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researchsquare; 2022.


The ongoing coronavirus disease pandemic has fostered major advances in vaccination technologies; however, there are urgent needs of mucosal immune responses and single-dose, non-invasive administration. Here, we develop a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine for single-dose, dry-powder aerosol inhalation that induces potent systemic and mucosal immune responses. Our vaccine encapsulates proteinaceous cholera toxin B subunit-assembled nanoparticles displaying the SARS-CoV-2 RBD antigen (R-CNP) within microcapsules of optimal aerodynamic size, and such unique nano-micro coupled structure supports efficient alveoli delivery, sustained R-CNP release, and antigen presenting cell uptake, which are favorable for invocation of immune responses. Moreover, our vaccine successfully induces robust serological IgG and secretory IgA production, collectively conferring effective protection from SARS-CoV-2 challenge (including pseudovirus and the authentic virus) in mice, hamsters, and non-human primates. Finally, we also demonstrate a “mosaic iteration” of our vaccine that co-displays ancestral and Omicron’s antigens, thus extending the breadth of antibody response against co-circulating strains and transmission of Omicron variant. These findings support our inhalable vaccine as a promising candidate to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, disease, and transmission.

ANZ J Surg ; 92(9): 2102-2108, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901579


BACKGROUND: Because of special technical challenges, laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) has been introduced into surgical practice, with surgeons required to have adequate training. The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected every aspect of healthcare systems, including LESS training, which must be modified to minimize the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A 3-session training programme was designed in 2020 during the epidemic, which was modified in 2019 before the pandemic. Session 1 was an online study on LESS knowledge. Session 2 involved the trainees' self-directed simulator-training. Task performance was evaluated using the fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery (FLS) scoring. Session 3 was practical training, including trainers' live surgical video demonstrations and trainees' surgical video feedback after training. Video feedback performance was evaluated using the modified global rating scale (GRS). Furthermore, trainees completed a general self-efficacy (GSE) instrument. Forty-two gynaecology trainees were allocated into two groups: novices (n = 32) and experts (n = 10). RESULTS: Compared with pre-training, FLS scores improved in peg transfer (P < 0.001 and P = 0.01) and pattern cutting (P = 0.02 and P < 0.001) for novices and experts, respectively. Participants (81% versus 67%) provided first and second video feedback, respectively. Compared to the first feedback, the GRS scores of both groups improved significantly in the second feedback. All trainees showed an increase in GSE after training (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The modified LESS training programme is a practical and effective option that allows trainees to continue training during the epidemic.

COVID-19 , Laparoscopy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Competence , Humans , Laparoscopy/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Task Performance and Analysis