Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 11 de 11
Filter
1.
Front Pharmacol ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2163081

ABSTRACT

Chloroquine was once thought to be a promising treatment for COVID-19 but it quickly failed due to its inefficiency and association with increased mortality. Further, comorbidities such as hypertension may have contributed this failure. The safety and toxicity of chloroquine at doses required for treating SARS-CoV-2 infection in hypertensive patients remain unknown. Herein, to investigate these effects, we performed a safety evaluation of chloroquine at the approved dose (63 mg/kg) and at a high dose (126 mg/kg) in hypertensive rats. We found that chloroquine increased the mortality of hypertensive rats to 18.2% and 100%, respectively, after 7 days. During the chloroquine exposure period, the bodyweight, feed, and water consumption of hypertensive rats were decreased significantly. In addition, we show that chloroquine induces prolongation of QTc interval, elevation of LDH and CK, and histopathological damage of the myocardium in hypertensive rats. Ocular toxicity was observed in hypertensive rats in the form of hemorrhage in the eyes and retinal damage. Furthermore, we also observed intestinal toxicity in hypertensive rats, which presented as thinning intestinal walls with hemorrhagic contents, and histopathological changes of the jejunum. Hepatotoxicity was also evidenced by elevated ALT, and vacuolization of hepatocytes was also observed. Nephrotoxicity was observed only in high dose chloroquine-treated hypertensive rats, presenting as alterations of urinalysis and renal function. Immune alterations were also found in high-dose chloroquine-treated hypertensive rats with elevation of serum IL-10, IL-1β and GRO, and moderate damage to the spleen. In summary, this study partially explains the reason for the failure of chloroquine as a COVID-19 therapy, and underlines the importance of safety evaluation and medical supervision of chloroquine to avoid patient harm, especially to those with hypertension.

2.
ACM Transactions on Internet Technology ; 22(3), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2038355

ABSTRACT

Artificial intelligence-(AI) based fog/edge computing has become a promising paradigm for infectious disease. Various AI algorithms are embedded in cooperative fog/edge devices to construct medical Internet of Things environments, infectious disease forecast systems, smart health, and so on. However, these systems are usually done in isolation, which is called single-task learning. They do not consider the correlation and relationship between multiple/different tasks, so some common information in the model parameters or data characteristics is lost. In this study, each data center in fog/edge computing is considered as a task in the multi-task learning framework. In such a learning framework, a multi-task weighted Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy system, called MW-TSKFS, is developed to forecast the trend of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). MW-TSKFS provides a multi-task learning strategy for both antecedent and consequent parameters of fuzzy rules. First, a multi-task weighted fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm is developed for antecedent parameter learning, which extracts the public information among all tasks and the private information of each task. By sharing the public cluster centroid and public membership matrix, the differences of commonality and individuality can be further exploited. For consequent parameter learning of MW-TSKFS, a multi-task collaborative learning mechanism is developed based on ϵ-insensitive criterion and L2 norm penalty term, which can enhance the generalization and forecasting ability of the proposed fuzzy system. The experimental results on the real COVID-19 time series show that the forecasting tend model based on multi-task the weighted TSK fuzzy system has a high application value. © 2021 Association for Computing Machinery.

3.
Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders ; 59, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2004363

ABSTRACT

Objective(s): Gaps in current evidence and guidance leave clinicians with unanswered questions on the use of cladribine tablets for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly relating to COVID-19 vaccination. We describe a consensus-based program led by international MS experts with the aim of supplementing current guidelines and treatment labels by providing timely recommendations relating to COVID-19 vaccination and the use of cladribine tablets in clinical practice. Material(s) and Method(s): A steering committee (SC) of 10 international MS experts identified seven clinical questions to answer concerning the use of cladribine tablets and COVID-19 vaccination, which addressed issues relating to patient selection, timing and efficacy, and safety. Clinical recommendations addressing each question were drafted using available evidence combined with expert opinion from the SC. An extended faculty of 28 MS experts, representing 19 countries, in addition to the SC members, voted on the recommendations. Consensus on recommendations was achieved when ≥75% of respondents expressed an agreement score of 7–9, on a 9-point scale. Result(s): Consensus was achieved on all 13 recommendations. Clinical recommendations are provided on whether all patients with MS receiving cladribine tablets should be vaccinated against COVID-19, and whether they should be prioritized;the timing of vaccination around dosing of cladribine tablets (i.e., before and after a treatment course);and the safety of COVID-19 vaccination for these patients. Conclusion(s): There was overwhelming consensus that the risks of COVID-19 outweigh risks of vaccination in people with MS who are being treated with cladribine tablets, and all people with MS treated with cladribine tablets should be vaccinated against COVID-19 as soon as possible, unless they have a contraindication. The consensus provides timely guidance on patient selection, timing, efficacy, and safety of COVID-19 vaccination in patients receiving cladribine tablets, which is relevant to decision-making in everyday clinical practice.

4.
5.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; 60(10):S13, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1466437

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Developmental tasks of adolescence involve identity formation, building relationships, and achieving independence. This session will highlight some important aspects of adolescent development: sports/athletics, racial identity and racism, school and learning, and digital media. Special focus will be given to challenges with COVID-19, including activity cancellation, school changes/virtual schooling, increased awareness of racial and social disparities, and the role of media in social connections. Effects on mental health and well-being and the role of child and adolescent psychiatrists will also be discussed. Methods: Presentations will review the relevant literature and data with didactics, videos, case examples, polling, and interactive discussion. Raymond Pan, MD, child and adolescent psychiatrist, will discuss the role of athletics in adolescence, stressors involved with athletics, and issues related to concussions. Brandon Newsome, MD, psychiatry resident, will approach racial identity and racism in adolescence and how COVID-19 has influenced social determinants of mental health. Desiree Shapiro, MD, early-career child and adolescent psychiatrist, will discuss school- and learning-related mental health and explore disparities and injustices. Meredith Gansner, MD, early-career child and adolescent psychiatrist, will discuss media use and screen time in adolescence, effects of the pandemic, and potential risks of excessive digital media while maintaining interpersonal connectedness. Discussants Eugene Beresin, MD, and Liwei Hua, MD, PhD, both of whom are child and adolescent psychiatrists, will synthesize the material presented and facilitate discussion. Results: Participants will: 1) recognize the role of sports, racial identity and racism, school and learning, and digital media in the context of normal adolescent development as they relate to identity and relationship formation, as well as independence;2) learn about risks to these areas of development in the context of the pandemic;and 3) identify the role of child and adolescent psychiatrists in addressing the effects on mental health associated with the pandemic’s disruption of expected adolescent developmental milestones. Conclusions: The session focuses on topics relevant to adolescent life (sports/athletics, racial identity and racism, school and learning, and digital media) from a developmental perspective and seeks to educate clinicians on issues related to the topics. ADOL, DEV

6.
Jiegou Huaxue ; 40(4):431-442, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1268426

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) gained tremendous attention due to its high infectivity and pathogenicity. The 3-chymotrypsin-like hydrolase protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 has been proven to be an important target for anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. To better identify the drugs with potential in treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 and according to the crystal structure of Mpro, we conducted a virtual screening of FDA-approved drugs and chemical agents that have entered clinical trials. As a result, 9 drug candidates with therapeutic potential for the treatment of COVID-19 and with good docking scores were identified to target SARS-CoV-2. Consequently, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed to explore the dynamic interactions between the predicted drugs and Mpro. The binding mode during MD simulation showed that hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions played an important role in the binding processes. Based on the binding free energy calculated by using MM/PBSA, Lopiravir, an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease, is under investigation for the treatment of COVID-19 in combination with ritionavir, and it might inhibit Mpro effectively. Moreover, Ombitasvir, an inhibitor for non-structural protein 5A of hepatitis C virus (HCV), has good inhibitory potency for Mpro. It is notable that the GS-6620 has a binding free energy, with respect to binding Mpro, comparable to that of ombitasvir. Our study suggests that ombitasvir and lopinavir are good drug candidates for the treatment of COVID-19, and that GS-6620 has good anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. © 2021 Fujian Institute of Research of the Structure of Matter. All rights reserved.

7.
Proceedings of 2020 IEEE 3rd International Conference of Safe Production and Informatization, IICSPI 2020 ; : 112-117, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1109408

ABSTRACT

The resumption of work and production helps to avoid the short-term suspension of economic development caused by COVID-19 virus epidemic from becoming long-term economic depression. However, during the COVID-19 virus epidemic, the resumption of work may cause infection. Facing the uncertainty of external environment, the pressure of capital turnover and lead time of orders, the resumption of work and production is a severe problem. To judge the schedule of resumption, we analyze the electricity usage of enterprises in Shaoxing, select 200 enterprises in 4 industries, including heavy industries, general industry and commerce, agricultural production industries, agricultural irrigation and drainage industries. Using the electricity usage before and after the epidemic, we use STL decomposition and Mann Kendall trend test to intelligently judge the situation of resumption. At the same time, combined with the date of suspension and resumption of work, we determine the resumption threshold of enterprises and plot the resumption rate of industries. From the threshold and the plots, we can analyze the schedule of resumption one month before and after the Spring Festival to support the effect of epidemic on different industries. © 2020 IEEE.

9.
Am J Transl Res ; 12(10):6434-6444, 2020.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-923141

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has rapidly spread across the globe while little multi-center research about the epidemiological characteristics of cluster transmission is conducted. To provide a more comprehensive description of the epidemiological characteristics of cluster transmission and the virulence of SARS-CoV-2 carried by asymptomatic carriers, we studied the epidemiological characteristics of 70 clusters. 70 clusters including 311 consecutive subjects from January 20, 2020, to March 10, 2020, were enrolled. Of 70 clusters, 5 were infected by asymptomatic or presymptomatic carriers. We gathered and analyzed information about their demographic, epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic classification, and cluster characteristics. Among the 66 asymptomatic carriers in Jiangsu Province, 49 asymptomatic were observed in 311 subjects distributed in 70 clusters. We demonstrated that there is a significance between the severity of cases infected by asymptomatic carriers and cases infected by symptomatic patients (P=0.033) and the former usually presented with milder symptoms. A significant difference was shown regarding the level distribution of age (P=0.006) and the frequency distribution of gender (P=0.014) and disease severity of COVID-19 (P=0.008) among the seven groups classified by the relationship with the index cases. The average age of infected medical staff was the youngest and the majority of infected medical are females while the infected patients were generally oldest and usually accompanied by severest symptoms. We concluded that asymptomatic carriers are mainly screened out of clusters and the patients infected by asymptomatic carriers present with milder symptoms than those infected by symptomatic patients, which indicated that the SARS-CoV-2 shares decreased virulence among asymptomatic carriers. Effective measures should be taken to prevent transmission in hospitals to protect doctors, nurses, and patients.

10.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology (China) ; 40(7):489-494, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-701952

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the value of anal swabs positive for 2019-nCoV in patients with COVID-19 and the clinical features of the patients. Methods: Throat swabs, sputum and blood samples, and anal swabs were collected from 104 patients with COVID-19 at admission to test for 2019-nCoV nucleic acid. Clinical characteristics and hematological indexes were compared between viral nucleic acid-positive and -negative groups of different sample types. Fifteen patients whose anal swabs were positive for viral nucleic acid were selected to analyze the length of time before the nucleic acid turned negative in different specimens. Results: Compared with the patients having negative anal swab test results, those having positive test results showed decreased lymphocytes, increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HsCRP), and higher incidence of severe COVID-19. The levels of HsCRP and IL-6 and the incidence of severe COVID-19 were significantly higher in patients with positive throat swab test results than in those with negative results. No significant difference in hematological indexes or the proportion of severe cases was detected between the patients with positive and negative sputum test results. Only 1.92% of the patients had positive blood test results, but all of them were severe patients. The positive rate of sputum test was the highest, which was 46.15%. Patients with positive results of both throat and anal swab test had significantly decreased lymphocytes, increased HsCRP and IL-6 levels, and higher incidence of critical COVID-19. It took longer time for patients to have negative anal swab and sputum test results. Moreover, it should be noticed that the viral nucleic acid in sputum might become positive again after it turned negative. Conclusions: Patients with positive anal swab test results had reduced lymphocytes, enhanced inflammatory response and higher incidence of severe COVID-19, suggesting that a positive anal swab test might be an indicator of severe COVID-19. Moreover, the time of 2019-nCoV nucleic acid turning negative in anal swabs was longer than that in throat swabs. The combined detection of throat swabs and anal swabs would help to predict the occurrence of severe COVID-19.

11.
Non-conventional | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-329650

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a coronavirus called SARS Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It has been observed that COVID-19 mainly spreads via respiratory tract, contact and digestive tract. Due to the particularity of profession, ophthalmic medical workers need to be in close contact with patients, so they have a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this paper, therefore, the self-protection of medical workers in ophthalmology clinic during COVID-19 epidemic was summarized, so as to improve the occupational protection measures for medical workers in ophthalmology clinic, strengthen the self-protection awareness, and protect the safety of such a special group.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL