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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(2): 328-331, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315667

ABSTRACT

To explore any relationship between the ABO blood group and the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) susceptibility, we compared ABO blood group distributions in 2173 COVID-19 patients with local control populations, and found that blood group A was associated with an increased risk of infection, whereas group O was associated with a decreased risk.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , COVID-19 , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(2): 2167-2174, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a public health emergency of international concern. A small proportion of patients infected with COVID-19 go on to develop pneumonia. We speculated that COVID-19 may be likely to result in psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression. In this study, we conducted an investigation of anxiety and depression in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Sixty-five COVID-19 patients were randomly enrolled into this study. Anxiety and depression among participants were measured through the completion of anonymous Chinese-language Zung self-rating anxiety scale and self-rating depression scale questionnaires. Data were analyzed using independent samples t-tests, Mann-Whitney U-tests, and χ2 tests. RESULTS: The questionnaire results showed that 26.15% and 41.54% of participants suffered from anxiety and depression, respectively, although there was no significantly statistical difference between the proportions of COVID-19 patients with anxiety and depression. Statistically significant differences in employment status, partial pressure of oxygen, and corticosteroid application existed between moderate- and severe COVID-19 patients (P<0.05). In particular, the partial pressure of oxygen was significantly lower in severe COVID-19 patients than in their moderate counter parts (71.31±23.54 vs. 101.06±34.43, U=156, P=0.006). Total lymphocytes was lower in severe group than in moderate group [1.659±0.643 vs. 0.745 (0.645, 0.928), U=109, P=0.000]. Also, a higher proportion of female than male patients had anxiety (χ2=5.388, P=0.02). COVID-19 patients who received antiviral medications also displayed a higher rate of anxiety (χ2=4.481, P=0.034). Total lymphocytes between the non-anxiety and anxiety had statistical difference (U=321, P=0.019). Meanwhile, total lymphocytes between the non-depression and depression also had statistical difference (U=389.5, P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with COVID-19, females and those treated with antiviral medications were more likely to experience anxiety. In addition, our findings reflected the effect of anxiety and depression on immune system.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Lymphocytes/cytology , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
N Engl J Med ; 382(19): 1787-1799, 2020 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-9371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: No therapeutics have yet been proven effective for the treatment of severe illness caused by SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label trial involving hospitalized adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, which causes the respiratory illness Covid-19, and an oxygen saturation (Sao2) of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air or a ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen (Pao2) to the fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) of less than 300 mm Hg. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either lopinavir-ritonavir (400 mg and 100 mg, respectively) twice a day for 14 days, in addition to standard care, or standard care alone. The primary end point was the time to clinical improvement, defined as the time from randomization to either an improvement of two points on a seven-category ordinal scale or discharge from the hospital, whichever came first. RESULTS: A total of 199 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection underwent randomization; 99 were assigned to the lopinavir-ritonavir group, and 100 to the standard-care group. Treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir was not associated with a difference from standard care in the time to clinical improvement (hazard ratio for clinical improvement, 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.80). Mortality at 28 days was similar in the lopinavir-ritonavir group and the standard-care group (19.2% vs. 25.0%; difference, -5.8 percentage points; 95% CI, -17.3 to 5.7). The percentages of patients with detectable viral RNA at various time points were similar. In a modified intention-to-treat analysis, lopinavir-ritonavir led to a median time to clinical improvement that was shorter by 1 day than that observed with standard care (hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.91). Gastrointestinal adverse events were more common in the lopinavir-ritonavir group, but serious adverse events were more common in the standard-care group. Lopinavir-ritonavir treatment was stopped early in 13 patients (13.8%) because of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized adult patients with severe Covid-19, no benefit was observed with lopinavir-ritonavir treatment beyond standard care. Future trials in patients with severe illness may help to confirm or exclude the possibility of a treatment benefit. (Funded by Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development and others; Chinese Clinical Trial Register number, ChiCTR2000029308.).


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intention to Treat Analysis , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Proportional Hazards Models , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Failure , Viral Load
4.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(7): 934-943, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-8523

ABSTRACT

Importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease that was first reported in Wuhan, China, and has subsequently spread worldwide. Risk factors for the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 pneumonia have not yet been well delineated. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or died. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 201 patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital in China between December 25, 2019, and January 26, 2020. The final date of follow-up was February 13, 2020. Exposures: Confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. Main Outcomes and Measures: The development of ARDS and death. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, management, treatment, and outcome data were also collected and analyzed. Results: Of 201 patients, the median age was 51 years (interquartile range, 43-60 years), and 128 (63.7%) patients were men. Eighty-four patients (41.8%) developed ARDS, and of those 84 patients, 44 (52.4%) died. In those who developed ARDS, compared with those who did not, more patients presented with dyspnea (50 of 84 [59.5%] patients and 30 of 117 [25.6%] patients, respectively [difference, 33.9%; 95% CI, 19.7%-48.1%]) and had comorbidities such as hypertension (23 of 84 [27.4%] patients and 16 of 117 [13.7%] patients, respectively [difference, 13.7%; 95% CI, 1.3%-26.1%]) and diabetes (16 of 84 [19.0%] patients and 6 of 117 [5.1%] patients, respectively [difference, 13.9%; 95% CI, 3.6%-24.2%]). In bivariate Cox regression analysis, risk factors associated with the development of ARDS and progression from ARDS to death included older age (hazard ratio [HR], 3.26; 95% CI 2.08-5.11; and HR, 6.17; 95% CI, 3.26-11.67, respectively), neutrophilia (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.09-1.19; and HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.17, respectively), and organ and coagulation dysfunction (eg, higher lactate dehydrogenase [HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.44-1.79; and HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.11-1.52, respectively] and D-dimer [HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; and HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04, respectively]). High fever (≥39 °C) was associated with higher likelihood of ARDS development (HR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.11-2.84) and lower likelihood of death (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.21-0.82). Among patients with ARDS, treatment with methylprednisolone decreased the risk of death (HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.20-0.72). Conclusions and Relevance: Older age was associated with greater risk of development of ARDS and death likely owing to less rigorous immune response. Although high fever was associated with the development of ARDS, it was also associated with better outcomes among patients with ARDS. Moreover, treatment with methylprednisolone may be beneficial for patients who develop ARDS.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness/mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Care Planning/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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