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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330895

ABSTRACT

Background: Disparate COVID-19 outcomes have been observed between Hispanic, Non-Hispanic Black, and White patients. The underlying causes for these disparities are not fully understood. Methods: : This was a retrospective study utilizing electronic medical record data from five hospitals within a single academic health system based in New York City. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify demographic, clinical, and lab values associated with in-hospital mortality. Results: : 3,086 adult patients with self-reported race/ethnicity information presenting to the emergency department and hospitalized with COVID-19 up to April 13, 2020 were included in this study. While older age (multivariable OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.05-1.07) and baseline hypoxia (multivariable OR 2.71, 95% CI 2.17-3.36) were associated with increased mortality overall and across all races/ethnicities, Non-Hispanic Black (median age 67, IQR 58-76) and Hispanic (median age 63, IQR 50-74) patients were younger and had different comorbidity profiles compared to Non-Hispanic White patients (median age 73, IQR 62-84;p<0.05 for both comparisons). Among inflammatory markers associated with COVID-19 mortality, there was a significant interaction between the Non-Hispanic Black population and interleukin-1-beta (interaction p-value 0.04). Conclusions: : This analysis of a multi-ethnic cohort highlights the need for inclusion and consideration of diverse popualtions in ongoing COVID-19 trials targeting inflammatory cytokines.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324770

ABSTRACT

Given the existing COVID-19 pandemic worldwide, it is critical to systematically study the interactions between hosts and coronaviruses including SARS-Cov, MERS-Cov, and SARS-CoV-2 (cause of COVID-19). We first created four host-pathogen interaction (HPI)-Outcome postulates, and generated a HPI-Outcome model as the basis for understanding host-coronavirus interactions (HCI) and their relations with the disease outcomes. We hypothesized that ontology can be used as an integrative platform to classify and analyze HCI and disease outcomes. Accordingly, we annotated and categorized different coronaviruses, hosts, and phenotypes using ontologies and identified their relations. Various COVID-19 phenotypes are hypothesized to be caused by the backend HCI mechanisms. To further identify the causal HCI-outcome relations, we collected 35 experimentally-verified HCI protein-protein interactions (PPIs), and applied literature mining to identify additional host PPIs in response to coronavirus infections. The results were formulated in a logical ontology representation for integrative HCI-outcome understanding. Using known PPIs as baits, we also developed and applied a domain-inferred prediction method to predict new PPIs and identified their pathological targets on multiple organs. Overall, our proposed ontology-based integrative framework combined with computational predictions can be used to support fundamental understanding of the intricate interactions between human patients and coronaviruses (including SARS-CoV-2) and their association with various disease outcomes.

3.
Lung Cancer ; 160: 78-83, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313324

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with lung cancer (LC) are susceptible to severe outcomes from COVID-19. This study evaluated disruption to care of patients with LC during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The COVID-19 and Cancer Outcomes Study (CCOS) is a prospective cohort study comprised of patients with a current or past history of hematological or solid malignancies with outpatient visits between March 2 and March 6, 2020, at two academic cancer centers in the Northeastern United States (US). Data was collected for the three months prior to the index week (baseline period) and the following three months (pandemic period). RESULTS: 313 of 2365 patients had LC, 1578 had other solid tumors, and 474 had hematological malignancies. Patients with LC were not at increased risk of COVID-19 diagnosis compared to patients with other solid or hematological malignancies. When comparing data from the pandemic period to the baseline period, patients with LC were more likely to have a decrease in in-person visits compared to patients with other solid tumors (aOR 1.94; 95% CI, 1.46-2.58), but without an increase in telehealth visits (aOR 1.13; 95% CI 0.85-1.50). Patients with LC were more likely to experience pandemic-related treatment delays than patients with other solid tumors (aOR 1.80; 95% CI 1.13-2.80) and were more likely to experience imaging/diagnostic procedure delays than patients with other solid tumors (aOR 2.59; 95% CI, 1.46-4.47) and hematological malignancies (aOR 2.01; 95% CI, 1.02-3.93). Among patients on systemic therapy, patients with LC were also at increased risk for decreased in-person visits and increased treatment delays compared to those with other solid tumors. DISCUSSION: Patients with LC experienced increased cancer care disruption compared to patients with other malignancies during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Focused efforts to ensure continuity of care for this patient population are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 83(10): 895-897, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990893

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of pneumonia associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurred in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and has been spread worldwide rapidly now. Over 5.3-million confirmed cases and 340,000 disease-associated deaths have been found till May 25, 2020. The potential pathophysiology for SARS-CoV-2 to affect the target is via the receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 can be found in the respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, and reproductive organs such as human ovaries and Leydig cells in the testis. This receptor plays a dominant role in the fertility function. Considering the crucial roles of testicular cells of the male reproductive system, increasing numbers of studies focus on the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the testis. In this literature, we reviewed several studies to evaluate the relevance between SARS-CoV-2, ACE receptor, and female and male reproductive system and found that the risk of being attacked by SARS-CoV-2 is higher in males than in females. Since men infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus may have the risk of impaired reproductive performance, such as the orchitis and an elevated of luteinizing hormone (LH), and additionally, SARS-CoV-2 virus may be found in semen, although the latter is still debated, all suggest that we should pay much attention to sexual transmitted disease and male fertility after recovering from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Genitalia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Female , Fertility , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics
6.
Nat Med ; 26(10): 1636-1643, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728994

ABSTRACT

Several studies have revealed that the hyper-inflammatory response induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a major cause of disease severity and death. However, predictive biomarkers of pathogenic inflammation to help guide targetable immune pathways are critically lacking. We implemented a rapid multiplex cytokine assay to measure serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1ß in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) upon admission to the Mount Sinai Health System in New York. Patients (n = 1,484) were followed up to 41 d after admission (median, 8 d), and clinical information, laboratory test results and patient outcomes were collected. We found that high serum IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α levels at the time of hospitalization were strong and independent predictors of patient survival (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0205 and P = 0.0140, respectively). Notably, when adjusting for disease severity, common laboratory inflammation markers, hypoxia and other vitals, demographics, and a range of comorbidities, IL-6 and TNF-α serum levels remained independent and significant predictors of disease severity and death. These findings were validated in a second cohort of patients (n = 231). We propose that serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels should be considered in the management and treatment of patients with COVID-19 to stratify prospective clinical trials, guide resource allocation and inform therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Interleukin-8/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
8.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20115758

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to more than 100,000 deaths in the United States. Several studies have revealed that the hyper-inflammatory response induced by SARS-CoV-2 is a major cause of disease severity and death in infected patients. However, predictive biomarkers of pathogenic inflammation to help guide targetable immune pathways are critically lacking. We implemented a rapid multiplex cytokine assay to measure serum IL-6, IL-8, TNF-, and IL-1{beta} in hospitalized COVID-19 patients upon admission to the Mount Sinai Health System in New York. Patients (n = 1484) were followed up to 41 days (median 8 days) and clinical information, laboratory test results and patient outcomes were collected. In 244 patients, cytokine measurements were repeated over time, and effect of drugs could be assessed. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to compare survival by cytokine strata, followed by Cox regression models to evaluate the independent predictive value of baseline cytokines. We found that high serum IL-6, IL-8, and TNF- levels at the time of hospitalization were strong and independent predictors of patient survival. Importantly, when adjusting for disease severity score, common laboratory inflammation markers, hypoxia and other vitals, demographics, and a range of comorbidities, IL-6 and TNF- serum levels remained independent and significant predictors of disease severity and death. We propose that serum IL-6 and TNF- levels should be considered in the management and treatment of COVID-19 patients to stratify prospective clinical trials, guide resource allocation and inform therapeutic options. We also propose that patients with high IL-6 and TNF- levels should be assessed for combinatorial blockade of pathogenic inflammation in this disease.

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