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1.
Academic Journal of Naval Medical University ; 43(6):718-720, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20244963
2.
IEEE Access ; : 1-1, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20242834

ABSTRACT

During the formation of medical images, they are easily disturbed by factors such as acquisition devices and tissue backgrounds, causing problems such as blurred image backgrounds and difficulty in differentiation. In this paper, we combine the HarDNet module and the multi-coding attention mechanism module to optimize the two stages of encoding and decoding to improve the model segmentation performance. In the encoding stage, the HarDNet module extracts medical image feature information to improve the segmentation network operation speed. In the decoding stage, the multi-coding attention module is used to extract both the position feature information and channel feature information of the image to improve the model segmentation effect. Finally, to improve the segmentation accuracy of small targets, the use of Cross Entropy and Dice combination function is proposed as the loss function of this algorithm. The algorithm has experimented on three different types of medical datasets, Kvasir-SEG, ISIC2018, and COVID-19CT. The values of JS were 0.7189, 0.7702, 0.9895, ACC were 0.8964, 0.9491, 0.9965, SENS were 0.7634, 0.8204, 0.9976, PRE were 0.9214, 0.9504, 0.9931. The experimental results showed that the model proposed in this paper achieved excellent segmentation results in all the above evaluation indexes, which can effectively assist doctors to diagnose related diseases quickly and improve the speed of diagnosis and patients’quality of life. Author

3.
Policing-a Journal of Policy and Practice ; 17, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2327969

ABSTRACT

To tackle the spread of COVID-19 since its outbreak in January 2020, the police have been given additional powers in Taiwan. Studies have consistently revealed that police legitimacy, the belief that the police are trustworthy and allowed to exercise their authority to maintain order, is the main factor determining whether people are willing to cooperate with the police and comply with laws. This paper explores police legitimacy in Taiwan in terms of whether it exists and whether the Taiwanese police have built or damaged their legitimacy during the unprecedented challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic. Using the relevant literature, historical events, public opinion survey results, and official crime data, we find that police legitimacy existed before and has continued to exist during the pandemic in Taiwan.

4.
Academic Journal of Naval Medical University ; 43(6):718-720, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2327193
5.
IEEE Transactions on Multimedia ; : 1-7, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2306433

ABSTRACT

Wearing masks can effectively inhibit the spread and damage of COVID-19. A device-edge-cloud collaborative recognition architecture is designed in this paper, and our proposed device-edge-cloud collaborative recognition acceleration method can make full use of the geographically widespread computing resources of devices, edge servers, and cloud clusters. First, we establish a hierarchical collaborative occluded face recognition model, including a lightweight occluded face detection module and a feature-enhanced elastic margin face recognition module, to achieve the accurate localization and precise recognition of occluded faces. Second, considering the responsiveness of occluded face detection services, a context-aware acceleration method is devised for collaborative occluded face recognition to minimize the service delay. Experimental results show that compared with state-of-the-art recognition models, the proposed acceleration method leveraging device-edge-cloud collaborations can effectively reduce the recognition delay by 16%while retaining the equivalent recognition accuracy. IEEE

6.
Problemy Ekorozwoju ; 17(2):59-68, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2227697

ABSTRACT

This study aims at the impact outbreak of COVID-19 influence Chinese currency and stock market over the period December 2, 2019, to January 04, 2021. The Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Homoscedastic approach captures the most common stylized fact about index returns (such as multivariate to capture the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchange). Our finding shows the explosive process and risk premium for the Shenzhen stock exchange (SSE) and Shanghai stock exchange (SZSE) index. And the standard deviation depreciation of the Chinese currency during the COVID-19 equivalent to 0.46% improved stock market return by 81% average returns. These results explain that high volatility of index returns is present in the Chinese stock market over the sample period. According to the analysis results, it can be concluded that the number of new cases and the number of recent deaths have a significant effect on the stock market, causing uncertainty in the sustainability.

7.
European Heart Journal, Supplement ; 24(Supplement K):K141, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2188675

ABSTRACT

Background: MessengerRNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccination has been associated with a higher-than-expected occurrence of acute myocarditis. Scarce information is available on mid-term prognosis and changes in cardiac function, volumes, and tissue characterization on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Method(s): Retrospective, multicenter study including patients with a definite diagnosis of acute myocarditis within 30 days from mRNA COVID-19 vaccination, with a confirmed myocarditis diagnosis based on endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) or autopsy or by the coexistence of positive biomarkers (troponin >99th upper reference limit or elevated creatine kinase myocardial band [CK-MB]) and cardiac MRI findings consistent with AM according to the 2018 updated Lake Louise Criteria. Result(s): 77 patients (median age 25 years [IQR 20-35], 15% female) were included and followed-up for 147 days [IQR 74-215]. Follow-up CMR was available in n=49 patients and showed no changes in biventricular ejection fraction (EF) as compared to CMR at diagnosis (left ventricular EF: 59%[55-65]vs. 60%[57-64], p=0.507, right ventricular EF: 56%[52-62]vs. 57%[52-61], p=0.563, respectively). Late gadolinium enhancement was present in all patients at diagnosis and persisted in only n=39 (79.6%) at follow-up (p=0.001), generally sparing the anterior wall and the septum. N=10 (20.4%) had a persistent edema based on T2-weighted short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences, with predominant involvement of inferior or inferiorlateral walls. The proportion of patients with increased T1 and T2 mapping signals significantly decreased at follow-up (n=13 (68%) vs. n=4 (13%),p<0.001, and n=21 (84%) vs. n=3 (10%),p<0.001, respectively), as well as the presence of pericardial effusion (n=16 (33%) vs. n=3 (6%),p=0.004). No differences in morpho-functional CMR parameters based on the type of vaccine administered were found (BNT162b2 Pfizer/BioNTech, n=36, 73.5%, m-RNA-1273 Moderna, n=13, 26.5%). Among patients with available follow-up (N=75, 97.4%), no major adverse cardiovascular events nor myocarditis recurrence or death were reported. Conclusion(s): At mid-term follow-up, patients who experienced an acute myocarditis after a mRNA COVID-19 vaccine had preserved biventricular EF. The rate and localization of residual scar or edema on CMR is in line with classic viral myocarditis with a good prognosis. This new piece of information should further reassure patients who experience acute myocarditis after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination.

8.
European Heart Journal, Supplement ; 24(Supplement K):K140-K141, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2188674

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute myocarditis (AM) is thought to be a rare cardiovascular complication of COVID-19, although minimal data are available beyond case reports. We aim to report the prevalence, baseline characteristics, in-hospital management, and outcomes for patients with COVID-19-associated AM on the basis of a retrospective cohort from 23 hospitals in the United States and Europe. Method(s): A total of 112 patients with suspected AM from 56963 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were evaluated between February 1, 2020, and April 30, 2021. Inclusion criteria were hospitalization for COVID-19 and a diagnosis of AM on the basis of endomyocardial biopsy or increased troponin level plus typical signs of AM on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. We identified 97 patients with possible AM, and among them, 54 patients with definite/probable AM supported by endomyocardial biopsy in 17 (31.5%) patients or magnetic resonance imaging in 50 (92.6%). We analyzed patient characteristics, treatments, and outcomes among all COVID-19-associated AM. Result(s): AM prevalence among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was 2.4 per 1000 hospitalizations considering definite/probable and 4.1 per 1000 considering also possible AM. The median age of definite/probable cases was 38 years, and 38.9% were female. On admission, chest pain and dyspnea were the most frequent symptoms (55.5% and 53.7%, respectively). Thirty-one cases (57.4%) occurred in the absence of COVID-19-associated pneumonia. Twenty- one (38.9%) had a fulminant presentation requiring inotropic support or temporary mechanical circulatory support. The composite of in-hospital mortality or temporary mechanical circulatory support occurred in 20.4%. At 120 days, estimated mortality was 6.6%, 15.1% in patients with associated pneumonia versus 0% in patients without pneumonia (P=0.044). During hospitalization, left ventricular ejection fraction, assessed by echocardiography, improved from a median of 40% on admission to 55% at discharge (n=47;P<0.0001) similarly in patients with or without pneumonia. Corticosteroids were frequently administered (55.5%). Conclusion(s): AM occurrence is estimated between 2.4 and 4.1 out of 1000 patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The majority of AM occurs in the absence of pneumonia and is often complicated by hemodynamic instability. AM is a rare complication in patients hospitalized for COVID-19, with an outcome that differs on the basis of the presence of concomitant pneumonia.

9.
Multiple Sclerosis Journal ; 28(3 Supplement):980-981, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2138924

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Natalizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody approved to treat relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, is associated with increased risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a rare, potentially deadly opportunistic infection of the brain by JC virus (JCV). Masking and social distancing in the United States (US) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic profoundly attenuated the spread of seasonal influenza in 2020-2021. The mode of JCV transmission is not well defined, and the pandemic offered a unique epidemiological opportunity to evaluate if isolation and masking practices enacted during the COVID-19 pandemic affected JCV transmission. Objective(s): To assess changes in the proportion of patients who converted to a positive anti-JCV antibody (Ab) serostatus before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method(s): Data were extracted from the TOUCH database for 22,375 patients treated with natalizumab in the United States (US) and with available anti-JCV Ab record information in the defined analysis population between 2017 and March 31, 2022. Anti-JCV Ab serostatus was determined by STRATIFY JCV DxSELECT. Serostatus change, defined as a change from anti-JCV seronegative status to seropositive, was assessed in annual epochs from April 1 to March 31. Patients were included in a given year if they had received >=1 dose of natalizumab in that year, had >=1 anti-JCV record 3 months prior to April 1 and also had >=1 anti-JCV Ab record post April 1 of that year. US regions examined (Northeast, South, Central and West) were determined using infusion site ZIP codes. Result(s): From April 1, 2017 to March 31, 2018, anti-JCV Ab serostatus change was observed for 7.7% of patients, with serostatus change of 7.4% and 7.4% of patients in the following 2 years (2018-2019 and 2019-2020). During the first and second years of the COVID-19 pandemic (2020-2021 and 2021-2022), 7.3% and 7.2% of patients' serostatus changed, respectively. There were no significant differences in serostatus change by US region. Conclusion(s): The proportion of natalizumab patients with anti-JCV Ab serostatus change did not significantly differ during the first 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic compared with the 3 prior years. These results suggest that, in contrast to seasonal influenza, masking and social distancing had no discernable effect on JCV serostatus changes. If not spread through social contact, further studies are needed to understand how JCV is transmitted.

10.
Ieee Access ; 10:86696-86709, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2005084

ABSTRACT

BPMN process models have been widely used in software designs. The BPMN process models are characterized by a static graph-oriented modeling language and a lack of analytical capabilities as well as dynamic behavior verification capabilities, which not only leads to inconsistencies in the semantics of the BPMN process models, but also leads to a lack of model error detection capabilities for the BPMN process models, which also hinders the correctness verification and error correction efforts of the models. In this study, we propose an executable modeling approach for CPN-based data flow well-structured BPMN (dw-BPMN) process models, and consider both control-flow and data-flow perspectives. First, we present a formal definition of the dw-BPMN process model, which is formally mapped into a CPN executable model in three steps: splitting, mapping and combining. Then, we discuss four types of data flow errors that can occur in the model: missing, lost, redundant, and inconsistent data error. To detect these four data flow errors, we propose a detection method based on the execution results of the CPN model. Subsequently, we propose correction strategies for these four data flow errors. Finally, a dw-BPMN process model of a robot's temperature detection system for COVID-19 prevention and control in a kindergarten was used as an example to verify the validity of the method.

11.
Value in health : the journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research ; 25(7):S543-S543, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1904675
12.
Journal of Asian Finance Economics and Business ; 9(4):191-196, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1798665

ABSTRACT

From several socioeconomic perspectives, the present health crisis can be connected to the 2008 financial and economic catastrophe. Governments worldwide are working hard to keep the markets in check, as evidence suggests that the health crisis may soon become an economic crisis. This paper aims to analyze the effect of COVID-19 on the selected stock market. Using a panel of daily COVID-19 confirmed cases and deaths and the stock market from 22 developing countries, we exploit an oil price as a shock to the stock market and examine the effect of COVII-19 on the slowdown of the stock market. We fmd a negative and significant impact of COVID-19 on the stock market in the first stage till April. However, there is no net influence on the stock market downturn when we extend the period. However, further study suggests that the outbreak's negative influence on the selected stock market has diminished and has begun to decline as of mid-April. As a result of the COVID-19 effect on the chosen stock, our findings imply that the government in the chosen market should consider a regulatory mechanism to reduce the stock market slowdown induced by the pandemic COVID-19.

13.
Higher Education Quarterly ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1752552

ABSTRACT

This editorial discusses the impact from the COVID-19 pandemic on the internationalization of higher education, focusing on what general and specific challenges internationalization of higher education in individual countries and systems has faced and will face, and what strategies they developed to deal with these challenges in a post-pandemic world. Moreover, it outlines the COVID-19 pandemic and both institutional and national policies for internationalization of higher education in a comparative and global perspective. Finally, it presents key findings from nine articles that are included in the Special Issue. © 2022 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

14.
British Journal of Diabetes ; 21(2):301-302, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1737423

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The outbreak of COVID-19 raised concerns that there would be an increased number of patients presenting to GG&C hospitals with hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS). This fasttracked the introduction of a local HHS protocol based on national standards in April 2020. We aimed to review the management of HHS before and after introducing the protocol and to compare patient outcomes. Methods: Patients were identified by biochemistry data and diagnosis coding at discharge. Data were extracted from clinical systems between January 209 and January 202. Data collected included COVID-19 status, morbidity and mortality, length of stay and protocol adherence. Results: 32 patients were included (83 pre protocol and 49 post). Patients were excluded if they died within 24 hours, were incorrectly labelled as HHS or if notes were unavailable. 3 patients had COVID-19 . 85% had pre-existing diabetes. Mortality rate fell from 22% to 20% post protocol. Rate of complications (AKI, UTI, pneumonia, stroke) fell. Average length of stay fell from 25 to 9 days. Rate of HDU admissions fell from 33% to 23%. The percentage of patients treated with a HHS protocol increased from 30% to 84%. The percentage of patients receiving DVT prophylaxis, IVF within hour and a diabetes review increased following introduction of the protocol. Fluid balance assessment was poorer. Discussion: An increased number of patients were treated based on national standards following introduction of a local HHS protocol. Only 3 patients had COVID-19 infection, limiting our ability to review outcomes in this cohort. Reassuringly, morbidity and mortality remained stable despite the pandemic and average length of stay fell. The rate of HDU admissions may have fallen secondary to reduced HDU capacity or increased emphasis on advanced care planning. Adherence to the protocol was difficult to assess but there were overall positive trends in adherence.

15.
Geophysical Research Letters ; 49(2):10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1692656

ABSTRACT

The significant reduction in human activities during COVID-19 lockdown is anticipated to substantially influence urban climates, especially urban heat islands (UHIs). However, the UHI variations during lockdown periods remain to be quantified. Based on the MODIS daily land surface temperature and the in-situ surface air temperature observations, we reveal a substantial decline in both surface and canopy UHIs over 300-plus megacities in China during lockdown periods compared with reference periods. The surface UHI intensity (UHII) is reduced by 0.25 (one S.D. = 0.22) K in the daytime and by 0.23 (0.20) K at night during lockdown periods. The reductions in canopy UHII reach 0.42 (one S.D. = 0.26) K in the daytime and 0.39 (0.29) K at night. These reductions are mainly due to the near-unprecedented drop in human activities induced by strict lockdown measures. Our results provide an improved understanding of the urban climate variations during the global pandemic.

16.
Environmental Research Letters ; 17(2):13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1656006

ABSTRACT

A second wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections emerged in Beijing in summer 2020, which provided an opportunity to explore the response of air pollution to reduced human activity. Proton-transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) coupled with positive matrix factorization (PMF) source apportionment were applied to evaluate the pollution pattern and capture the detailed dynamic emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the representative period, with the occurrence of O-3 pollution episodes and the Beijing resurgence of COVID-19. The level of anthropogenic VOC was lower than during the same period in previous years due to the pandemic and emission reduction measures. More than two thirds of the days during the observation period were identified as high-O-3 days and VOCs exhibited higher mixing ratios and faster consumption rates in the daytime on high-O-3 days. The identified VOC emission sources and the corresponding contributions during the whole observation period included: vehicle + fuel (12.41 +/- 9.43%), industrial process (9.40 +/- 8.65%), solvent usage (19.58 +/- 13.46%), biogenic (6.03 +/- 5.40%), background + long-lived (5.62 +/- 11.37%), and two groups of oxygenated VOC (OVOC) factors (primary emission and secondary formation, 26.14 +/- 15.20% and 20.84 +/- 14.0%, respectively). Refined dynamic source apportionment results show that the 'stay at home' tendency led to decreased emission (-34.47 +/- 1.90%) and a weakened morning peak of vehicle + fuel during the Beijing resurgence. However, a growing emission of primary OVOCs (+51.10 +/- 8.28%) with similar diurnal variation was observed in the new outbreak and afterwards, which might be related to the enhanced usage of products intended to clean and disinfect. The present study illustrated that more stringent VOC reduction measures towards pandemic products should be carried out to achieve the balanced emission abatement of NO (x) and VOC when adhering to regular epidemic prevention and control measures.

17.
SAGE Open ; 11(4), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1533224

ABSTRACT

Due to the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the use of protective measures (e.g., mask wearing and social distancing) has become an important public health concern. Despite being an effective and low-cost measure, mask wearing in the U.S. is a contentious issue. We investigated data coming from a natural experiment (n = 1,993) collected in a Midwestern state where survey questions about mask wearing and COVID-19 were presented in a random order. Primed respondents (n = 1,011), who answered COVID-19 related questions prior to the mask questions, indicated no differences in the efficacy of masks in stopping the spread of the virus compared to nonprimed respondents (n = 982). However, primed respondents who were not worried about getting sick were 37% less likely to believe in the efficacy of masks compared the nonprimed, nonworried respondents. Nonworried respondents represent a high-risk group who are likely not to wear a mask. Implications for the messages used in public health campaigns to elicit a change in behaviors are discussed. © The Author(s) 2021.

18.
J Hosp Infect ; 117: 111-116, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene remains both the major strategy and an ongoing challenge for infection control. The main issues in the sustainability of hand hygiene automatic monitoring are healthcare worker (HCW) turnover rates and declining participation. AIM: To assess hand hygiene compliance and the impact of real-time reminders over three years. METHODS: HCW compliance was observed for the use of alcohol-based hand rubs (AHR) on room entry and exit. Linear multi-level mixed models with time autocorrelations were performed to analyse the repeated measurements of daily room compliance and the effect of reminders over eight quarters (24 months). FINDINGS: In all, 111 HCWs were observed and 525,576 activities were identified in the database. There was an improvement in compliance both on room entry and exit over two years, and the rooms which had activated reminders had better performance than the rooms which did not have activated reminders. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the benefit of using real-time reminders; even 20% of rooms with an activated reminder improved overall hand hygiene compliance. A randomized real-time reminder setting may be a potential solution in reducing user fatigue and enhancing HCW self-awareness.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Hand Hygiene , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence , Hand Disinfection , Health Personnel , Humans , Infection Control
19.
North American Actuarial Journal ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1366912

ABSTRACT

The insurance industry is built on risk classification, grouping insureds into homogeneous classes. Through actions such as underwriting, pricing, and so forth, it differentiates, or discriminates, among insureds. Actuaries have responsibility for pricing insurance risk transfers and are intimately involved in other aspects of company actions and so have a keen interest in whether or not discrimination is appropriate from both company and societal viewpoints. This article reviews social and economic principles that can be used to assess the appropriateness of insurance discrimination. Discrimination issues vary by the line of insurance business and by the country and legal jurisdiction. This article examines social and economic principles from the vantage of a specific line of business and jurisdiction;these vantage points provide insights into principles. To sharpen understanding of the social and economic principles, this article also describes discrimination considerations for prohibitions based on diagnosis of COVID-19, the pandemic that swept the globe in 2020. Insurance discrimination issues have been an important topic for the insurance industry for decades and are evolving in part due to insurers’ extensive use of Big Data;that is, the increasing capacity and computational abilities of computers, availability of new and innovative sources of data, and advanced algorithms that can detect patterns in insurance activities that were previously unknown. On the one hand, the fundamental issues of insurance discrimination have not changed with Big Data;one can think of credit-based insurance scoring and price optimization as simply forerunners of this movement. On the other hand, issues regarding privacy and use of algorithmic proxies take on increased importance as insurers’ extensive use of data and computational abilities evolve. © 2021 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

20.
Medical Journal of Wuhan University ; 42(5):733-736, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1350553

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the application of remote fetal heart rate monitoring during the pandemic of COVID‑19. Methods: The rate of cesarean section, the incidence of neonatal asphyxia, the times of self‑care, the false positive rate, and the degree of anxiety were compared between the remote fetal heart rate monitoring group and control group. Results: There was no significant difference in cesarean section rate and neonatal asphyxia rate between the two groups( P >0.05). The frequency of self‑care and the incidence of false positive in the remote fetal heart monitoring group were better than in control group( P <0.01). Compared with the remote fetal heart rate monitoring group, the control group were more likely to be anxious( P <0.01). Conclusion: Remote fetal heart rate monitoring is suitable as an effective supplement for hospital prenatal examination during the epidemic period, and it has good application prospects. © 2021, Editorial Board of Medical Journal of Wuhan University. All right reserved.

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