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1.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1029385, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236976

ABSTRACT

Rapid urbanization has gradually strengthened the spatial links between cities, which greatly aggravates the possibility of the spread of an epidemic. Traditional methods lack the early and accurate detection of epidemics. This study took the Hubei province as the study area and used Tencent's location big data to study the spread of COVID-19. Using ArcGIS as a platform, the urban relation intensity, urban centrality, overlay analysis, and correlation analysis were used to measure and analyze the population mobility data of 17 cities in Hubei province. The results showed that there was high similarity in the spatial distribution of urban relation intensity, urban centrality, and the number of infected people, all indicating the spatial distribution characteristics of "one large and two small" distributions with Wuhan as the core and Huanggang and Xiaogan as the two wings. The urban centrality of Wuhan was four times higher than that of Huanggang and Xiaogan, and the urban relation intensity of Wuhan with Huanggang and Xiaogan was also the second highest in the Hubei province. Meanwhile, in the analysis of the number of infected persons, it was found that the number of infected persons in Wuhan was approximately two times that of these two cities. Through correlation analysis of the urban relation intensity, urban centrality, and the number of infected people, it was found that there was an extremely significant positive correlation among the urban relation intensity, urban centrality, and the number of infected people, with an R2 of 0.976 and 0.938, respectively. Based on Tencent's location big data, this study conducted the epidemic spread research for "epidemic spatial risk classification and prevention and control level selection" to make up for the shortcomings in epidemic risk analysis and judgment. This could provide a reference for city managers to effectively coordinate existing resources, formulate policy, and control the epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Animals , Humans , Big Data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Cities
2.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1125301, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296674

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the limitations of urban public health emergency response capabilities. Taking Wuhan as an example, this study used breakpoint regression, kernel density analysis, overlay analysis, and accessibility analysis from Stata and ArcGIS, and divided epidemic prevention facilities into the basic epidemic prevention facilities (hospitals), and the emergency epidemic prevention facilities (mobile cabin hospitals) for further analysis. The results showed that over 70% of the basic epidemic prevention facilities in Wuhan were located in high density population areas. On the contrary, most of the emergency epidemic prevention facilities were located in low density population areas. The local treatment effect of the implementation of the emergency epidemic prevention facility policy is about 1, indicating that there was a significant impact of emergency epidemic prevention facilities on outbreak control, which passed the bandwidth test. What's more, the analysis of the accessibility of residential points revealed that more than 67.3% of people from the residential points could arrive at the epidemic prevention facilities within 15 min, and only 0.1% of them took more than 20 min to arrive. Therefore, the epidemic prevention facilities can effectively curb the spread of the epidemic, and people from residential areas can quickly get there. This study summarized the spatial characteristics of epidemic prevention facilities in Wuhan and analyzed the importance of them, thus providing a new perspective for future research on upgrading the city's comprehensive disaster prevention system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cities , Pandemics , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Hospitals
3.
medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.09.05.22279589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDThe rising breakthrough infections caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants, especially Omicron and its sub-lineages, have raised an urgent need to develop broad-spectrum vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We have developed a mosaic-type recombinant vaccine candidate, named NVSI-06-09, having immune potentials against a broad range of SARS-CoV-2 variants. METHODSAn ongoing randomized, double-blind, controlled phase 2 trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of NVSI-06-09 as a booster dose in subjects aged 18 years and older from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), who had completed two or three doses of BBIBP-CorV vaccinations at least 6 months prior to the enrollment. The participants were randomly assigned with 1:1 to receive a booster dose of NVSI-06-09 or BBIBP-CorV. The primary outcomes were immunogenicity and safety against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, and the exploratory outcome was cross-immunogenicity against other circulating strains. RESULTSA total of 516 participants received booster vaccination. Interim results showed a similar safety profile between NVSI-06-09 and BBIBP-CorV booster groups, with low incidence of adverse reactions of grade 1 or 2. For immunogenicity, by day 14 after the booster vaccination, the fold rises in neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs) from baseline level elicited by NVSI-06-09 were remarkably higher than those by BBIBP-CorV against the prototype strain (19.67 vs 4.47-fold), Omicron BA.1.1 (42.35 vs 3.78-fold), BA.2 (25.09 vs 2.91-fold), BA.4 (22.42 vs 2.69-fold), and BA.5 variants (27.06 vs 4.73-fold). Similarly, the neutralizing GMTs boosted by NVSI-06-09 against Beta and Delta variants were also 6.60-fold and 7.17-fold higher than those boosted by BBIBP-CorV. CONCLUSIONSA booster dose of NVSI-06-09 was well-tolerated and elicited broad-spectrum neutralizing responses against SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain and immune-evasive variants, including Omicron and its sub-lineages. The immunogenicity of NVSI-06-09 as a booster vaccine was superior to that of BBIBP-CorV. (Funded by LIBP and BIBP of Sinopharm; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT05293548).

4.
biorxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.03.29.486173

ABSTRACT

Large-scale populations in the world have been vaccinated with COVID-19 vaccines, however, breakthrough infections of SARS-CoV-2 are still growing rapidly due to the emergence of immune-evasive variants, especially Omicron. It is urgent to develop effective broad-spectrum vaccines to better control the pandemic of these variants. Here, we present a mosaic-type trimeric form of spike receptor-binding domain (mos-tri-RBD) as a broad-spectrum vaccine candidate, which carries the key mutations from Omicron and other circulating variants. Tests in rats showed that the designed mos-tri-RBD, whether used alone or as a booster shot, elicited potent cross-neutralizing antibodies against not only Omicron but also other immune-evasive variants. Neutralizing antibody titers induced by mos-tri-RBD were substantially higher than those elicited by homo-tri-RBD (containing homologous RBDs from prototype strain) or the inactivated vaccine BBIBP-CorV. Our study indicates that mos-tri-RBD is highly immunogenic, which may serve as a broad-spectrum vaccine candidate in combating SARS-CoV-2 variants including Omicron.

5.
medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.03.08.22272062

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants with immune escape ability raises the urgent need for developing cross-neutralizing vaccines against the virus. NVSI-06-08 is a potential broad-spectrum recombinant COVID-19 vaccine that integrates the antigens from multiple SARS-CoV-2 strains into a single immunogen. Here, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of NVSI-06-08 as a heterologous booster dose in adults previously vaccinated with the inactivated vaccine BBIBP-CorV in a randomized, double-blind, controlled, phase 2 trial conducted in the United Arab Emirates (NCT05069129). Three groups of healthy adults over 18 years of age (600 participants per group) who had administered two doses of BBIBP-CorV 4-6-month, 7-9-month and >9-month earlier, respectively, were vaccinated with either a homologous booster of BBIBP-CorV or a heterologous booster of NVSI-06-08. The primary outcome was immunogenicity and safety of booster vaccinations. The exploratory outcome was cross-reactive immunogenicity against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants of concerns (VOCs). The incidence of adverse reactions was low in both booster vaccinations, and the overall safety profile of heterologous boost was quite similar to that of homologous boost. Heterologous NVSI-06-08 booster was immunogenically superior to homologous booster of BBIBP-CorV. Both Neutralizing and IgG antibodies elicited by NVSI-06-08 booster were significantly higher than by the booster of BBIBP-CorV against not only SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain but also multiple VOCs. Especially, the neutralizing activity induced by NVSI-06-08 booster against the immune-evasive Beta variant was no less than that against the prototype strain, and a considerable level of neutralizing antibodies against Omicron (GMT: 367.67; 95%CI, 295.50-457.47) was induced by heterologous booster, which was substantially higher than that boosted by BBIBP-CorV (GMT: 45.03; 95%CI, 36.37-55.74). Our findings showed that NVSI-06-08 was safe and immunogenic as a booster dose following two doses of BBIBP-CorV, which was immunogenically superior to homologous boost with another dose of BBIBP-CorV. Our study also indicated that the design of hybrid antigen may provide an effective strategy for broad-spectrum vaccine developments.

6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 679429, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378212

ABSTRACT

Background: By implementing aggressive control measures, China has rapidly and effectively controlled the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, the neglected homeless population may become victims of that perceived success. Due to political sensitivity, we know little about them. Aims: This study aimed to investigate how the pandemic and the pandemic control strategies of the government affected the lives of the homeless people in mainland China. Methods: A total of 103 eligible participants experiencing absolute homelessness were recruited from Guangzhou City during July and August 2020. Surveys measured demographic characteristics including health status, changes in daily living, and actions of the government toward the homeless during the pandemic. Sankey diagrams and ordered logit regression models were used to examine the impact on the homeless of inhumane government efforts to drive the homeless away. Qualitative materials were analyzed by using an inductive approach to provide more details. Results: First, the homeless people in Guangzhou tended to be male, aged 40 to 64 years, less well-educated, and they originated from outside Guangdong although they were living in the city center. Most had little connection with their families. After a long period of homelessness, almost half of the participants were in poor health with various conditions, which made them extremely vulnerable to COVID-19. Second, the pandemic caused a substantial decline in incomes of homeless people, had less of a negative impact on their food intake, and affected sleep time in different ways. Third, during the COVID-19 pandemic, humanitarian aid from local governments of China decreased, whereas inhumane efforts to drive the homeless away intensified. Fourth, quantitative models and qualitative materials demonstrate the devastating effect of the strict pandemic control strategy of the government on the lives of homeless people, which may further cause their health problems. Conclusion: This study for the first time illustrated the characteristic features of the street homeless population in mainland China and their living situation during the COVID-19 pandemic, and most importantly demonstrated the devastating effect of the strict pandemic control of the government, which has been considered a great success in previous studies, on lives of homeless people. Urgent measures should be taken to ensure the protection of the homeless population and prevent an impending humanitarian crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ill-Housed Persons , China/epidemiology , Government , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Jianzhu Jieneng = Construction Conserves Energy ; 49(6):92, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1342707

ABSTRACT

Ward protection unit is the basic isolation unit of infectious disease hospital, and it is the basic element of physical isolation. The isolation of airflow depends on the reasonable setting of ventilation and air conditioning system. For the COVID-19 emergency hospital, the design of ventilation and air conditioning system in its ward protection unit is very important and is an important means to control the air transmission route. Based on the design of Wuhan Huoshenshan hospital, starting from the principles and objectives of protection unit design, this paper focuses on the analysis of system division and air distribution, protection unit pressure difference control, ventilation calculation, filter and outdoor fan setting, etc., and discusses the ventilation and air conditioning design of each area in the protection unit item by item. Finally, the differences between the COVID-19 emergency hospital and the conventional infectious disease hospital in ventilation and air conditioning design are compared, and the design method and technical requirements are summarized, hoping to provide reference for similar engineering design.

8.
biorxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.06.18.448958

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 is an attractive target for COVID-19 vaccine developments, which naturally exists in a trimeric form. Here, guided by structural and computational analyses, we present a mutation-integrated trimeric form of RBD (mutI tri-RBD) as a broadly protective vaccine candidate, in which three RBDs were individually grafted from three different circulating SARS-CoV-2 strains including the prototype, Beta (B.1.351) and Kappa (B.1.617). The three RBDs were then connected end-to-end and co-assembled to possibly mimic the native trimeric arrangements in the natural S protein trimer. The recombinant expression of the mutI tri-RBD, as well as the homo-tri-RBD where the three RBDs were all truncated from the prototype strain, by mammalian cell exhibited correct folding, strong bio-activities, and high stability. The immunization of both the mutI tri-RBD and homo-tri-RBD plus aluminum adjuvant induced high levels of specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain in mice. Notably, regarding to the immune-escape Beta (B.1.351) variant, mutI tri-RBD elicited significantly higher neutralizing antibody titers than homo-tri-RBD. Furthermore, due to harboring the immune-resistant mutations as well as the evolutionarily convergent hotspots, the designed mutI tri-RBD also induced strong broadly neutralizing activities against various SARS-CoV-2 variants, especially the variants partially resistant to homo-tri-RBD. Homo-tri-RBD has been approved by the China National Medical Products Administration to enter clinical trial (No. NCT04869592), and the superior broad neutralization performances against SARS-CoV-2 support the mutI tri-RBD as a more promising vaccine candidate for further clinical developments.

10.
J Med Virol ; 92(7): 841-848, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-164690

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus pneumonia, first identified in Wuhan City and referred to as COVID-19 by the World Health Organization, has been quickly spreading to other cities and countries. To control the epidemic, the Chinese government mandated a quarantine of the Wuhan city on January 23, 2020. To explore the effectiveness of the quarantine of the Wuhan city against this epidemic, transmission dynamics of COVID-19 have been estimated. A well-mixed "susceptible exposed infectious recovered" (SEIR) compartmental model was employed to describe the dynamics of the COVID-19 epidemic based on epidemiological characteristics of individuals, clinical progression of COVID-19, and quarantine intervention measures of the authority. Considering infected individuals as contagious during the latency period, the well-mixed SEIR model fitting results based on the assumed contact rate of latent individuals are within 6-18, which represented the possible impact of quarantine and isolation interventions on disease infections, whereas other parameter were suppose as unchanged under the current intervention. The present study shows that, by reducing the contact rate of latent individuals, interventions such as quarantine and isolation can effectively reduce the potential peak number of COVID-19 infections and delay the time of peak infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Models, Statistical , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Quarantine , Adult , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Clin Transl Sci ; 13(6): 1077-1086, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-99762

ABSTRACT

In this study we report on the clinical and autoimmune characteristics of severe and critical novel coronavirus pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The clinical, autoimmune, and laboratory characteristics of 21 patients who had laboratory-confirmed severe and critical cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from the intensive care unit of the Huangshi Central Hospital, Hubei Province, China, were investigated. A total of 21 patients (13 men and 8 women), including 8 (38.1%) severe cases and 13 (61.9%) critical cases, were enrolled. Cough (90.5%) and fever (81.0%) were the dominant symptoms, and most patients (76.2%) had at least one coexisting disorder on admission. The most common characteristics on chest computed tomography were ground-glass opacity (100%) and bilateral patchy shadowing (76.2%). The most common findings on laboratory measurement were lymphocytopenia (85.7%) and elevated levels of C-reactive protein (94.7%) and interleukin-6 (89.5%). The prevalence of anti-52 kDa SSA/Ro antibody, anti-60 kDa SSA/Ro antibody, and antinuclear antibody was 20%, 25%, and 50%, respectively. We also retrospectively analyzed the clinical and laboratory data from 21 severe and critical cases of COVID-19. Autoimmune phenomena exist in COVID-19 subjects, and the present results provide the rationale for a strategy of preventing immune dysfunction and optimal immunosuppressive therapy.


Subject(s)
Autoimmunity , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autoantibodies/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
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