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1.
Cell Res ; 32(9): 831-842, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967595

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants with adaptive mutations have continued to emerge, causing fresh waves of infection even amongst vaccinated population. The development of broad-spectrum antivirals is thus urgently needed. We previously developed two hetero-bivalent nanobodies (Nbs), aRBD-2-5 and aRBD-2-7, with potent neutralization activity against the wild-type (WT) Wuhan isolated SARS-CoV-2, by fusing aRBD-2 with aRBD-5 and aRBD-7, respectively. Here, we resolved the crystal structures of these Nbs in complex with the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein, and found that aRBD-2 contacts with highly-conserved RBD residues and retains binding to the RBD of the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Delta plus, Kappa, Lambda, Omicron BA.1, and BA.2 variants. In contrast, aRBD-5 and aRBD-7 bind to less-conserved RBD epitopes non-overlapping with the epitope of aRBD-2, and do not show apparent binding to the RBD of some variants. However, when fused with aRBD-2, they effectively enhance the overall binding affinity. Consistently, aRBD-2-5-Fc and aRBD-2-7-Fc potently neutralized all of the tested authentic or pseudotyped viruses, including WT, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron BA.1, BA.1.1 and BA.2. Furthermore, aRBD-2-5-Fc provided prophylactic protection against the WT and mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 in mice, and conferred protection against the Omicron BA.1 variant in hamsters prophylactically and therapeutically, indicating that aRBD-2-5-Fc could potentially benefit the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 caused by the emerging variants of concern. Our strategy provides new solutions in the development of broad-spectrum therapeutic antibodies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Single-Domain Antibodies , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Epitopes , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Domain Antibodies/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329660

ABSTRACT

Following Delta, Omicron variant triggered a new wave of SARS-CoV-2 infection globally, adaptive evolution of the virus may not stop, the development of broad-spectrum antivirals is still urgent. We previously developed two hetero-bivalent nanobodies with potent neutralization against original WT SARS-CoV-2, termed aRBD-2-5 and aRBD-2-7, by fusing aRBD-2 with aRBD-5 or aRBD-7, respectively. Here, we resolved crystal structures of these nanobodies in complex with RBD, and found the epitope of aRBD-2 differs from that of aRBD-5, aRBD-7. aRBD-2 binds to a conserved epitope which renders its binding activity to all variants of concern (VOCs) including Omicron. Interestingly, although monovalent aRBD-5 and aRBD-7 lost binding to some variants, they effectively improved the overall affinity when transformed into the hetero-bivalent form after being fused with aRBD-2. Consistent with the high binding affinities, aRBD-2-5-Fc and aRBD-2-7-Fc exhibited ultra-potent neutralization to all five VOCs;particularly, aRBD-2-5-Fc neutralized authentic virus of Beta, Delta and Omicron with the IC50 of 5.98~9.65 ng/mL or 54.3~87.6 pM. Importantly, aRBD-2-5-Fc provided in vivo prophylactic protection for mice against WT and mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2, and provided full protection against Omicron in hamster model when administrated either prophylactically or therapeutically. Taken together, we found a conserved epitope on RBD, and hetero-bivalent nanobodies had increased affinity for VOCs over its monovalent form, and provided potent and broad-spectrum protection both in vitro and in vivo against all tested major variants, and potentially future emerging variants. Our strategy provides a new solution in the development of therapeutic antibodies for COVID-19 caused by newly emergent VOCs.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324264

ABSTRACT

Background: Case isolation and contacts tracing are the most widely used strategies to control the outbreak of COVID-19. However, little attention has been paid to the infectiousness of recovered patients with COVID-19.Case presentationIn this study, we reported a confirmed case of COVID-19 whose nasopharyngeal swab test of SARS-CoV-2 RNA turned positive 28 days after hospital discharged.ConclusionsSARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in respiratory tract sample 28 days after hospital discharged. Further studies about consecutive detection of SARS-CoV-2 combined with viral isolation among COVID-19 cases should be designed to determine the accurate contagious period.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307715

ABSTRACT

Objectives: An ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affecting almost 100,000,000 cases with 2,100,000 deaths worldwide. However, the long-term outcomes of recovered patients remain to be defined. Methods: : This is a prospective observational study of patients with COVID-19 using sequential assessments after hospital discharge from a designated tertiary center in Hefei, China. We examined clinical symptom, chest CT imaging, pulmonary function, and 6-min walk distance (6-MWD). Results: : There were 62, 61 and 51 discharged patients enrolled the 1-month, 3-month and 6-month observations, respectively. Symptoms persisted in 24 (39%), 25 (41%) and 5 (10%) patients, mainly cough in 31%, 15% and 8% of them, respectively. Mild restrictive pulmonary impairment was detected in 11%, 10%, 12% of patients at 1, 3, 6-month follow-up. Although chest CT scores were overall gradually improved at 1 month (5.0±5.1), 3 months (3.0±4.5) and 6 months (2.0±3.3) compared with that during hospitalization (11.0±6.8), residual CT abnormalities were seen in 73%, 54% and 43% of them at 1, 3, 6 months. At 6-month follow-up, the 6MWD was 541±59 m in these recovered patients, which was significantly lower compared to healthy controls (589±75 m,p<0.01). Only the steroid treatment during hospitalization (p=0.009, OR 12.091, 95% CI 1.882 to 77.678) was associated with abnormal CT score at 6 months. Conclusions: : At 6 months after hospital discharge, respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function were improved in most COVID-19 patients while residual impairments were still present in both chest CT images and exercise capacity.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307596

ABSTRACT

Background: There is no consensus as to when and how to reopen schools during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of reopening universities and colleges using a combined strategy in China. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 13,116 staffs and postgraduate students who have returned to the four campuses of the University of Science and Technology of China from 17 February (students returned from 12 May) to 2 July 2020. The returning to school was guided by a combined strategy including use of personal protective equipment, management of transportation, serological and nucleic acid tests for COVID-19, quarantine, and restrictions in and out of campus. Epidemiology history and COVID-19 related symptoms (fever, cough, and dyspnoea) were recorded in a subset of participants using an online questionnaire. Results: Among 13,116 participants, 4067 tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid and no positive results were identified. Of 9049 participants who chose to conduct antibody tests, 28 (0.3%) tested positive but no one was confirmed by the additional viral nucleic acid tests. Online questionnaires were collected from 5741 participants (mean 25.1 years, 35% female). High-risk exposures and COVID-19 related symptoms were reported in 8.3% and 7.4% of participants, respectively. Comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, chronic pulmonary disease, and chronic kidney disease) were rare (0.2%-1.5%). Conclusions: Using a combined strategy for COVID-19 prevention and control, safely reopening of universities and colleges in low-risk regions is possible and laboratory screening for SARS-CoV-2 infection may not be necessary. Further studies need to cautiously evaluate the safety of reopening schools, if any, in the middle- and high-risk regions.

6.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e048267, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604369

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Up to 80% of patients with respiratory tract infections (RTI) attending healthcare facilities in rural areas of China are prescribed antibiotics, many of which are unnecessary. Since 2009, China has implemented several policies to try to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use; however, antibiotic prescribing remains high in rural health facilities. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A cluster randomised controlled trial will be carried out to estimate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a complex intervention in reducing antibiotic prescribing at township health centres in Anhui Province, China. 40 Township health centres will be randomised at a 1:1 ratio to the intervention or usual care arms. In the intervention group, practitioners will receive an intervention comprising: (1) training to support appropriate antibiotic prescribing for RTI, (2) a computer-based treatment decision support system, (3) virtual peer support, (4) a leaflet for patients and (5) a letter of commitment to optimise antibiotic use to display in their clinic. The primary outcome is the percentage of antibiotics (intravenous and oral) prescribed for RTI patients. Secondary outcomes include patient symptom severity and duration, recovery status, satisfaction, antibiotic consumption. A full economic evaluation will be conducted within the trial period. Costs and savings for both clinics and patients will be considered and quality of life will be measured by EuroQoL (EQ-5D-5L). A qualitative process evaluation will explore practitioner and patient views and experiences of trial processes, intervention fidelity and acceptability, and barriers and facilitators to implementation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained from the Biomedical Research Ethics Committee of Anhui Medical University (Ref: 20180259); the study has undergone due diligence checks and is registered at the University of Bristol (Ref: 2020-3137). Research findings will be disseminated to stakeholders through conferences and peer-reviewed journals in China, the UK and internationally. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN30652037.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Respiratory Tract Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , China , Humans , Inappropriate Prescribing/prevention & control , Primary Health Care , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy
8.
Cell Rep ; 36(11): 109708, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372908

ABSTRACT

Cellular immunity is important in determining the disease severity of COVID-19 patients. However, current understanding of SARS-CoV-2 epitopes mediating cellular immunity is limited. Here we apply T-Scan, a recently developed method, to identify CD8+ T cell epitopes from COVID-19 patients of four major HLA-A alleles. Several identified epitopes are conserved across human coronaviruses, which might mediate pre-existing cellular immunity to SARS-CoV-2. In addition, we identify and validate four epitopes that were mutated in the newly circulating variants, including the Delta variant. The mutations significantly reduce T cell responses to the epitope peptides in convalescent and vaccinated samples. We further determine the crystal structure of HLA-A∗02:01/HLA-A∗24:02 in complex with the epitope KIA_S/NYN_S, respectively, which reveals the importance of K417 and L452 of the spike protein for binding to HLA. Our data suggest that evading cellular immunity might contribute to the increased transmissibility and disease severity associated with the new SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
9.
Front Med ; 15(5): 704-717, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204959

ABSTRACT

We conducted a randomized, open-label, parallel-controlled, multicenter trial on the use of Shuanghuanglian (SHL), a traditional Chinese patent medicine, in treating cases of COVID-19. A total of 176 patients received SHL by three doses (56 in low dose, 61 in middle dose, and 59 in high dose) in addition to standard care. The control group was composed of 59 patients who received standard therapy alone. Treatment with SHL was not associated with a difference from standard care in the time to disease recovery. Patients with 14-day SHL treatment had significantly higher rate in negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 in nucleic acid swab tests than the patients from the control group (93.4% vs. 73.9%, P = 0.006). Analysis of chest computed tomography images showed that treatment with high-dose SHL significantly promoted absorption of inflammatory focus of pneumonia, which was evaluated by density reduction of inflammatory focus from baseline, at day 7 (mean difference (95% CI), -46.39 (-86.83 to -5.94) HU; P = 0.025) and day 14 (mean difference (95% CI), -74.21 (-133.35 to -15.08) HU; P = 0.014). No serious adverse events occurred in the SHL groups. This study illustrated that SHL in combination with standard care was safe and partially effective for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
10.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 15: 17534666211009410, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195908

ABSTRACT

AIMS: A novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in an ongoing global pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the outcomes of recovered patients have not been well defined. METHODS: This is a prospective observational follow-up study of survivors with COVID-19 from a designated tertiary center in Hefei, China. We examined chest computed tomography (CT) scanning, pulmonary function, 6-min walk distance (6MWD), and 36 item Short Form General Health Survey (SF-36). RESULTS: Among 81 enrolled patients, 62 (77%) patients and 61 (75%) patients, respectively, completed 1-month and 3-month follow-ups. Abnormal CT findings were still present in 73% of patients at 1 month and 54% at 3 months, whereas chest CT scan scores improved progressively at 1-month (5.0 ± 5.1) and 3-month follow up (3.0 ± 4.5) compared with that during hospitalization (11 ± 6.8). Mild restrictive pulmonary impairment was detected in 11% and 10% of patients at 1-month and 3-month follow up, respectively. The 6MWD was 523 ± 77 m in male patients and 484 ± 58 m in female patients, which was significantly lower than in healthy controls (606 ± 68 m, 568 ± 78 m, p < 0.001). SF-36 scores were significantly impaired in the domains of role physical (RP), role emotional (RE), and social functioning (SF) compared with the normal age-matched population. RP was improved at 3-month compared with 1-month follow up in the 41-64 years group (p < 0.01). Multivariable analysis showed that older age (over 40 years) and steroid administration during hospitalization were independently associated with worse chest CT scores at 3-month follow up. CONCLUSIONS: At 3 months, chest CT abnormalities were present in one half of COVID-19 survivors and worse chest CT scores were independently associated with older age and steroid administration during hospitalization. Residual pulmonary function impairments were modest, whereas exercise capacity and SF-36 scores were significantly lower than the general population. Support program and further follow-up evaluations may be needed.The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Radiography, Thoracic , Time Factors , Walking Speed
12.
Front Med ; 15(3): 486-494, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122810

ABSTRACT

Tocilizumab has been reported to attenuate the "cytokine storm" in COVID-19 patients. We attempted to verify the effectiveness and safety of tocilizumab therapy in COVID-19 and identify patients most likely to benefit from this treatment. We conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label multicenter trial among COVID-19 patients. The patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either tocilizumab in addition to standard care or standard care alone. The cure rate, changes of oxygen saturation and interference, and inflammation biomarkers were observed. Thirty-three patients were randomized to the tocilizumab group, and 32 patients to the control group. The cure rate in the tocilizumab group was higher than that in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant (94.12% vs. 87.10%, rate difference 95% CI-7.19%-21.23%, P = 0.4133). The improvement in hypoxia for the tocilizumab group was higher from day 4 onward and statistically significant from day 12 (P = 0.0359). In moderate disease patients with bilateral pulmonary lesions, the hypoxia ameliorated earlier after tocilizumab treatment, and less patients (1/12, 8.33%) needed an increase of inhaled oxygen concentration compared with the controls (4/6, 66.67%; rate difference 95% CI-99.17% to-17.50%, P = 0.0217). No severe adverse events occurred. More mild temporary adverse events were recorded in tocilizumab recipients (20/34, 58.82%) than the controls (4/31, 12.90%). Tocilizumab can improve hypoxia without unacceptable side effect profile and significant influences on the time virus load becomes negative. For patients with bilateral pulmonary lesions and elevated IL-6 levels, tocilizumab could be recommended to improve outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
13.
J Virol ; 2021 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117219

ABSTRACT

Cell entry by SARS-CoV-2 requires the binding between the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral Spike protein and the cellular angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). As such, RBD has become the major target for vaccine development, while RBD-specific antibodies are pursued as therapeutics. Here, we report the development and characterization of SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific VHH/nanobody (Nb) from immunized alpacas. Seven RBD-specific Nbs with high stability were identified using phage display. They bind to SARS-CoV-2 RBD with affinity KD ranging from 2.6 to 113 nM, and six of them can block RBD-ACE2 interaction. The fusion of the Nbs with IgG1 Fc resulted in homodimers with greatly improved RBD-binding affinities (KD ranging from 72.7 pM to 4.5 nM) and nanomolar RBD-ACE2 blocking abilities. Furthermore, the fusion of two Nbs with non-overlapping epitopes resulted in hetero-bivalent Nbs, namely aRBD-2-5 and aRBD-2-7, with significantly higher RBD binding affinities (KD of 59.2 pM and 0.25 nM) and greatly enhanced SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing potency. The 50% neutralization dose (ND50) of aRBD-2-5 and aRBD-2-7 was 1.22 ng/mL (∼0.043 nM) and 3.18 ng/mL (∼0.111 nM), respectively. These high-affinity SARS-CoV-2 blocking Nbs could be further developed into therapeutics as well as diagnostic reagents for COVID-19.ImportanceTo date, SARS-CoV-2 has caused tremendous loss of human life and economic output worldwide. Although a few COVID-19 vaccines have been approved in several countries, the development of effective therapeutics, including SARS-CoV-2 targeting antibodies, remains critical. Due to their small size (13-15 kDa), high solubility, and stability, Nbs are particularly well suited for pulmonary delivery and more amenable to engineer into multivalent formats than the conventional antibody. Here, we report a series of new anti-SARS-CoV-2 Nbs isolated from immunized alpaca and two engineered hetero-bivalent Nbs. These potent neutralizing Nbs showed promise as potential therapeutics against COVID-19.

14.
EClinicalMedicine ; 32: 100743, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The timing of administration of agents and use of combination treatments in COVID-19 remain unclear. We assessed the effectiveness of therapeutics in cohorts in Hong Kong SAR and Anhui, China. METHODS: We conducted propensity-score analysis of 4771 symptomatic patients from Hong Kong between 21st January and 6th December 2020, and 648 symptomatic patients from Anhui between 1st January and 27th February 2020. We censored all observations as at 13st December 2020. Time from hospital admission to discharge, and composite outcome of death, invasive mechanical ventilation or intensive care unit admission across 1) all therapeutic options including lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin, umifenovir, interferon-alpha-2b, interferon-beta-1b, corticosteroids, antibiotics, and Chinese medicines, and 2) four interferon-beta-1b combination treatment groups were investigated. FINDINGS: Interferon-beta-1b was associated with an improved composite outcome (OR=0.55, 95%CI 0.38, 0.80) and earlier discharge (-8.8 days, 95%CI -9.7, -7.9) compared to those not administered interferon-beta-1b. Oral ribavirin initiated within 7 days from onset was associated with lower risk of the composite outcome in Hong Kong (OR=0.51, 95%CI 0.29, 0.90). Lopinavir-ritonavir, intravenous ribavirin, umifenovir, corticosteroids, interferon-alpha-2b, antibiotics or Chinese medicines failed to show consistent clinical benefit. Interferon-beta-1b co-administered with ribavirin was associated with improved composite outcome (OR=0.50, 95%CI 0.32, 0.78) and earlier discharge (-2.35 days, 95%CI -3.65, -1.06) compared to interferon-beta-1b monotherapy. INTERPRETATION: Our findings support the early administration of interferon-beta-1b alone or in combination with oral ribavirin for COVID-19 patients. FUNDING: Hong Kong Health and Medical Research Fund; Hong Kong Innovation and Technology Commission; Chinese Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

15.
Sleep Med ; 91: 161-165, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Suffering from COVID-19 is a strong psychological stressor to the patients. Even after recovery, patients are prone to a variety of mental health problems. Recently, some studies focus on the psychological situation of patients when they got COVID-19. However, no study focused on the psychological status of recovered COVID-19-infected patients in China. Our study aims to investigate sleep and mood status, and detect the influencing factors of the psychological status of the COVID-19 patients after recovery. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-five COVID-19 patients were enrolled from February to April 2020. The social demographic information of all participants was collected by a self-designed questionnaire. Insomnia and depression symptoms were evaluated through the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and the Center for Epidemiology Scale for Depression (CES-D). RESULTS: The rates of insomnia and depression were 26.45% and 9.92% in the COVID-19 patients after recovery. There were significant differences in physical, mental impairment, and the need for psychological assistance between the COVID-19 recovered patients with depression and the patients without depression. In addition, age and health status may be the influencing factors for insomnia, and care about the views of others may be the influencing factor of depression (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results, we found that COVID-19 recovered patients had a low rate of depression and a high rate of insomnia. We need to pay more attention to their sleep condition than mood status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Rehabilitation Centers , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Survivors
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111438, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049770

ABSTRACT

Roles of environmental factors in transmission of COVID-19 have been highlighted. In this study, we sampled the high-touch environmental surfaces in the quarantine room, aiming to detect the distribution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on the environmental surfaces during the incubation period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Fifteen sites were sampled from the quarantine room, distributing in the functional areas such as bedroom, bathroom and living room. All environmental surface samples were collected with sterile polyester-tipped applicator pre-moistened in viral transport medium and tested for SARS-CoV-2. Overall, 34.1% of samples were detected positively for SARS-CoV-2. The positive rates of Patient A, B and C, were 46.2%, 0% and 61.5%, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 was detected positively in bedroom and bathroom, with the positive rate of 50.0% and 46.7%, respectively. In contrast, living room had no positive sample detected. Environmental contamination of SARS-CoV-2 distributes widely during the incubation period of COVID-19, and the positive rates of SARS-CoV-2 on environmental surfaces are relatively high in bathroom and bedroom.


Subject(s)
Bathroom Equipment/virology , COVID-19/transmission , Environmental Microbiology , Environmental Pollution , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Latent Infection/transmission , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Latent Infection/epidemiology , Latent Infection/prevention & control , Male , Quarantine/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface Properties , Toilet Facilities/standards
17.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-5138

ABSTRACT

Background: Tocilizumab is reported to be able to attenuate the "cytokine storm" in COVID-19 patients. We tried to ascertain the effectiveness and safety of tocilizumab in COVID-19 and identify patients most likely to be benefit from the treatment. Methods: This was a randomized, controlled, open-label, multicenter trial at 6 hospitals in Anhui and Hubei. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either tocilizumab in addition to standard care, or standard care alone. The first dose of tocilizumab was 400 mg, diluted in 100 ml 0.9% saline, and intravenous dripped in more than 1 h. A second dose was given if a patient remained febrile for 24 hours after the first dose. The primary endpoint was the cure rate. Primary analysis was done in the intention -to -treat (ITT) population and safety analysis was done in all patients who started their assigned treatment. Findings: Between Feb 13, 2020, and March 13, 2020, 65 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to a treatment group (33 to tocilizumab and 32 to the controls). One patient in the control group, who aggravated severely 3 days after randomization, was transferred to the tocilizumab group. The cure rate in tocilizumab group was higher than that in the controls but not significant (94.12% vs 87.10%, P=0.4133). Adverse events were recorded in 20 (58.82%) of 34 tocilizumab recipients versus 4 (12.90%) of 31 in the controls. No serious adverse events were reported in tocilizumab group. Interpretation: Tocilizumab treatment did not increase the cure rate of COVID-19. A large scale of study enrolling more patients is needed. However,tocilizumab can improve oxygenation without significant influence on the time virus load tunes negative. For patients with bilateral pulmonary lesions and elevated IL-6 levels, tocilizumab should be recommended for better disease management. Trial Registration: This trial was registered in Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (Number: ChiCTR2000029765). Funding: This work was supported by Department of Science and Technology of Anhui Province and Health Commission of Anhui Province (grant number: 202004a07020001) and the China National Center for Biotechnology Development (grant number: 2020YFC0843800).

18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(47): e23319, 2020 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998547

ABSTRACT

An ongoing outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread around the world. However, the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 related to different modes of exposure have not been well defined. We aimed to explore the clinical features and outcomes of COVID-19 related to one-time community exposure versus continuous household exposure.Retrospective case-control study involving COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary designated center in China was performed. Patients were enrolled if they had known exposure history of one-time community exposure or continuous household exposure. Twenty patients were compared in terms of demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, chest CT images, laboratory results, treatments, and clinical outcomes at 1-month follow-up.There were 10 patients in one-time community and continuous household exposure groups respectively. Males compromised 80% and 40% while the median ages were 37.5 and 51 years old in the 2 groups, respectively. Fever and cough were most common symptoms. Ground-glass opacities were presented on chest CT scan in 90% and 70% of the patients, and the median CT scores were 7 and 16 on admission, respectively. Three patients ranked severe in the community exposure group while 7 patients were severe or critical in household exposure group. On 1-month follow-up, all patients were improved clinically but COVID-19 IgG antibody detected positive. Median follow-up CT scores were 0 and 13 while pulmonary function test abnormalities were 0/9 and 2/7 in the 2 groups, respectively.COVID-19 patients with one-time community exposure tended to be mild in severity and had better outcomes, comparing to those with continuous household exposure.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Notification , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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