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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(1): e272-e273, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486422
2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 245-251, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086983

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are observed in severe COVID-19 infections, and cytokine storm is associated with disease severity. Tocilizumab, an interleukin-6 receptor antagonist, is used to treat chimeric antigen receptor T cell-induced cytokine release syndrome and may attenuate the dysregulated immune response in COVID-19. We compared outcomes among tocilizumab-treated and non-tocilizumab-treated critically ill COVID-19 patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a retrospective observational study conducted at a tertiary referral center investigating all patients admitted to the intensive care unit for COVID-19 who had a disposition from the hospital because of death or hospital discharge between March 1 and May 18, 2020 (n = 96). The percentages of death and secondary infections were compared between patients treated with tocilizumab (n = 55) and those who were not (n = 41). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: More tocilizumab-treated patients required mechanical ventilation (44/55, 80%) compared to non-treated patients (15/41, 37%; P < 0.001). Of 55 patients treated with tocilizumab, 32 (58%) were on mechanical ventilation at the time of administration, and 12 (22%) progressed to mechanical ventilation after treatment. Of patients treated with tocilizumab requiring mechanical ventilation, 30/44 (68%) were intubated within 1 day of administration. Fewer deaths were observed among tocilizumab-treated patients, both in the overall population (15% vs 37%; P = 0.02) and among the subgroup of patients requiring mechanical ventilation (14% vs 60%; P = 0.001). Secondary infections were not different between the 2 groups (tocilizumab: 31%, non-tocilizumab: 17%; P = 0.16) and were predominantly related to invasive devices, such as urinary and central venous catheters. CONCLUSIONS: Tocilizumab treatment was associated with fewer deaths compared to non-treatment despite predominantly being used in patients with more advanced respiratory disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Illness , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies
4.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 77(2): 459-504, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760837

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a severe infectious disease that has claimed >150,000 lives and infected millions in the United States thus far, especially the elderly population. Emerging evidence has shown the virus to cause hemorrhagic and immunologic responses, which impact all organs, including lungs, kidneys, and the brain, as well as extremities. SARS-CoV-2 also affects patients', families', and society's mental health at large. There is growing evidence of re-infection in some patients. The goal of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of SARS-CoV-2-induced disease, its mechanism of infection, diagnostics, therapeutics, and treatment strategies, while also focusing on less attended aspects by previous studies, including nutritional support, psychological, and rehabilitation of the pandemic and its management. We performed a systematic review of >1,000 articles and included 425 references from online databases, including, PubMed, Google Scholar, and California Baptist University's library. COVID-19 patients go through acute respiratory distress syndrome, cytokine storm, acute hypercoagulable state, and autonomic dysfunction, which must be managed by a multidisciplinary team including nursing, nutrition, and rehabilitation. The elderly population and those who are suffering from Alzheimer's disease and dementia related illnesses seem to be at the higher risk. There are 28 vaccines under development, and new treatment strategies/protocols are being investigated. The future management for COVID-19 should include B-cell and T-cell immunotherapy in combination with emerging prophylaxis. The mental health and illness aspect of COVID-19 are among the most important side effects of this pandemic which requires a national plan for prevention, diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy , Mental Health , Nutritional Support , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(12): 3168-3173, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612034

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Preliminary data from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia patients indicate that a cytokine storm may increase morbidity and mortality. Tocilizumab (anti-IL-6R) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of cytokine storm associated with chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy. Here we examined compassionate use of tocilizumab in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. METHODS: We report on a single-center study of tocilizumab in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. All patients had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and oxygen saturations <90% on oxygen support with most intubated. We examined clinical and laboratory parameters including oxygen and vasopressor requirements, cytokine profiles, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels pre- and post-tocilizumab treatment. RESULTS: Twenty-seven SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients received one 400 mg dose of tocilizumab. Interleukin (IL)-6 was the predominant cytokine detected at tocilizumab treatment. Significant reductions in temperature and CRP were seen post-tocilizumab. However, 4 patients did not show rapid CRP declines, of whom 3 had poorer outcomes. Oxygen and vasopressor requirements diminished over the first week post-tocilizumab. Twenty-two patients required mechanical ventilation; at last follow-up, 16 were extubated. Adverse events and serious adverse events were minimal, but 2 deaths (7.4%) occurred that were felt unrelated to tocilizumab. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to published reports on the morbidity and mortality associated with SARS-CoV-2, tocilizumab appears to offer benefits in reducing inflammation, oxygen requirements, vasopressor support, and mortality. The rationale for tocilizumab treatment is supported by detection of IL-6 in pathogenic levels in all patients. Additional doses of tocilizumab may be needed for those showing slow declines in CRP. Proof of efficacy awaits randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Compassionate Use Trials , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
6.
Transplant Proc ; 52(9): 2711-2714, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548305

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is characterized by an overwhelming cytokine response. Various treatment strategies have been attempted. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 61-year-old man with heart transplantation in 2017 presented with fever, cough, and dyspnea, and was confirmed positive for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Laboratory tests showed significant elevations in C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Echocardiogram showed left ventricular ejection fraction 58% (with ejection fraction 57% 6 months prior). Given the lack of clear management guidelines, the patient was initially managed symptomatically. However, the patient subsequently had a rapid respiratory deterioration with worsening inflammatory markers on day 5 of admission. Tocilizumab (anti-IL-6R) was in low supply in the hospital. The patient was offered clazakizumab (anti-IL-6) for compassionate use. Patient received 25 mg intravenously × 1 dose. Within 24 hours, he showed significant improvement in symptoms, oxygen requirements, radiological findings, and inflammatory markers. There was a transient leukopenia that improved in 4 days. He was discharged home on day 11, with negative nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 PCR as an outpatient on day 35, development of positive serum COVID-19 IgG antibody, and he continued to do well on day 60, with no heart-related symptoms. CONCLUSION: Clazakizumab is a monoclonal antibody against human IL-6, which may be helpful in inhibiting the cytokine response to SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19. Although not yet FDA approved, it is being investigated for treatment of renal antibody-mediated rejection. Clinical trials of clazakizumab for treatment of COVID-19 are underway worldwide.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2
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