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1.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 17(12): e1879-e1886, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270943

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Multiple studies have demonstrated the negative impact of cancer care delays during the COVID-19 pandemic, and transmission mitigation techniques are imperative for continued cancer care delivery. We aimed to gauge the effectiveness of these measures at the University of Pennsylvania. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study of SARS-CoV-2 antibody seropositivity and seroconversion in patients presenting to infusion centers for cancer-directed therapy between May 21, 2020, and October 8, 2020. Participants completed questionnaires and had up to five serial blood collections. RESULTS: Of 124 enrolled patients, only two (1.6%) had detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies on initial blood draw, and no initially seronegative patients developed newly detectable antibodies on subsequent blood draw(s), corresponding to a seroconversion rate of 0% (95% CI, 0.0 TO 4.1%) over 14.8 person-years of follow up, with a median of 13 health care visits per patient. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that patients with cancer receiving in-person care at a facility with aggressive mitigation efforts have an extremely low likelihood of COVID-19 infection.

2.
Sci Immunol ; 6(57)2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115087

ABSTRACT

Pediatric COVID-19 following SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with fewer hospitalizations and often milder disease than in adults. A subset of children, however, present with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) that can lead to vascular complications and shock, but rarely death. The immune features of MIS-C compared to pediatric COVID-19 or adult disease remain poorly understood. We analyzed peripheral blood immune responses in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 infected pediatric patients (pediatric COVID-19) and patients with MIS-C. MIS-C patients had patterns of T cell-biased lymphopenia and T cell activation similar to severely ill adults, and all patients with MIS-C had SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific antibodies at admission. A distinct feature of MIS-C patients was robust activation of vascular patrolling CX3CR1+ CD8+ T cells that correlated with the use of vasoactive medication. Finally, whereas pediatric COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) had sustained immune activation, MIS-C patients displayed clinical improvement over time, concomitant with decreasing immune activation. Thus, non-MIS-C versus MIS-C SARS-CoV-2 associated illnesses are characterized by divergent immune signatures that are temporally distinct from one another and implicate CD8+ T cells in the clinical presentation and trajectory of MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aging/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Leukopenia/immunology , Male , Young Adult
3.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(1): pkaa120, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069274

ABSTRACT

Cancer patients are a vulnerable population postulated to be at higher risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Increased COVID-19 morbidity and mortality in cancer patients may be attributable to age, comorbidities, smoking, health care exposure, and cancer treatments, and partially to the cancer itself. Most studies to date have focused on hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19, thereby limiting the generalizability and interpretability of the association between cancer and COVID-19 severity. We compared outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 323 patients enrolled in a population-based study before the pandemic (n = 67 cancer patients; n = 256 noncancer patients). After adjusting for demographics, smoking status, and comorbidities, a diagnosis of cancer was independently associated with higher odds of hospitalization (odds ratio = 2.16, 95% confidence interval = 1.12 to 4.18) and 30-day mortality (odds ratio = 5.67, 95% confidence interval = 1.49 to 21.59). These associations were primarily driven by patients with active cancer. These results emphasize the critical importance of preventing SARS-CoV-2 exposure and mitigating infection in cancer patients.

4.
JAMA Intern Med ; 181(2): 195-202, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064281

ABSTRACT

Importance: Health care workers (HCWs) caring for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at risk of exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently, to our knowledge, there is no effective pharmacologic prophylaxis for individuals at risk. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in hospital-based HCWs with exposure to patients with COVID-19 using a pre-exposure prophylaxis strategy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial (the Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19 With Hydroxychloroquine Study) was conducted at 2 tertiary urban hospitals, with enrollment from April 9, 2020, to July 14, 2020; follow-up ended August 4, 2020. The trial randomized 132 full-time, hospital-based HCWs (physicians, nurses, certified nursing assistants, emergency technicians, and respiratory therapists), of whom 125 were initially asymptomatic and had negative results for SARS-CoV-2 by nasopharyngeal swab. The trial was terminated early for futility before reaching a planned enrollment of 200 participants. Interventions: Hydroxychloroquine, 600 mg, daily, or size-matched placebo taken orally for 8 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection as determined by a nasopharyngeal swab during the 8 weeks of treatment. Secondary outcomes included adverse effects, treatment discontinuation, presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, frequency of QTc prolongation, and clinical outcomes for SARS-CoV-2-positive participants. Results: Of the 132 randomized participants (median age, 33 years [range, 20-66 years]; 91 women [69%]), 125 (94.7%) were evaluable for the primary outcome. There was no significant difference in infection rates in participants randomized to receive hydroxychloroquine compared with placebo (4 of 64 [6.3%] vs 4 of 61 [6.6%]; P > .99). Mild adverse events were more common in participants taking hydroxychloroquine compared with placebo (45% vs 26%; P = .04); rates of treatment discontinuation were similar in both arms (19% vs 16%; P = .81). The median change in QTc (baseline to 4-week evaluation) did not differ between arms (hydroxychloroquine: 4 milliseconds; 95% CI, -9 to 17; vs placebo: 3 milliseconds; 95% CI, -5 to 11; P = .98). Of the 8 participants with positive results for SARS-CoV-2 (6.4%), 6 developed viral symptoms; none required hospitalization, and all clinically recovered. Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, although limited by early termination, there was no clinical benefit of hydroxychloroquine administered daily for 8 weeks as pre-exposure prophylaxis in hospital-based HCWs exposed to patients with COVID-19. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04329923.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/virology , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Personnel, Hospital , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Science ; 369(6508)2020 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-981641

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently a global pandemic, but human immune responses to the virus remain poorly understood. We used high-dimensional cytometry to analyze 125 COVID-19 patients and compare them with recovered and healthy individuals. Integrated analysis of ~200 immune and ~50 clinical features revealed activation of T cell and B cell subsets in a proportion of patients. A subgroup of patients had T cell activation characteristic of acute viral infection and plasmablast responses reaching >30% of circulating B cells. However, another subgroup had lymphocyte activation comparable with that in uninfected individuals. Stable versus dynamic immunological signatures were identified and linked to trajectories of disease severity change. Our analyses identified three immunotypes associated with poor clinical trajectories versus improving health. These immunotypes may have implications for the design of therapeutics and vaccines for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Plasma Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Time Factors , Young Adult
6.
medRxiv ; 2020 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807631

ABSTRACT

Pediatric COVID-19 following SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with fewer hospitalizations and often milder disease than in adults. A subset of children, however, present with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) that can lead to vascular complications and shock, but rarely death. The immune features of MIS-C compared to pediatric COVID-19 or adult disease remain poorly understood. We analyzed peripheral blood immune responses in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 infected pediatric patients (pediatric COVID-19) and patients with MIS-C. MIS-C patients had patterns of T cell-biased lymphopenia and T cell activation similar to severely ill adults, and all patients with MIS-C had SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific antibodies at admission. A distinct feature of MIS-C patients was robust activation of vascular patrolling CX3CR1+ CD8 T cells that correlated with use of vasoactive medication. Finally, whereas pediatric COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) had sustained immune activation, MIS-C patients displayed clinical improvement over time, concomitant with decreasing immune activation. Thus, non-MIS-C versus MIS-C SARS-CoV-2 associated illnesses are characterized by divergent immune signatures that are temporally distinct and implicate CD8 T cells in clinical presentation and trajectory of MIS-C.

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