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2.
J Informetr ; 16(2): 101295, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819551

ABSTRACT

Based on publication data on coronavirus-related fields, this study applies a difference in differences approach to explore the evolution of gender inequalities before and during the COVID-19 pandemic by comparing the differences in the numbers and shares of authorships, leadership in publications, gender composition of collaboration, and scientific impacts. We find that, during the pandemic: (1) females' leadership in publications as the first author was negatively affected; (2) although both females and males published more papers relative to the pre-pandemic period, the gender gaps in the share of authorships have been strengthened due to the larger increase in males' authorships; (3) the share of publications by mixed-gender collaboration declined; (4) papers by teams in which females play a key role were less cited in the pre-pandemic period, and this citation disadvantage was exacerbated during the pandemic; and (5) gender inequalities regarding authorships and collaboration were enhanced in the initial stage of COVID-19, widened with the increasing severity of COVID-19, and returned to the pre-pandemic level in September 2020. This study shows that females' lower participation in teams as major contributors and less collaboration with their male colleagues also reflect their underrepresentation in science in the pandemic period. This investigation significantly deepens our understanding of how the pandemic influenced academia, based on which science policies and gender policy changes are proposed to mitigate the gender gaps.

3.
Front Psychol ; 13: 861903, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809585

ABSTRACT

Online health communities (OHCs) have enjoyed increasing popularity in recent years, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, several concerns have been raised regarding the privacy of users' personal information in OHCs. Considering that OHCs are a type of data-sharing or data-driven platform, it is crucial to determine whether users' health information privacy concerns influence their behaviors in OHCs. Thus, by conducting a survey, this study explores the impact of users' health information privacy concerns on their engagement and payment behavior (Paid) in OHCs. The empirical results show that users' concerns about health information privacy reduce their Paid in OHCs by negatively influencing their OHC engagement. Further analysis reveals that if users have higher benefit appraisals (i.e., perceived informational and emotional support from OHCs) and lower threat appraisals (i.e., perceived severity and vulnerability of information disclosure from OHCs), the negative effect of health information privacy concerns on users' OHC engagement will decrease.

4.
Midwifery ; 109: 103316, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747679

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the lived experiences of informal caregivers for pregnant women seeking scheduled antenatal care during the early stage of China's COVID-19 lockdown and potential measures to address the challenges. DESIGN: This is a phenomenological qualitative study. SETTING: The study was carried out in a leading teaching hospital in Southwest China. PARTICIPANTS: We recruited 15 informal caregivers for healthy pregnant women on routine antenatal visits about six months after China launched the city-wide lockdown and other control measures for COVID-19, including 10 males and 5 females with diverse demographic backgrounds. MEASURES AND FINDINGS: The research team developed a demographic form and an interview outline with key questions, conducted semi-structured interviews with the informal caregivers, and analyzed the data using the Colazzie's method. Five themes of lived experiences were revealed, i.e., increased caregiving burdens, disruption of routines in family life, lack of accurate information and knowledge, active role adjustment, and positive attitudes and coping in a difficult time. Some caregivers reacted positively to the lockdown experience and saw it as an opportunity to rethink their lives and improve family relations. KEY CONCLUSIONS: The informal caregivers experienced increased physical and psychological burdens. Strategies such as adoption of a less frequent prenatal visit schedule, use of tele-medicine technologies, and provision of accurate information and knowledge may help to ease the increased informal caregiving burdens. Psychological counseling, community services and disaster response policies specially targeting pregnant women and their informal caregivers may also be valuable resources. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Attention should be drawn to the group of informal caregivers for pregnant women during a COVID-19 lockdown, including professional assistance delivered by nursing and other related professionals. Measures are called for to minimize exposure opportunities such as adoption of a new prenatal care schedule and tele-medicine technologies. Patient education with reliable information should be provided, preferably by nursing staff and physicians. Social support efforts including professional mental counseling may added and work with other resources such as community services and policy makers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caregivers , Caregivers/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prenatal Care
5.
World J Pediatr ; 18(5): 343-349, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of 66 pediatric patients with B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Sixty-six pediatric patients with B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of COVID-19 admitted to the hospital from July to August 2021 were classified into mild (n = 41) and moderate groups (n = 25). Clinical characteristics, laboratory data and dynamic trends in different time periods were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in age, gender ratios and clinical symptoms between the mild group and the moderate group. All the patients in the moderate group had clusters of onsets, and the incubation period was shorter than that of the mild group. Within 24 hours of admission, the levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, cardiac troponin I, D-dimer in the moderate group were higher than that in the mild group (P < 0.05). The titers of immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM antibodies gradually increased after disease onset. Thirty-five (53.03%) children were tested positive for antibodies in 4-12 days. IgG increased gradually, while IgM decreased obviously in about 15 days after disease onset. The cycle threshold values of open reading frame 1ab and nucleocapsid protein gene in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 genomes increased gradually on the 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th days after disease onset, compared with those in day 0. CONCLUSIONS: The symptoms of children with B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of COVID-19 were mild. The description and analysis of the clinical characteristics and laboratory data can help medical staff to evaluate the condition of children with COVID-19 and to accumulate more clinical experience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Mathematics ; 10(5):770, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1736979

ABSTRACT

Countries’ economic policies, such as tariff barriers, have a profound impact on the global economy and international trade. The imposition of tariffs seriously disturbs the global trade and supply chain operations. This paper studies a supply chain composed of an overseas manufacturer, a domestic supplier and a third-party integrated international logistics service provider. A three-level decentralized leader-follower decision-making model and its variant--leader-follower alliance decision-making models are established, and the influences of revenue sharing and cost sharing on the three-level decentralized decision-making are analyzed. The results show that it is difficult for the supply chain to achieve coordination when the transportation and insurance costs are considered in the tariff cost. The increase of tariff rates will reduce the profits of all parties and the overall profit of the supply chain, and weaken the dominant position of the supplier in the supply chain. Revenue sharing can improve the supply chain performance;the performance of the whole supply chain cannot be improved or may even deteriorate by sharing the transportation cost alone. The study can provide practitioners with implications for how to carry effective cooperation and coordination in the supply chain and how to effectively reduce the influence of tariffs in the global trade system.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325195

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a globally emerging infectious disease. As the global epidemic continues to spread, the risk of COVID-19 transmission and diffusion in the world will also remain. Currently, several studies describing its clinical characteristics have focused on the initial outbreak, but rarely to the later stage. Here we described clinical characteristics, risk factors for disease severity and in-hospital outcome in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia from Wuhan. Methods: : Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology from February 13 to March 8, 2020, were retrospectively enrolled. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for disease severity and in-hospital outcome and establish predictive models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the predictive value of above models. Results: : 106 (61.3%) of the patients were female. The mean age of study populations was 62.0 years, of whom 73 (42.2%) had underlying comorbidities mainly including hypertension (24.9%). The most common symptoms on admission were fever (67.6%) and cough (60.1%), digestive symptoms (22.0%) was also very common. Older age (OR: 3.420;95%Cl: 1.415-8.266;P=0.006), diarrhea (OR: 0.143;95%Cl: 0.033-0.611;P=0.009) and lymphopenia (OR: 4.769;95%Cl: 2.019-11.266;P=0.000) were associated with severe illness on admission;the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of predictive model were 0.860 (95%CI: 0.802-0.918;P=0.000). Older age (OR: 0.309;95%Cl: 0.142-0.674;P=0.003), leucopenia (OR: 0.165;95%Cl: 0.034-0.793;P=0.025), increased lactic dehydrogenase (OR: 0.257;95%Cl: 0.100-0.659;P=0.005) and interleukins-6 levels (OR: 0.294;95%Cl: 0.099-0.872;P=0.027) were associated with poor in-hospital outcome;AUC of predictive model were 0.752 (95%CI: 0.681-0.824;P=0.000). Conclusion: Older patients with diarrhea and lymphopenia need early identification and timely intervention to prevent the progression to severe COVID-19 pneumonia. However, older patients with leucopenia, increased lactic dehydrogenase and interleukins-6 levels are at a high risk for poor in-hospital outcome. Trial registration: ChiCTR2000029549

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323550

ABSTRACT

Herein we presented a novel, rapid and amplification-free SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection system based on hybrid capture fluorescence immunoassay (HC-FIA) technology. The usage of the monoclonal antibody S9.6 in recognizing DNA-RNA double-stranded hybrids enabled the conversion of nucleic acid testing into immunofluorescence carrying on a simple lateral flow dipstick. The established HC-FIA also exhibited satisfactory sensitivity, specificity and great robustness. The clinical evaluation of HC-FIA kit and fluorescence reading device are further processed in three hospitals independently. The results of 734 samples from 670 subjects indicated high consistency between our HC-FIA and quantitative polymerase chain reaction based commercially available kit or clinical diagnosis according to Kappa statistics. Altogether, HC-FIA related method and commercial test kit show unparalleled advantages as time saving, amplification-free, high throughput and portable POCT molecular diagnosis, which facilitates its application as on-site Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid detection in epidemic prevention and control worldwide, especially during the outbreak.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312658

ABSTRACT

Background: To evaluate the evidence behind claims that Chinese Herbal Medicine, specifically “three medicines and three formulations” (3M3F, comprising Jinhua Qinggan, Lianhua Qingwen, Xuebijing, Qingfei Paidu, Huashi Baidu and Xuanfei Baidu), is an effective treatment for COVID-19. Methods: : We searched PubMed, MEDLINE and CNKI databases, preprint servers, clinical trial registries and supplementary sources for Chinese- or English-language randomised trials or non-randomised studies with comparator groups, which tested the constituents of 3M3F in the treatment of COVID-19 up to September 2020. Primary outcome was change in disease severity. Secondary outcomes included various symptoms. Meta-analysis (using generic inverse variance random effects model) was performed when there were two or more studies reporting on the same symptom. Results: : Of 607 articles identified, thirteen primary studies (six RCTs and seven retrospective non-randomised comparative studies) with 1467 participants met our final inclusion criteria. Studies were small and had significant methodological limitations, most notably potential bias in assessment of outcomes. No study convincingly demonstrated a statistically significant impact on change in disease severity. Eight studies reported sufficiently similar secondary outcomes to be included in a meta-analysis. Some statistically significant impacts on symptoms, chest CT manifestations, laboratory variables and length of stay were demonstrated, but such findings were sparse and many remain unreplicated. Conclusions: : These findings neither support nor refute the claim that 3M3F alters the severity of COVID-19 or alleviates symptoms. More rigorous studies are required to properly ascertain the potential role of Chinese Herbal Medicine in COVID-19. Systematic review registration: This review was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020187502) prior to data collection and analysis.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312501

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread throughout the world and caused hundreds of thousands of infected people to death. However, the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS COV-2) is poorly understood. The objective of this study is to retrospectively explore the pathogenesis of COVID-19 from clinical laboratory findings, taking disease progression into account. Methods: A single-centered, retrospective study was carried out, which included moderate (n=76) and severe COVID-19 cases (n=22). The difference of laboratory findings from blood routine examination and hepatorenal function test were retrospectively evaluated between the state of moderate and severe. The disease progression was indicated by oxygenation index. Results: Age is a risk factor for disease progression from moderate to severe. Lymphocytopenia, neutrophilia, liver and kidney function decreasement occurred in severe patients on admission, compared with moderate patients. Lymphocytopenia and neutrophilia deteriorated at the lowest oxygenation index timepoint in the severe patients. And the oxygenation index was associated with ratio of lymphocyte and neutrophil in COVID-19 patients. Conclusions: Lymphocytopenia and neutrophilia, which deteriorate in the progression of severe patients, are the main pathogenesis of COVID-19. More measures need to be taken to control lymphocytopenia and neutrophilia in severe COVID-19. Oxygenation index presented potentiality as predictor on the progression of COVID-19.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311108

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has resulted in a worldwide pandemic, leading to "lockdown" policies and social distancing. The pandemic has profoundly changed the world. Traditional methods for observing these historical events are difficult because sending reporters to areas with many infected people can put the reporters' lives in danger. New technologies are needed for safely observing responses to these policies. This paper reports using thousands of network cameras deployed worldwide for the purpose of witnessing activities in response to the policies. The network cameras can continuously provide real-time visual data (image and video) without human efforts. Thus, network cameras can be utilized to observe activities without risking the lives of reporters. This paper describes a project that uses network cameras to observe responses to governments' policies during the COVID-19 pandemic (March to April in 2020). The project discovers over 30,000 network cameras deployed in 110 countries. A set of computer tools are created to collect visual data from network cameras continuously during the pandemic. This paper describes the methods to discover network cameras on the Internet, the methods to collect and manage data, and preliminary results of data analysis. This project can be the foundation for observing the possible "second wave" in fall 2020. The data may be used for post-pandemic analysis by sociologists, public health experts, and meteorologists.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315937

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in January 2020, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been fully and deeply involved in the treatment of COVID-19 in China. An increasing number of clinical trials has been registered to evaluate the effects of TCM in the prevention and therapeutic management of COVID-19. Objective: This study aims to review the existing TCM registered trials, identify promising and available TCM therapies, in order to provide reference for the global management of COVID-19. Methods: : All clinical trials on TCM for COVID-19 registered in eight registry platforms worldwide were searched up to May 14, 2020. The data of registration trend, design, objective, interventions, current status, and relevant information were reviewed and summarized. Supportive information on the progress, results and potential value of the included registered trials were searched and reviewed from databases and official websites. Results: : 161 TCM trials registered in three registries from January 26 to May 14 were included. 94 (58.4%) were randomized controlled trials, followed by controlled clinical trials (25, 15.5%), single-arm clinical studies (18, 11.2%) and others (24, 14.9%). 114 trials (70.8%) assessed therapeutic effects;while the remaining were for prevention, rehabilitation, and TCM syndrome epidemiology. The three most evaluated TCM interventions were Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the preparation forms of formulae decoction/granule (41.7%), Chinese patent medicine (24.8%) and Chinese herbal-derived injections (8.1%). The common outcomes in therapeutic trials were symptoms and signs (65.8%), time to viral clearance on PCR (50.9%), and improvement in CT images (43.9%). 78 trials (48.4%) had started recruiting and six trials (3.7%) had completed recruiting. Among the TCM interventions identified from the registered trials, the following are worthy of attention and may have the potential feasibility of being evaluated and then used worldwide due to their rigorous design, previous evidence and availability: for prevention in high-risk populations or suspected cases, moxibustion, Huoxiang Zhengqi pill and Jinye Baidu granule could be considered;for treatment, Qingfei Paidu decoction or granules in mild, moderate and severe cases, Huashi Baidu decoction, Lianhua Qingwen caplsule, Toujie Quwen granule and Xiyanping injection in mild and moderate cases, and Xuebijing injection in severe cases could be considered. For rehabilitation of cured patients, the effect of Tai Chi and Liuzijue on the patients’ lung function and quality of life deserves attention. Conclusion: A series of promising potentially effective TCM interventions including CHM formulae, Chinese patent medicines, herbal-derived injections and non-drug therapies have been identified in clinical practice and are being evaluated by registered clinical trials. Available and applicable interventions within relevant trials are worthy of worldwide attention and application, in order to contribute to the global management of COVID-19 epidemic.

13.
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine ; : 100049, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1620970

ABSTRACT

A B S T R A C T Ethnopharmacological relevance Several studies have confirmed that intestinal microflora dysbiosis correlates with the severity of COVID-19 patients. Clinical meta-analysis and our data show that the circulating miRNAs like miRNA-146 and the levels of serum cytokines in the peripheral blood are closely related to mild to moderate COVID-19 patients. Despite the widespread use of traditional herbal medicine for COVID-19 in China, the mechanisms remain largely uncovered. Aim of the study We conducted an observational case-control study to verify the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese herbal medicine Qushi Jianpi Hewei Decoction (QJHD) for mild to moderate COVID-19 patients, and investigated the potential biomolecular mechanisms through metagenomics and transcriptomic sequencing methods. Materials and methods QJHD was given orally twice a day individually for 14 to 28 days. A total of 10 patients were enrolled in the study and given QJHD. We observed advantages in clinical cure time rate, and the relief of gastrointestinal symptoms as compared with reports in the literature. The metagenomics sequencing data of fecal microflora and transcriptomic sequencing data of blood cell in patients with SARS-Cov-2 infection patients were selected compared to the healthy control donors. Results No serious adverse events were reported. Meanwhile, the transcriptome analysis showed a decrease of the hsa-miR-21-5p expression in peripheral blood without QJHD. The species composition analysis showed an increase in the expression of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal tract;The interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression also in COVID-19 patient decreased in peripheral blood compared with healthy control donors. And we found an improvement in these parameters in patients taking QJHD. Conclusions Our findings show that QJHD could improve clinical outcomes of mild to moderate COVID-19 patients, probably through beneficial immunomodulatory effects by regulating Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal tract and hsa-miR-21 and IL-10 expression in peripheral blood. (chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR2000030305)

14.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 753055, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581298

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the performance of a novel deep learning (DL)-based artificial intelligence (AI) system in classifying computed tomography (CT) scans of pneumonia patients into different groups, as well as to present an effective clinically relevant machine learning (ML) system based on medical image identification and clinical feature interpretation to assist radiologists in triage and diagnosis. Methods: The 3,463 CT images of pneumonia used in this multi-center retrospective study were divided into four categories: bacterial pneumonia (n = 507), fungal pneumonia (n = 126), common viral pneumonia (n = 777), and COVID-19 (n = 2,053). We used DL methods based on images to distinguish pulmonary infections. A machine learning (ML) model for risk interpretation was developed using key imaging (learned from the DL methods) and clinical features. The algorithms were evaluated using the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs). Results: The median AUC of DL models for differentiating pulmonary infection was 99.5% (COVID-19), 98.6% (viral pneumonia), 98.4% (bacterial pneumonia), 99.1% (fungal pneumonia), respectively. By combining chest CT results and clinical symptoms, the ML model performed well, with an AUC of 99.7% for SARS-CoV-2, 99.4% for common virus, 98.9% for bacteria, and 99.6% for fungus. Regarding clinical features interpreting, the model revealed distinctive CT characteristics associated with specific pneumonia: in COVID-19, ground-glass opacity (GGO) [92.5%; odds ratio (OR), 1.76; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.71-1.86]; larger lesions in the right upper lung (75.0%; OR, 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03-1.25) with viral pneumonia; older age (57.0 years ± 14.2, OR, 1.84; 95% CI: 1.73-1.99) with bacterial pneumonia; and consolidation (95.8%, OR, 1.29; 95% CI: 1.05-1.40) with fungal pneumonia. Conclusion: For classifying common types of pneumonia and assessing the influential factors for triage, our AI system has shown promising results. Our ultimate goal is to assist clinicians in making quick and accurate diagnoses, resulting in the potential for early therapeutic intervention.

15.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e22197, 2021 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573649

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To control the COVID-19 pandemic, people should adopt protective behaviors at home (self-isolation, social distancing, putting shopping and packages aside, wearing face coverings, cleaning and disinfecting, and handwashing). There is currently limited support to help individuals conduct these behaviors. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to report current household infection control behaviors in the United Kingdom and examine how they might be improved. METHODS: This was a pragmatic cross-sectional observational study of anonymous participant data from Germ Defence between May 6-24, 2020. Germ Defence is an open-access fully automated website providing behavioral advice for infection control within households. A total of 28,285 users sought advice from four website pathways based on household status (advice to protect themselves generally, to protect others if the user was showing symptoms, to protect themselves if household members were showing symptoms, and to protect a household member who is at high risk). Users reported current infection control behaviors within the home and intentions to change these behaviors. RESULTS: Current behaviors varied across all infection control measures but were between sometimes (face covering: mean 1.61, SD 1.19; social distancing: mean 2.40, SD 1.22; isolating: mean 2.78, SD 1.29; putting packages and shopping aside: mean 2.75, SD 1.55) and quite often (cleaning and disinfecting: mean 3.17, SD 1.18), except for handwashing (very often: mean 4.00, SD 1.03). Behaviors were similar regardless of the website pathway used. After using Germ Defence, users recorded intentions to improve infection control behavior across all website pathways and for all behaviors (overall average infection control score mean difference 0.30, 95% CI 0.29-0.31). CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported infection control behaviors other than handwashing are lower than is optimal for infection prevention, although handwashing is much higher. Advice using behavior change techniques in Germ Defence led to intentions to improve these behaviors. Promoting Germ Defence within national and local public health and primary care guidance could reduce COVID-19 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Infection Control/methods , Internet-Based Intervention , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Family Characteristics , Health Behavior , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology
16.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 768740, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572296

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently the most important emerging pathogen worldwide, but its early transcriptional dynamics and host immune response remain unclear. Herein, the expression profiles of viral interactions with different types of hosts were comprehensively dissected to shed light on the early infection strategy of SARS-CoV-2 and the host immune response against infection. SARS-CoV-2 was found to exhibit a two-stage transcriptional strategy within the first 24 h of infection, comprising a lag phase that ends with the virus being paused and a log phase that starts when the viral load increases rapidly. Interestingly, the host innate immune response was found not to be activated (latent period) until the virus entered the log stage. Noteworthy, when intracellular immunity is suppressed, SARS-CoV-2 shows a correlation with dysregulation of metal ion homeostasis. Herein, the inhibitory activity of copper ions against SARS-CoV-2 was further validated in in vitro experiments. Coronavirus disease 2019-related genes (including CD38, PTX3, and TCN1) were also identified, which may serve as candidate host-restricted factors for interventional therapy. Collectively, these results confirm that the two-stage strategy of SARS-CoV-2 effectively aids its survival in early infection by regulating the host intracellular immunity, highlighting the key role of interferon in viral infection and potential therapeutic candidates for further investigations on antiviral strategies.

17.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 6966394, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528596

ABSTRACT

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a cerebrovascular disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. CXCR4 provides neuroprotective effects, which can alleviate brain injury and inflammation induced by stroke. Previous studies have suggested that CXCR4 reduces the pyroptosis of LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antipyroptosis effects and mechanisms of CXCR4 after SAH. SAH animal model was induced via endovascular perforation. A total of 136 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Recombinant human cysteine-X-cysteine chemokine ligand 12 (rh-CXCL-12) was administered intranasally at 1 h after SAH induction. To investigate the underlying mechanism, the inhibitor of CXCR4, AMD3100, was administered intraperitoneally at 1 h before SAH. The neurobehavior tests were assessed, followed by performing Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. The Western blot results suggested that the expressions of endogenous CXCL-12, CXCR4, and NLRP1 were increased and peaked at 24 h following SAH. Immunofluorescence staining showed that CXCR4 was expressed on neurons, microglia, and astrocytes. Rh-CXCL-12 treatment improved the neurological deficits and reduced the number of FJC-positive cells, IL-18-positive neurons, and cleaved caspase-1(CC-1)-positive neurons after SAH. Meanwhile, rh-CXCL-12 treatment increased the levels of CXCL-12 and CXCR4, and reduced the levels of NLRP1, IL-18, IL-1ß, and CC-1. Moreover, the administration of AMD3100 abolished antipyroptosis effects of CXCL-12 and its regulation of CXCR4 post-SAH. The CXCR4/NLRP1 signaling pathway may be involved in CXCL-12-mediated neuronal pyroptosis after SAH. Early administration of CXCL-12 may be a preventive and therapeutic strategy against brain injury after SAH.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries/prevention & control , Chemokine CXCL12/administration & dosage , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Pyroptosis , Receptors, CXCR4/metabolism , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Animals , Brain Injuries/etiology , Brain Injuries/metabolism , Brain Injuries/pathology , Chemokine CXCL12/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression Regulation , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/prevention & control , Male , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Neurons/pathology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, CXCR4/genetics , Signal Transduction
18.
World J Pediatr ; 18(1): 37-42, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the imaging characteristics, diversity and changing trend in CT scans of pediatric patients infected with Delta-variant strain by studying imaging features of children infected with Delta and comparing the results to those of children with original COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective, comparative analysis of initial chest CT manifestations between 63 pediatric patients infected with Delta variant in 2021 and 23 pediatric patients with COVID-19 in 2020 was conducted. Corresponding imaging features were analyzed. In addition, the changing trend in imaging features of COVID-19 Delta-variant cases were explored by evaluating the initial and follow-up CT scans. RESULTS: Among 63 children with Delta-variant COVID-19 in 2021, 34 (53.9%) showed positive chest CT presentation; and their CT score (1.10 ± 1.41) was significantly lower than that in 2020 (2.56 ± 3.5) (P = 0.0073). Lesion distribution: lung lesions of Delta cases appear mainly in the lower lungs on both sides. Most children had single lobe involvement (18 cases, 52.9%), 14 (41.2%) in the right lung alone, and 14 (41.2%) in both lungs. A majority of Delta cases displayed initially ground glass (23 cases, 67.6%) and nodular shadows (13 cases, 38.2%) in the first CT scan, with few extrapulmonary manifestations. The 34 children with abnormal chest CT for the first time have a total of 92 chest CT examinations. These children showed a statistically significant difference between the 0-3 day group and the 4-7 day group (P = 0.0392) and a significant difference between the 4-7 day group and the more than 8 days group (P = 0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: The early manifestations of COVID-19 in children with abnormal imaging are mostly small subpleural nodular ground glass opacity. The changes on the Delta-variant COVID-19 chest CT were milder than the original strain. The lesions reached a peak on CT in 4-7 days and quickly improved and absorbed after a week. Dynamic CT re-examination can achieve a good prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 750725, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485077

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants have been emerging and circulating globally since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, of which B.1.617 lineage that was first reported in India at the end of 2020, soon became predominant. Tracing genomic variations and understanding their impact on the viral properties are the foundations for the vaccine and drug development and for the mitigation measures to be taken or lifted. In this study, 1,051 near-complete genomes and 1,559 spike (S) sequences belonging to the B.1.617 were analyzed. A genome-wide spread of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was identified. Of the high frequency mutations identified, 61% (11/18) involved structural proteins, despite two third of the viral genome encoding nonstructural proteins. There were 22 positive selection sites, mostly distributed across the S protein, of which 16 were led by non-C to U transition and should be of a special attention. Haplotype network revealed that a large number of daughter haplotypes were continually derived throughout the pandemic, of which H177, H181 H219 and H286 from the ancestor haplotype H176 of B.1.617.2 were widely prevalent. Besides the well known substitutions of L452R, P681R and deletions of E156 and F157, as well as the potential biological significance, structural analysis in this study still indicated that new amino acid changes in B.1.617, such as E484Q and N501Y, had reshaped the viral bonding network, and increasingly sequenced N501Y mutant with a potential enhanced binding ability was detected in many other countries in the follow-up monitoring. Although we can't conclude the properties of all the mutants including N501Y thoroughly, it merits focusing on their spread epidemically and biologically.

20.
Integr Med Res ; 10: 100798, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472010

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate use of infection control behaviours, preventative and therapeutic interventions, and outcomes among respondents to an online survey during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. METHODS: The survey was designed by an international team, translated and adapted to simplified Chinese, including 132 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation recommended by guidelines. It was distributed and collected from February to May 2021, with data analysed by WPS spreadsheet and wjx.cn. Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographics and clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatments, preventative behaviours and interventions, and their associated outcomes. RESULTS: The survey was accessed 503 times with 341 (67.8%) completions covering 23 provinces and four municipalities in China. Most (282/341, 82.7%) respondents reported no symptoms during the pandemic and the majority (290/341, 85.0%) reported having a SARS-CoV-2 PCR test at some point. Forty-five (13.2%) reported having a respiratory infection, among which 19 (42.2%) took one or more categories of modern medicine, e.g. painkillers, antibiotics; 16 (35.6%) used TCM interventions(s); while seven respondents combined TCM with modern medicine. All respondents reported using at least one behavioural or medical approach to prevention, with 22.3% taking TCM and 5.3% taking modern medicines. No respondents reported having a critical condition related to COVID-19. CONCLUSION: We found evidence of widespread use of infection control behaviours, modern medicines and TCM for treatment and prevention of COVID-19 and other respiratory symptoms. Larger scale studies are warranted, including a more representative sample exploring TCM preparations recommended in clinical guidelines.

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