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2.
Advanced functional materials ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1980072

ABSTRACT

SARS‐CoV‐2 variants are now still challenging all the approved vaccines, including mRNA vaccines. There is an urgent need to develop new generation mRNA vaccines with more powerful efficacy and better safety against SARS‐CoV‐2 variants. In this study, a new set of ionizable lipids named 4N4T are constructed and applied to form novel lipid nanoparticles called 4N4T‐LNPs. Leading 4N4T‐LNPs exhibit much higher mRNA translation efficiency than the approved SM‐102‐LNPs. To test the effectiveness of the novel delivery system, the DS mRNA encoding the full‐length S protein of the SARS‐CoV‐2 variant is synthesized and loaded in 4N4T‐LNPs. The obtained 4N4T‐DS mRNA vaccines successfully trigger robust and durable humoral immune responses against SARS‐CoV‐2 and its variants including Delta and Omicron. Importantly, the novel vaccines have higher RBD‐specific IgG titers and neutralizing antibody titers than SM‐102‐based DS mRNA vaccine. Besides, for the first time, the types of mRNA vaccine‐induced neutralizing antibodies are found to be influenced by the chemical structure of ionizable lipids. 4N4T‐DS mRNA vaccines also induce strong Th1‐skewed T cell responses and have good safety. This work provides a novel vehicle for mRNA delivery that is more effective than the approved LNPs and shows its application in vaccines against SARS‐CoV‐2 variants. In this study, mRNA vaccines against SARS‐CoV‐2 variants delivered by lipid nanoparticles based on 4N4T lipids are constructed, and successfully trigger robust and durable humoral immune responses against SARS‐CoV‐2 and its variants including Delta and Omicron. In addition, head‐to‐head comparison studies find that the novel 4N4T lipids have a higher mRNA delivery efficiency than SM‐102.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 854788, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952377

ABSTRACT

Objective: The long-term impact of COVID-19 on patient health has been a recent focus. This study aims to determine the persistent symptoms and psychological conditions of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 15 months after onset, that patients first developed symptoms. The potential risk factors were also explored. Methods: A cohort of COVID-19 patients discharged from February 20, 2020 to March 31, 2020 was recruited. Follow-ups were conducted using validated questionnaires and psychological screening scales at 15 months after onset to evaluate the patients' health status. The risk factors for long-term health impacts and their associations with disease severity was analyzed. Findings: 534 COVID-19 patients were enrolled. The median age of the patients was 62.0 years old (IQR 52.0-70.0) and 295 were female (55.2%). The median time from onset to follow-up was 460.0 (451.0-467.0) days. Sleep disturbance (18.5%, 99/534) and fatigue (17.2%, 92/534) were the most common persistent symptoms. 6.4% (34/534) of the patients had depression, 9.2% (49/534) were anxious, 13.0% (70/534) had insomnia and 4.7% (25/534) suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Multivariate adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that glucocorticoid use during hospitalization (OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.12-11.44) was significantly associated with an increased risk of fatigue. The OR values for anxiety and sleep disorders were 2.36 (95% CI 1.07-5.20) and 2.16 (95% CI 1.13-4.14) in females to males. The OR value of PTSD was 25.6 (95% CI 3.3-198.4) in patients with persistent symptoms to those without persistent symptoms. No significant associations were observed between fatigue syndrome or adverse mental outcomes and disease severity. Conclusions: 15-month follow-up in this study demonstrated the need of extended rehabilitation intervention for complete recovery in COVID-19 patients.

4.
J Nurs Manag ; 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819919

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study aimed to investigate eHealth literacy about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among older adults during the pandemic. BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic promoted the development of online health care. Higher demand for accessing information from the Internet was seen. METHODS: This was a sequential explanatory mixed-method study, involving a survey of older adults to explore the status and influencing factors of eHealth literacy regarding COVID-19. Semi-structured interviews were used to understand experiences and challenges regarding information retrieval, judgment and utilization. RESULTS: A total of 337 older adults participated in the online questionnaire survey. Overall, older adults had slightly higher scores on eHealth literacy during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants' location in the past month and current health issues were associated with eHealth literacy. Qualitative data were collected from nine older adults and included that some older adults retrieved health-related information during the pandemic. However, those who used non-smartphones described difficulties in information retrieval. A glut of misinformation has resulted in an 'infodemic', which has not only increased the difficulty of judging information but also posed challenges in information utilization for older adults. CONCLUSION: Improving older adults' eHealth literacy is essential in promoting an improved response to major public health events and in providing better health care for this group in the future. It is essential that government health agencies and health care providers provide evidence-based health information via social media platforms. Further efforts are needed to combine aspects of traditional and online health care services and provide reliable and updated online information and resources for older adults. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Providing evidence to eHealth literacy improvement and health management of older adults in the context of public health events.

5.
Front Psychol ; 13: 835328, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775777

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic has transformed communication modes globally. Especially in the case of higher education, where countermeasures against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have affected students' learning experience. This study emphasized the case of business simulation games, where critical factors were underlined to define learners' intention to use an online learning environment through the lens of task technology fit (TTF) as a theoretical stance. This study considered the statistical analysis of 523 students who attended the business simulation module online at the tertiary level of education. Findings conclude that flow experience is the most critical factor to define learners' perceived TTF in the case of an online learning experience. However, the learners' self-efficacy is significant enough to map learners' intentions to use an online environment for learning. The study discussed several theoretical and practical implications for learners' educators and policymakers.

6.
Brief Bioinform ; 23(3)2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740806

ABSTRACT

Inhibition of host protein functions using established drugs produces a promising antiviral effect with excellent safety profiles, decreased incidence of resistant variants and favorable balance of costs and risks. Genomic methods have produced a large number of robust host factors, providing candidates for identification of antiviral drug targets. However, there is a lack of global perspectives and systematic prioritization of known virus-targeted host proteins (VTHPs) and drug targets. There is also a need for host-directed repositioned antivirals. Here, we integrated 6140 VTHPs and grouped viral infection modes from a new perspective of enriched pathways of VTHPs. Clarifying the superiority of nonessential membrane and hub VTHPs as potential ideal targets for repositioned antivirals, we proposed 543 candidate VTHPs. We then presented a large-scale drug-virus network (DVN) based on matching these VTHPs and drug targets. We predicted possible indications for 703 approved drugs against 35 viruses and explored their potential as broad-spectrum antivirals. In vitro and in vivo tests validated the efficacy of bosutinib, maraviroc and dextromethorphan against human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and influenza A virus (IAV). Their drug synergy with clinically used antivirals was evaluated and confirmed. The results proved that low-dose dextromethorphan is better than high-dose in both single and combined treatments. This study provides a comprehensive landscape and optimization strategy for druggable VTHPs, constructing an innovative and potent pipeline to discover novel antiviral host proteins and repositioned drugs, which may facilitate their delivery to clinical application in translational medicine to combat fatal and spreading viral infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Influenza A virus , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Dextromethorphan , Humans , Influenza A virus/genetics
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 299, 2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724483

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted an unprecedented and universal impact on global health system, resulting in noticeable challenges in traditional chronic disease care, of which diabetes was reported to be most influenced by the reduction in healthcare resources in the pandemic. China has the world's largest diabetes population, and current diabetes management in China is unsatisfactory, particularly in rural areas. Studies in developed countries have demonstrated that physician-pharmacist collaborative clinics are efficient and cost-effective for diabetes management, but little is known if this mode could be adapted in primary hospitals in China. The aim of this proposed study is to develop and evaluate physician-pharmacist collaborative clinics to manage type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in primary hospitals in Hunan province. METHODS: A multi-site randomized controlled trial will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the physician-pharmacist collaborative clinics compared with usual care for Chinese patients with T2DM. Six primary hospitals will participate in the study, which will recruit 600 eligible patients. Patients in the intervention group will receive services from both physicians and pharmacists in the collaborative clinics, while the control group will receive usual care from physicians. Patients will be followed up at the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th month. Comparison between the two groups will be conducted by assessing the clinical parameters, process indicators and costs on diabetes. A satisfaction survey will also be carried out at the end of the study. DISCUSSION: If effective, the physician-pharmacist collaborative clinics can be adapted and used in primary hospitals of China to improve glycemic control, enhance medication adherence, decrease incidence of complications and reduce patients' dependence on physicians. Findings from the present study are meaningful for developing evidence-based diabetes care policy in rural China, especially in the COVID-19 pandemic era. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR2000031839 , Registered 12 April 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Interprofessional Relations , Pharmacists , Physicians , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324606

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, the outbreak of COVID-19 caused a large number of hospital admissions in China. Many patients with COVID-19 have symptoms of acute respiratory distress syndrome, even are in danger of death. This is the first study to evaluate dynamic changes of D-Dimer and Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Count Ratio (NLR) as a prognostic utility in patients with COVID-19 for clinical use. Methods In a retrospective study, we collected data from 349 hospitalized patients who diagnosed as the infection of the COVID-19 in Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital. We used ROC curves and Cox regression analysis to explore critical value (optimal cut-off point associated with Youden index) and prognostic role of dynamic changes of D-Dimer and NLR. Results 349 participants were enrolled in this study and the mortality rate of the patients with laboratory diagnosed COVID-19 was 14.9%. The initial and peak value of D-Dimer and NLR in deceased patients were higher statistically compared with survivors (P<0.001). There was a more significant upward trend of D-Dimer and NLR during hospitalization in the deceased patients, initial D-Dimer and NLR were lower than the peak tests (MD) -25.23, 95% CI: -31.81- -18.64, P <0.001;(MD) -43.73, 95% CI:-59.28- -31.17, P <0.001. The test showed a stronger correlation between hospitalization days, PCT and peak D-Dimer than initial D-Dimer. The areas under the ROC curves of peak D-Dimer and peak NLR tests were higher than the initial tests (0.94(95%CI: 0.90-0.98) vs. 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73-0.87);0.93 (95%CI:0.90-0.96) vs. 0.86 (95%CI:0.82-0.91). The critical value of initial D-Dimer, peak D-Dimer, initial NLR and peak NLR was 0.73 mg/L, 3.78 mg/L,7.13 and 14.31 respectively. 35 (10.03%) patients were intubated. In the intubated patients, initial and peak D-Dimer and NLR were much higher than non-intubated patients (P<0.001). The critical value of initial D-Dimer, peak D-Dimer, initial NLR and peak NLR in prognosticate of intubation was 0.73 mg/L, 12.75 mg/L,7.28 and 27.55. The multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that age (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.07, P=0.01), the peak D-Dimer (HR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.04, P<0.001) were prognostic factors for COVID-19 patients’death. Conclusions To dynamically observe the ratio of D-Dimer and NLR was more valuable during the prognosis of COVID-19. The rising trend in D-Dimer and NLR, or the test results higher than the critical values may indicate a risk of death for participants with COVID-19.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324478

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia occasionally exacerbates to critical condition that is hard to manage. We aim to describe exacerbations of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia among inpatients. Methods We included confirmed SARS-CoV-2 patients with pneumonia exacerbation admitted to Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital, Hubei Province, China between January 6 and February 17, 2020 and discharged or died before February 25. Their demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, CT manifestations, complications and clinical outcomes were collected. Results A total of 158 patients were collected, among them 107 patients were stable and discharged after recovery, 24 patients were already critically severe at hospital admission. 14 patients were excluded for insufficient clinical data. Eventually, 13 confirmed cases were included. The mean age was 65 (± 9.81) years. Ten of the 13 (76.9%) patients were female. Nine (69.2%) had underlying comorbidities. Fever and cough were the most common symptoms (12/13, 92.3%). 10/13(76.9%) patients had their exacerbation in the second week of disease course. All patients had both negative and positive nucleic acid test (NAT) results during the course. Increased range of ground-glass opacity (GGO) on CT imaging are consistent to disease exacerbation. ARDS, MODS, respiratory failure were found in 5/13(38.5%), 3/13(23.1%), 6/13(46.2%) patients respectively. Five (38.5%) patients did not survive. Conclusions SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia exacerbations often occurs in the second week of disease course. Negative NAT result could not exclude exacerbation. CT manifestation is consistent with disease progression. Early admissions have positive effects on reducing complications and mortality.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312750

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December, 2019, the emerge of a Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have caused global concern, the majority viewpoints are that the deaths are related to advanced ages, however, the emergence of younger deaths needs immediate attention. Methods Clinical characteristics, laboratory results, chest CT scans and treatment measures were retrospectively reviewed for six deceased patients under 60 years old with confirmed COVID-19 who were admitted to Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, from 6th January to 4th March, 2020. Results The age range of the patients was 50.17 ± 3.25 years (45–55 years), none of them had underlying diseases. All of patients presented with the symptoms of fever, respiratory system and digestive system. The level of albumin and lymphocyte counts decreased early in the stages of the disease, and then gradually increased. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) increased (higher than normal range) in early stage and gradually decreased when the disease progressed. All the six patients showed ground-glass opacity (GGO) and bilateral patchy shadowing in early stage under the computed tomography (CT). All the patients died of severe pneumonia and multiple organ failure. Conclusions The decreased level of serum albumin occurred in the early stages of the disease, and delays in the first admission to hospital probably aggravate the disease development. The increase of the NLR in early stage of disease may be a risk of death for COVID-19. These findings may provide useful information for optimizing supportive care for COVID-19 pneumonia.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312698

ABSTRACT

Background: No specific therapeutic agents or vaccines are available for the treatment of Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) yet. In this study, we aimed to assess the efficacy of high dose ulinastatin for patients with Covid-19. Methods: Twelve patients hospitalized with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were treated with high dose of ulinastatin beyond standard care. The changes of clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations and chest images were retrospectively analyzed. Results: A total of 10 patients with severe Covid-19 and 2 patients with moderate Covid-19 received ulinastatin treatment. The average age of the patients was 68.0 ± 11.9 years, ranging from 48 to 87 years. Nine of 12 patients (75.0%) had one or more comorbidities. The most common symptoms on admission were fever (8/12, 66.7%), cough (5/12, 41.7%) and dyspnea (5/12, 41.7%). The percentage of lymphocytes was decreased in 41.7% of patients (5/12), and 58.3% of patients (7/12) had elevated hypersensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (mean, 49.70 ± 77.70 mg/L). The white blood cell levels and the percentage of lymphocytes returned to normal in all of the patients, and CRP decreased significantly and returned to normal in 83.3% of patients (10/12;mean, 6.87 ± 6.63 mg/L) on the seventh day after ulinastatin treatment. Clinical symptoms were relieved synchronously. The peripheral oxygen saturation improved and 66.7% of the patients (8/12) did not need further oxygen therapy seven days after ulinastatin treatment. No patients required intensive care unit admission or mechanical ventilation. All patients revealed different degrees of absorption of pulmonary lesions after treatment. No obvious adverse events were observed. Conclusions: Our preliminary data revealed that high dose of ulinastatin treatment was safe and showed a potential beneficial effect for patients with Covid-19.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309031

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) has been widely spread in China and several other countries. Early finding of this pneumonia from huge numbers of suspects gives clinicians a big challenge. The aim of the study was to develop a rapid screening model for early predicting NCP in a Zhejiang population, as well as its utility in other areas. A total of 880 participants who were initially suspected of NCP from Jan 17 to Feb 19 were included. Potential predictors were selected via stepwise logistic regression analysis. The model was established based on epidemiological features, clinical manifestations, white blood cell count, and pulmonary imaging changes, with the area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve of 0.920 (95% confidence interval : 0.902-0.938;AUROC=0.915, and its standard deviation of 0.028, as evaluated in 5-fold cross-validation). At a value of whether the predicted score >4.0, the model could detect NCP with a specificity of 98.3%;at a cut-off value of < -0.5, the model could rule out NCP with a sensitivity of 97.9%. The study demonstrated that the rapid screening model was a helpful and cost-effective tool for early predicting NCP and had great clinical significance given the high activity of NCP.

13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322245

ABSTRACT

Background: Much remains unknown about COVID-19 onset and rehabilitation's symptomatic features, especially the long-term health consequences of patients with COVID-19 who have been discharged from the hospital. Methods: In this cohort study, we collected the first pandemic data of hospitalized patients in Wuhan from February 20 to March 31, 2020. All patients completed a 3-month follow-up after discharge. We carefully analyzed the detailed symptomatic characteristics of severe COVID-19 at illness onset and three months after discharge, compared it with non-severe patients, and used multiple logistic regression to determine potential symptomatic risk factors for severe COVID-19. Results: A total of 932 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were enrolled, including 52 severe cases and 880 non-severe cases. Fever (60%), cough (50.8%), and fatigue (36.4%) were the most common symptoms, followed by anorexia (21.8%) and dyspnea (19.2%). The median duration of fever was seven days, which was characterized by persistent low fever. The median duration of cough was 17 days, characterized by dry cough without sputum. Most dyspnea occurred on the fourth day after symptom onset, with a median duration of 16 days. The incidences of taste loss and olfactory disturbance were only 6.2% and 3.1%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age over 65 years old (OR 6.52, 95% CI 3.27-13.02, P <0.0001), male sex (3.71, 1.90-7.26, P = 0.0001), fever lasting for more than five days (1.90, 1.00-3.62, P =0.0498), anorexia at onset (2.61, 1.26-5.40, P =0.0096), and modified Medical Research Council level above grade 2 when dyspnea occurred (14.19,7.01-28.71, P <0.0001) were symptomatic risk factors for severe COVID-19. Three months after discharge from the hospital, 6.2% of patients still cough, 7.2% of patients still dyspnea, and 1.8% still fatigue, and 1.5% of patients had olfactory or taste disorders. Conclusions: COVID-19 caused clusters of symptoms, with multiple systems involved. Specific symptomatic features at the onset of illness have predictive value for severe COVID-19. Persistent legacy symptoms are more frequent in severe COVID-19 patients.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321366

ABSTRACT

Background: Treatment of severe Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is challenging. We performed a phase 2 trial to assess the efficacy and safety of human umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cells (UC‑MSCs) to treat patients with severe COVID-19 with lung damage, based on our phase 1 data.Methods: In this randomised, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial, we recruited 101 eligible patients with severe COVID-19 with lung damage aged between 18–74 years from two hospitals. Enrolled patients were randomly assigned at a 2:1 ratio to receive either UC-MSCs (4 × 107 cells per infusion) or placebo on day 0, 3, and 6. We excluded patients with malignant tumours, shock, or other organ failure. The primary endpoint was an altered proportion of whole lung lesion areas from baseline to day 28, measured by chest computed tomography. Other imaging outcomes, 6-minute walk test, maximum vital capacity, diffusing capacity, plasma biomarkers, and adverse events were recorded and analysed. Primary analysis was done in the modified intention-to-treat (mITT) population and safety analysis was done in all patients who started their assigned treatment. Findings: From March 5, 2020, to March 28, 2020, 100 patients were finally enrolled and received either UC-MSCs (n = 65) or placebo (n = 35). During follow-up, the patients receiving UC-MSCs exhibited a trend of numerical improvement in whole lung lesions from baseline to day 28 compared with the placebo cases. UC-MSCs administration significantly reduced the proportions of consolidation lesions from baseline to day 28 in the treated patients compared with the placebo subjects. The 6-minute walk test showed an increased distance in patients treated with UC-MSCs. Notably, UC-MSCs delivery was well tolerated, with no serious adverse events.Interpretation: UC-MSCs treatment is a safe and potentially effective therapeutic approach for patients with severe COVID‑19. The trial suggests that UC-MSCs administration might benefit patients with COVID-19 with lung damage at the convalescent stage as well as the progression stage.Trial Registration: This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04288102.Funding Statement: This trial was supported by The National Key R&D Program of China (2020YFC0841900, 2020YFC0844000, 2020YFC08860900);The Innovation Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81721002);The National Science and Technology Major Project (2017YFA0105703).Declaration of Interests: All authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: Ethical approval was obtained from the institutional review boards of each participating hospital. Written informed consent was obtained from all the enrolled patients or their legal representatives if they were unable to provide consent.

15.
Experimental & Therapeutic Medicine ; 23(2):N.PAG-N.PAG, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1678877

ABSTRACT

Currently, there are no specific therapeutic agents available for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of high-dose ulinastatin for the treatment of patients with Covid-19. A total of 12 patients hospitalized with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection were treated with a high dose of ulinastatin alongside standard care. Changes in clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations and chest images were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 10 patients with severe Covid-19 and two patients with moderate Covid-19 received ulinastatin treatment. The average age of the patients was 68.0±11.9 years (age range, 48-87 years). In total, nine of the 12 patients (75.0%) had one or more comorbidities. The most common symptoms on admission were fever (8/12, 66.7%), cough (5/12, 41.7%) and dyspnea (5/12, 41.7%). The percentage of lymphocytes was decreased in 41.7% of patients (5/12) and 58.3% of patients (7/12) had elevated hypersensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (mean, 49.70±77.70 mg/l). The white blood cell levels and the percentage of lymphocytes returned to normal in all of the patients, and CRP was significantly decreased and returned to normal in 83.3% of patients (10/12;mean, 6.87±6.63 mg/l) on day 7 after ulinastatin treatment. Clinical symptoms were relieved synchronously. The peripheral oxygen saturation improved and 66.7% of the patients (8/12) did not require further oxygen therapy 7 days after ulinastatin treatment. No patients required intensive care unit admission or mechanical ventilation. All patients revealed different degrees of absorption of pulmonary lesions after treatment. Compared with the standard care group, ulinastatin treatment significantly prevented illness deterioration. In conclusion, these preliminary data revealed that high-dose ulinastatin treatment was safe and exhibited a potential beneficial effect for patients with Covid-19. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Experimental & Therapeutic Medicine is the property of Spandidos Publications UK Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

16.
Exp Ther Med ; 23(2): 121, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594196

ABSTRACT

Currently, there are no specific therapeutic agents available for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of high-dose ulinastatin for the treatment of patients with Covid-19. A total of 12 patients hospitalized with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection were treated with a high dose of ulinastatin alongside standard care. Changes in clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations and chest images were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 10 patients with severe Covid-19 and two patients with moderate Covid-19 received ulinastatin treatment. The average age of the patients was 68.0±11.9 years (age range, 48-87 years). In total, nine of the 12 patients (75.0%) had one or more comorbidities. The most common symptoms on admission were fever (8/12, 66.7%), cough (5/12, 41.7%) and dyspnea (5/12, 41.7%). The percentage of lymphocytes was decreased in 41.7% of patients (5/12) and 58.3% of patients (7/12) had elevated hypersensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (mean, 49.70±77.70 mg/l). The white blood cell levels and the percentage of lymphocytes returned to normal in all of the patients, and CRP was significantly decreased and returned to normal in 83.3% of patients (10/12; mean, 6.87±6.63 mg/l) on day 7 after ulinastatin treatment. Clinical symptoms were relieved synchronously. The peripheral oxygen saturation improved and 66.7% of the patients (8/12) did not require further oxygen therapy 7 days after ulinastatin treatment. No patients required intensive care unit admission or mechanical ventilation. All patients revealed different degrees of absorption of pulmonary lesions after treatment. Compared with the standard care group, ulinastatin treatment significantly prevented illness deterioration. In conclusion, these preliminary data revealed that high-dose ulinastatin treatment was safe and exhibited a potential beneficial effect for patients with Covid-19.

17.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291513

ABSTRACT

Background: The long-term impact of COVID-19 on patient health has been a recent focus. This study aims to determine the persistent symptoms and psychological conditions of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 15 months after onset. The potential risk factors were also explored.Methods: A cohort of COVID-19 patients discharged from February 20, 2020 to March 31, 2020 was recruited. Follow-ups were conducted using validated questionnaires and psychological screening scales at 15 months after onset to evaluate the patients’ health status. The risk factors for long-term health impacts and their associations with disease severity was analyzed.Findings: 534 COVID-19 patients were enrolled. The median age of the patients was 62.0 years old (IQR 52.0-70.0) and 295 were female (55.2%). The median time from onset to follow-up was 460.0 (451.0-467.0) days. Sleep disturbance (18.5%, 99/534) and fatigue (17.2%, 92/534) were the most common persistent symptoms. 6.4% (34/534) of the patients had depression, 9.2% (49/534) were anxious, 13.0% (70/534) had insomnia and 4.7% (25/534) suffered from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Multivariate adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that glucocorticoid use during hospitalization (OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.12-11.44) was significantly associated with an increased risk of fatigue. The OR values for anxiety and sleep disorders were 2.36 (95% CI 1.07-5.20) and 2.16 (95% CI 1.13-4.14) in females compared with males. The OR value of PTSD was 25.6 (95% CI 3.3-198.4) in patients with persistent symptoms to those without persistent symptoms. No significant associations were observed between fatigue syndrome or adverse mental outcomes and disease severity.Interpretation: 15-month follow-up in this study aroused the need of extended rehabilitation intervention for complete recovery in COVID-19 patients. Funding: None to declare. Declaration of Interest: All the authors declare no competing interests.Ethical Approval: The Research Ethics Committee of Shanghai Changzheng Hospital approved this study (2020SL007).

18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(24): e26279, 2021 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269620

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Early determination of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia from numerous suspected cases is critical for the early isolation and treatment of patients.The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a rapid screening model to predict early COVID-19 pneumonia from suspected cases using a random forest algorithm in China.A total of 914 initially suspected COVID-19 pneumonia in multiple centers were prospectively included. The computer-assisted embedding method was used to screen the variables. The random forest algorithm was adopted to build a rapid screening model based on the training set. The screening model was evaluated by the confusion matrix and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis in the validation.The rapid screening model was set up based on 4 epidemiological features, 3 clinical manifestations, decreased white blood cell count and lymphocytes, and imaging changes on chest X-ray or computed tomography. The area under the ROC curve was 0.956, and the model had a sensitivity of 83.82% and a specificity of 89.57%. The confusion matrix revealed that the prospective screening model had an accuracy of 87.0% for predicting early COVID-19 pneumonia.Here, we developed and validated a rapid screening model that could predict early COVID-19 pneumonia with high sensitivity and specificity. The use of this model to screen for COVID-19 pneumonia have epidemiological and clinical significance.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Mass Screening/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
J Control Release ; 335: 449-456, 2021 07 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240426

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an unprecedented global public health crisis. It is obvious that SARS-CoV-2 vaccine is needed to control the global COVID-19 public health crisis. Since obvious advantages including fast manufacturing speed, potent immunogenicity and good safety profile, six mRNA vaccines have been used to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections in clinic with lipid nanoparticles (LNP) formulation via intramuscular injection. In this work, we first constructed RBD-encoding mRNA (RBD-mRNA) formulated in liposomes (LPX/RBD-mRNA) and investigated the influence of administration routes on the immunogenicity. LPX/RBD-mRNA can express RBD in vivo and successfully induced SARS-CoV-2 RBD specific antibodies in the vaccinated mice, which efficiently neutralized SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus. Moreover, the administration routes were found to affect the virus neutralizing capacity of sera derived from the immunized mice and the types (Th1-type and Th2-type) of cellular immune responses. This study indicated that liposome-based RBD-mRNA vaccine with optimal administration route might be a potential candidate against SARS-CoV-2 infection with good efficacy and safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Liposomes , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
20.
J Dig Dis ; 22(5): 271-281, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203819

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To discern the symptomatic features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to evaluate the severity and prognosis of the disease. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, 932 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan were enrolled, including 52 severe and 880 non-severe cases. All patients were followed up for 3 months after discharge. The symptomatic features and follow-up data of the patients in both groups were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: Of the 932 patients, fever (60.0%), cough (50.8%) and fatigue (36.4%) were the most common symptoms. In total, 32.7% of the severe cases presented with gastrointestinal symptoms at disease onset, including anorexia, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea, which was significantly higher than that of the non-severe group (P = 0.0015). The incidence of olfactory disturbance and dysgeusia was only 3.1% and 6.2%, respectively. After adjusting for age and sex, multivariate regression analysis showed that fever lasting for over 5 days (odds ratio [OR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-3.62, P = 0.0498), anorexia at onset (OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.26-5.40, P = 0.0096), and modified Medical Research Council level above grade 2 when dyspnea occurred (OR 14.19, 95% CI 7.01-28.71, P < 0.0001) were symptomatic risk factors for severe COVID-19. During the follow-up, cough (6.2%), dyspnea (7.2%), fatigue (1.8%), olfactory disturbance and dysgeusia (1.5%) were the significant remaining symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 causes clusters of symptoms with multiple systems involved. Certain symptomatic characteristics have predictive value for severe COVID-19. Short-term follow-up data reveal that most patients have a good prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
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