated the effects of coughing intensity and wind direction on respiratory droplets transportation using the Euler-Lagrange method. The results revealed that both coughing intensity and wind conditions considerably influence the transmission of small and medium droplets but had little effect on large droplets. A stronger coughing intensity resulted in small and medium droplets traveling farther in a calm wind and spreading widely and rapidly in a windy environment. The droplets do not travel far in the absence of ambient wind, even with stronger coughing. Medium droplets spread in clusters, and small droplets drifted out of the domain in the band area in different wind conditions except for 60 degrees and 90 degrees wind directions, in which cases, the droplets were blown directly downstream. In 0 degrees wind direction, many droplets were deposited on the human body. The fast and upward movement of particles in 60 degrees and 90 degrees directions could cause infection risk with short exposure. In 180 degrees wind direction, droplets spread widely and traveled slowly because of the reverse flow downstream, prolonged exposure can result in a high risk of infection.

12.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has quickly spread across countries and become a global crisis. However, one of the most important clinical characteristics in epidemiology, the distribution of the incubation period, remains unclear. Different estimates of the incubation period of COVID-19 were reported in recent published studies, but all have their own limitations. In this study, we propose a novel low-cost and accurate method to estimate the incubation distribution. METHODS: We have conducted a cross-sectional and forward follow-up study by identifying those asymptomatic individuals at their time of departure from Wuhan and then following them until their symptoms developed. The renewal process is hence adopted by considering the incubation period as a renewal and the duration between departure and symptom onset as a forward recurrence time. Under mild assumptions, the observations of selected forward times can be used to consistently estimate the parameters in the distribution of the incubation period. Such a method enhances the accuracy of estimation by reducing recall bias and utilizing the abundant and readily available forward time data. FINDINGS: The estimated distribution of forward time fits the observations in the collected data well. The estimated median of incubation period is 8.13 days (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.37-8.91), the mean is 8.62 days (95% CI: 8.02-9.28), the 90th percentile is 14.65 days (95% CI: 14.00-15.26), and the 99th percentile is 20.59 days (95% CI: 19.47, 21.62). Compared with results in other studies, the incubation period estimated in this study is longer. INTERPRETATION: Based on the estimated incubation distribution in this study, about 10% of patients with COVID-19 would not develop symptoms until 14 days after infection. Further study of the incubation distribution is warranted to directly estimate the proportion with long incubation periods.

13.
Journal of Environmental Sciences (China) ; 125:603-615, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1783484

ABSTRACT

Wuhan Tianhe International Airport (WUH) was suspended to contain the spread of COVID-19, while Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport (SHA) saw a tremendous flight reduction. Closure of a major international airport is extremely rare and thus represents a unique opportunity to straightforwardly observe the impact of airport emissions on local air quality. In this study, a series of statistical tools were applied to analyze the variations in air pollutant levels in the vicinity of WUH and SHA. The results of bivariate polar plots show that airport SHA and WUH are a major source of nitrogen oxides. NOx, NO2 and NO diminished by 55.8%, 44.1%, 76.9%, and 40.4%, 33.3% and 59.4% during the COVID-19 lockdown compared to those in the same period of 2018 and 2019, under a reduction in aircraft activities by 58.6% and 61.4%. The concentration of NO2, SO2 and PM2.5 decreased by 77.3%, 8.2%, 29.5%, right after the closure of airport WUH on 23 January 2020. The average concentrations of NO, NO2 and NOx scatter plots at downwind of SHA after the lockdown were 78.0%, 47.9%, 57.4% and 62.3%, 34.8%, 41.8% lower than those during the same period in 2018 and 2019. However, a significant increase in O3 levels by 50.0% and 25.9% at WUH and SHA was observed, respectively. These results evidently show decreased nitrogen oxides concentrations in the airport vicinity due to reduced aircraft activities, while amplified O3 pollution due to a lower titration by NO under strong reduction in NOx emissions. © 2022

14.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons ; 233(5):S99-S99, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1535770
15.
5th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Virtual Reality, AIVR 2021 ; : 118-122, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1528581

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we look at a database of tweets sorted by various keywords that could indicate the users' sentiment towards covid vaccines. With social media becoming such a prevalent source of opinion, sorting and ranking tweets that hold important information such as opinions on covid vaccines is of utmost importance. Two different ranking scales were used, and ranking a tweet in this way could represent the difference between an opinion being lost and an opinion being featured on the site, which affects the decisions and behavior of people, and why researchers were interested in it. Using natural language processing techniques, our aim is to determine and categorize opinions about covid vaccines with the highest accuracy possible. © 2021 ACM.

16.
Chinese Journal of Radiology (China) ; 55(10):1054-1058, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1472444

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate high resolution CT (HRCT) manifestations and clinical features of patients infected with the novel coronavirus B.1.617.2 variant. Methods: A total of 125 patients with the novel coronavirus B.1.617.2 variant in Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital from May 21 to June 9, 2021 was enrolled. There were 52 males and 73 females, aged from 1 to 92 years old with a median age of 47 year. The clinical features and HRCT characteristics were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Of the 125 patients, the main clinical manifestations were fever in 54 patients, cough in 50 patients, pharyngeal discomfort in 39 patients, and diarrhea in 5 patients. HRCT showed pneumonia in 96 cases, which predominantly had ground-glass opacities in 92 cases, ground-glass opacities combined with local consolidation in 22 cases, consolidation in 11 cases, intralobular interstitial thickening in 51 cases, centrilobular structural thickening in 23 cases, and cord-like lesions in 33 cases. One patient had pleural effusion, and no enlarged lymph nodes were observed in all patients. The lesions were distributed in the subpleural and/or peripheral lung in 96 cases and along the bronchovascular bundle (middle and inner zone) in 24 cases. The time interval from onset to positive HRCT was 3 (1, 4) days in 96 patients with pneumonia on HRCT. HRCT showed absorption after the imaging findings reaching the peak in 20 patients, and the time interval between the first positive HRCT findings and the peak imaging was 6 (3, 7) days in these 20 patients. Conclusions: The novel coronavirus B.1.617.2 variant has a strong infectivity, short viral latency. Lung injury is decreaseel. People of all ages are susceptible and the diseasemay have rapid pnegression. HRCT mainly shows ground glass opacities, which are more common in subpleural and/or in the lung periphery, with interlobular thickening.

18.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons ; 233(5):S99, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1466547

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Previous studies report high rates of postoperative morbidity and mortality among COVID-19 patients. With routine preoperative screening, we are identifying an increasing number of patients with asymptomatic and mild COVID-19. Our objective was to determine the risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality among patients with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19. Methods: A multicenter, retrospective study of patients with asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection (severity definitions developed by Chinese CDC), diagnosed within 8 days of surgery from March 2020 to February 2021. Primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included pulmonary and thromboembolic complications. Results: Study cohort consisted of 54 patients. Median age was 50y (interquartile range [IQR] 37.5-62.5y), median BMI was 28.8 kg/m2 (IQR 23.5-31.3kg/m2), and 67.3% had no comorbidities. SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected preoperatively in 75%, and 26.7% had lung infiltrates seen on admission imaging. Before admission, 92.3% of patients were asymptomatic, and 7.7% had mild COVID-19 symptoms. Of the procedures, 40.3% were general surgery and 21.2% orthopaedic, the remaining 38.5% were subspecialties. General anesthesia was used in 86.5% of cases and laparoscopy was used in 25%. Overall mortality was 0%. Overall rates of postoperative pulmonary and thromboembolic complications were 9.6% and 1.9%, respectively. New COVID-19 symptoms developed in 19.2% of patients postoperatively. [Formula presented] Conclusion: Postoperative complications and overall mortality appear low in patients with asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 diagnosed in the perioperative period. This suggests surgery can still be considered in these cases when the risks involved with nonoperative management may exceed the risk associated with asymptomatic and mild COVID-19.

19.
Scientia Sinica Mathematica ; 51(8):1267-1278, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1456045

ABSTRACT

This paper introduces some kinds of nonlinear growth curves for forecasting cumulative COVID-19 patients. It is shown that the Richards curve is reasonable and flexible in this COVID-19 forecasting. The nonlinear growth curve regression model is established for forecasting cumulative COVID-19 patients and the parameter estimation approach for the model is also given. Specifically, the COVID-19 situation forecasting in China is made well which includes forecasting based on consecutive and piecewise time fitting. It provides a good basis for the future work. © 2021, Science China Press. All right reserved.

20.
J Hosp Infect ; 110: 172-177, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studying the spatiotemporal distribution of SARS-CoV-2 infections among healthcare workers (HCWs) can aid in protecting them from exposure. AIM: To describe the spatiotemporal distributions of SARS-CoV-2 infections among HCWs in Wuhan, China. METHODS: In this study, an open-source dataset of HCW diagnoses was provided. A geographical detector technique was then used to investigate the impacts of hospital level, type, distance from the infection source, and other external indicators of HCW infections. FINDINGS: The number of daily HCW infections over time in Wuhan followed a log-normal distribution, with its mean observed on January 23rd, 2020, and a standard deviation of 10.8 days. The implementation of high-impact measures, such as the lockdown of the city, may have increased the probability of HCW infections in the short term, especially for those in the outer ring of Wuhan. The infection of HCWs in Wuhan exhibited clear spatial heterogeneity. The number of HCW infections was higher in the central city and lower in the outer city. CONCLUSION: HCW infections displayed significant spatial autocorrelation and dependence. Factor analysis revealed that hospital level and type had an even greater impact on HCW infections; third-class and general hospitals closer to infection sources were correlated with especially high risks of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Adult , China/epidemiology , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
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