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1.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 2021 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064324

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly throughout the whole world and caused significant difficulties in the prevention and control of the epidemic. In this case, several detection methods have been established based on nucleic acid diagnostic techniques and immunoassays to achieve sensitive and specific detection of SARS-CoV-2. However, most methods are still largely dependent on professional instruments, highly trained operators, and centralized laboratories. These limitations gravely diminish their practicality and portability. Herein, a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) Cas12a based assay was developed for portable, rapid and sensitive of SARS-CoV-2. In this assay, samples were quickly pretreated and amplified by reverse transcription recombinase-aided amplification under mild conditions. Then, by combining the CRISPR Cas12a system and a glucose-producing reaction, the signal of the virus was converted to that of glucose, which can be quantitatively read by a personal glucose meter in a few seconds. Nucleocapsid protein gene was tested as a model target, and the sensitivity for quantitative detection was as low as 10 copies/µl, which basically meet the needs of clinical diagnosis. In addition, with the advantages of lower material cost, shorter detection time, and no requirement for professional instrument in comparison with quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, this assay is expected to provide a powerful technical support for the early diagnosis and intervention during epidemic prevention and control.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1816, 2020 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a pandemic. The knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of the public play a major role in the prevention and control of infectious diseases. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the KAP of the Chinese public and to assess potential influencing factors related to practices. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in China in February 2020 via a self-designed questionnaire comprising 33 questions assessing KAP. RESULTS: For the 2136 respondents from 30 provinces or municipalities in China, the accurate response rate for the knowledge section ranged from 72.7 to 99.5%, and the average was 91.2%. Regarding attitude section, the percentage of positive attitudes ("strongly agree" and "agree") ranged from 94.7 to 99.7%, and the average value was 98.0%. The good practices ("always" and "often") results ranged from 76.1 to 99.5%, and the average value was 96.8%. The independent samples t-test revealed that gender and ethnic differences had no effect on knowledge, attitude or behaviour (P > 0.05). However, knowledge was associated with age (t = 4.842, p < 0.001), marital status (t = - 5.323, p < 0.001), education level (t = 8.441, p < 0.001), occupation (t = - 10.858, p < 0.001), and place of residence (t = 7.929, p < 0.001). Similarly, attitude was associated with marital status (t = - 2.383, p = 0.017), education level (t = 2.106, p = 0.035), occupation (t = - 4.834, p < 0.001), and place of residence (t = 4.242, p < 0.001). The multiple linear regression analysis results showed that the factors influencing practices were knowledge (t = - 3.281, p = 0.001), attitude (t = 18.756, p < 0.001), occupation (t = - 3.860, p < 0.001), education level (t = 3.136, p = 0.002), and place of residence (t = 3.257, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The Chinese public exhibited a good level of knowledge of COVID-19, a positive attitude, and high adherence to good practices. COVID-19-related knowledge, attitudes and practices were affected by age, marital status, education level, occupation, and place of residence to varying degrees. In addition, practices were affected by knowledge and attitudes towards COVID-19.

3.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 540187, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-782038

ABSTRACT

Objective: The quality and rationality of many recently registered clinical studies related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) needs to be assessed. Hence, this study aims to evaluate the current status of COVID-19 related registered clinical trial. Methods: We did an electronic search of COVID-19 related clinical studies registered between December 1, 2019 and February 21, 2020 (updated to May 28, 2020) from the ClinicalTrials.gov, and collected registration information, study details, recruitment status, characteristics of the subjects, and relevant information about the trial implementation process. Results: A total of 1,706 studies were included 10.0% of which (n=171) were from France, 943 (55.3%) used an interventional design, and 600 (35.2%) used an observational design. Most of studies (73.6%) aimed to recruit fewer than 500 people. Interferon was the main prevention program, and antiviral drugs were the main treatment program. Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine (230/943, 24.4%) were widely studied. Some registered clinical trials are incomplete in content, and 37.4% of the 1,706 studies may have had insufficient sample size. Conclusion: The quality of COVID-19 related studies needs to be improved by strengthening the registration process and improving the quality of clinical study protocols so that these clinical studies can provide high-quality clinical evidence related to COVID-19.

4.
Chin. J. Evid.-Based Med. ; 6(20): 723-736, 20200601.
Article in Chinese | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-739130

ABSTRACT

Objective To develop the questionnaire and test its reliability for investigating route, prevention, and control of SARS-CoV-2 infection in medical staffs. Methods This questionnaire was development based on the COVID-19 relevant guidelines, official documents issued by the National Health Committee of the People's Republic of China, and published studies. The development group performed repeated discussions and drafted the first questionnaire, then performed expert consultation and revised the draft according to their suggestions. Eventually, some frontline medical staffs were invited to carry out pre-test investigation of the questionnaire and test its reliability. Results The first draft included 48 items; 18 experts were invited in the first round questionnaire and 10 experts in the second round questionnaire. The positive coefficient of experts in these two rounds was both greater than 75%, and the authority coefficient of experts' opinions was greater than 0.70. The variation coefficient of these items was between 0.00 and 0.35, the coordination coefficient of experts was 0.193 (P<0.05). The experts of above two rounds put forward 14 suggestions for text modification or adjustment options of some items; after the development group held repeatedly discussions, a total of 8 items were performed secondary consultation and finally reached consensus. The final questionnaire included two domains of questionnaire before and after confirmed diagnosis. The domain "before confirmed diagnosis" covered 4 sections and 29 items involving infectious cause, plan and knowledge of prevention and control, and psychological symptoms. The domain "after confirmed diagnosis" covered 5 sections and 21 items, included symptoms, treatment, and psychological status after diagnosis; impact on the surrounding environment and people, and awareness of protection after infection. The pre-test results showed that the total items were considerably numerous, some items were difficult to understand, some laboratory results and treatment conditions were ambiguous, etc. After modification and re-testing, the test-re-test reliability of each domain was between 0.74 and 0.93, and the overall re-test reliability of the questionnaire content was 0.82. Conclusions This research has developed a questionnaire for investigating infection process, prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2 infection in medical staff, and the items considered two domains prior to and after confirmed diagnosis. The reliability and practicability of the questionnaire are acceptable.

5.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(12): 747, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640177

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus has a high incidence rate and strong infectivity. The diagnosis and evaluation of familial outbreaks requires a collective consideration of epidemiological history, molecular detection methods, chest computed tomography (CT), and clinical symptoms. Methods: A group of family patients with COVID-19 diagnosed in Guizhou, China, in February 2020, was retrospectively analyzed. As of March 1, all patients in the group have been discharged from hospital. This study tracked all patients in the group. We report the epidemiology, radiological characteristics, treatment, and clinical outcomes of these patients. Results: We collected a group of 8 clustered cases (3 men and 5 women) from a family with confirmed COVID-19 infection. In the first admission diagnosis, according to the degree of clinical symptoms, the 8 patients were defined as mild type (4/8) or moderate type (4/8). They were also divided according to the CT findings into early period (1/8), progressive period (3/8), and negative on CT scan (4/8); for the first 4 patients, the corresponding CT image scores were 1, 4, 5, and 5 respectively. In this group of COVID-19 patients, half of the patients showed occult clinical manifestations and negative CT performance. We defined these patients as COVID-19-infected patients, or asymptomatic carriers. Conclusions: The family cluster analysis indicated that COVID-19-infected patients (asymptomatic carriers) and symptomatic COVID-19 patients are distinct but coexistent. This may indicate that the infectivity and virulence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) has decreased. In order to block the transmission pathway of this virus before it spreads, we need to identify the presence of asymptomatic carriers as early as possible.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(26): e20844, 2020 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616557

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a rapidly spreading communicable disease affecting individuals worldwide. Patients with diabetes are more vulnerable to the disease, and the mortality is higher than in those without diabetes. We reported a severe COVID-19 patient with diabetes and shared our experience with blood glucose management. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 64-year-old female diabetes patient was admitted to the intensive care unit due to productive coughing for 8 days without any obvious cause. The results of blood gas analysis indicated that the partial pressure of oxygen was 84 mm Hg with oxygen 8 L/min, and the oxygenation index was less than 200 mm Hg. In addition, postprandial blood glucose levels were abnormal (29.9 mmol/L). DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed with COVID-19 (severe type) and type 2 diabetes. INTERVENTIONS: Comprehensive interventions including establishing a multidisciplinary team, closely monitoring her blood glucose level, an individualized diabetes diet, early activities, psychological care, etc, were performed to control blood glucose while actively treating COVID-19 infection. OUTCOMES: After the comprehensive measures, the patient's blood glucose level gradually became stable, and the patient was discharged after 20 days of hospitalization. LESSONS: This case indicated that the comprehensive measures performed by a multidisciplinary team achieved good treatment effects on a COVID-19 patient with diabetes. Targeted treatment and nursing methods should be performed based on patients' actual situations in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Complications/virology , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/psychology , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy
8.
Int J Nurs Stud ; : 103635, 2020 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-276127

ABSTRACT

This article has been withdrawn at the request of the editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal.

10.
Mil Med Res ; 7(1): 4, 2020 02 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-405

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a new type viral pneumonia cases occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province; and then named "2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)" by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 12 January 2020. For it is a never been experienced respiratory disease before and with infection ability widely and quickly, it attracted the world's attention but without treatment and control manual. For the request from frontline clinicians and public health professionals of 2019-nCoV infected pneumonia management, an evidence-based guideline urgently needs to be developed. Therefore, we drafted this guideline according to the rapid advice guidelines methodology and general rules of WHO guideline development; we also added the first-hand management data of Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University. This guideline includes the guideline methodology, epidemiological characteristics, disease screening and population prevention, diagnosis, treatment and control (including traditional Chinese Medicine), nosocomial infection prevention and control, and disease nursing of the 2019-nCoV. Moreover, we also provide a whole process of a successful treatment case of the severe 2019-nCoV infected pneumonia and experience and lessons of hospital rescue for 2019-nCoV infections. This rapid advice guideline is suitable for the first frontline doctors and nurses, managers of hospitals and healthcare sections, community residents, public health persons, relevant researchers, and all person who are interested in the 2019-nCoV.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Cross Infection , Infection Control , Mass Screening , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Diagnosis, Differential , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Evidence-Based Medicine , Fluid Therapy , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Molecular Epidemiology , Nursing Care , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
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