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1.
Brain Hemorrhages ; 2(2): 76-83, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597171

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients have presented with a wide range of neurological disorders, among which stroke is the most devastating. We have reviewed current studies, case series, and case reports with a focus on COVID-19 patients complicated with stroke, and presented the current understanding of stroke in this patient population. As evidenced by increased D-dimer, fibrinogen, factor VIII and von Willebrand factor, SARS-CoV-2 infection induces coagulopathy, disrupts endothelial function, and promotes hypercoagulative state. Collectively, it predisposes patients to cerebrovascular events. Additionally, due to the unprecedented strain on the healthcare system, stroke care has been inevitably compromised. The underlying mechanism between COVID-19 and stroke warrants further study, so does the development of an effective therapeutic or preventive intervention.

2.
Brain Hemorrhages ; 2(4): 137-138, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574117
3.
Brain Hemorrhages ; 2(4): 141-150, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574116

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In addition to the deleterious effects Covid-19 has on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems, COVID-19 can also result in damage to the nervous system. This review aims to explore current literature on the association between COVID-19 and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of PubMed for literature published on COVID-19 and ICH. Ninety-four of 295 screened papers met inclusion criteria. RESULTS: The literature addressed incidence and mortality of ICH associated with Covid-19. It also revealed cases of COVID-19 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, subdural hematomas, and hemorrhage secondary to cerebral venous thrombosis and ischemic stroke. ICH during COVID-19 infections was associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Risk factors for ICH appeared to be therapeutic anticoagulation, ECMO, and mechanical ventilation. Outcomes varied widely, depending on the severity of COVID-19 infection and neurologic injury. CONCLUSION: Although treatment for severe Covid-19 infections is often aimed at addressing acute respiratory distress syndrome, vasculopathy, and coagulopathy, neurologic injury can also occur. Evidence-based treatments that improve COVID-19 mortality may also increase risk for developing ICH. Providers should be aware of potential neurologic sequelae of COVID-19, diagnostic methods to rule out other causes of ICH, and treatment regimens.

4.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 738003, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1457823

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of the study is to investigate effects of loneliness on individual's mental health and the mediating effects of intolerance of uncertainty and sleep quality in the post Coronavirus-19 period, especially for the young people. Methods: The questionnaires used in this study include UCLA loneliness scale (UCLA-3), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), intolerance for uncertainty (IU) and the Chinese version of DASS-21. A total number of 289 subjects were recruited in the study, which includes 209 females (72.3%), 80 males (27.7%); and 212 students (73.4%), 77 working staffs (26.6%). Results: The results showed that: (1) people have high levels of loneliness, anxiety, depression and stress, and poor sleep quality; (2) the mediating effect of intolerance for uncertainty in the relationship of loneliness and mental health is significant (effect size = 0.178, 95% CI confidence interval: [0.115, 0.241]), and the mediating effects of sleep quality in the relationship between loneliness and mental health is significant (effect size = 0.127, 95% CI confidence interval: [0.017, 0.239]). Conclusion: Loneliness invokes a stronger self-concerned inadaptability to threat response and may lead to more mental diseases through more serious intolerance for uncertainty and insomnia.

5.
Am J Biomed Sci Res ; 9(1): 90-94, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282816

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: As COVID-19 spreads around the world, so does telemedicine across many medical specialties including neurosurgery. Given the unique patient population in neurosurgery, arising opportunities for integration and expansion of telemedicine into neurosurgery practice come with challenges for both the patient and the provider. METHODS: A literature review has been performed, and a survey has been sent out to neurosurgery providers in Texas to determine if providers are satisfied with the current state of telemedicine in their clinical practice. RESULTS: Patients who live far away from a medical center have cited increased convenience when routine postoperative visits have been converted to telemedicine. For providers, challenges have arisen in performing physical exams, especially when performing detailed neurological exams in the diagnosis of a spine disorder. Survey results of neurosurgery providers have revealed mixed opinions since the initiation of telemedicine. CONCLUSION: Although it is unclear what role telemedicine will have after the social distancing restrictions are lifted, many providers surveyed have expressed interest in keeping telemedicine in their clinical practice.

6.
Cureus ; 12(8): e10039, 2020 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-802014

ABSTRACT

Introduction Health risk factors, including lifestyle risks and health literacy, are known to contribute to the chronic disease epidemic. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), chronic diseases account for 90% of healthcare costs, morbidity, and mortality. In the United States, healthcare providers attempt to modulate a limited set of risks. However, chronic diseases continue to proliferate despite expansion of wellness programs and drugs to manage and prevent chronic conditions. Pandemics, exemplified by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), show that people in good health suffer mortality rates at 10% the rate compared to those with pre-existing chronic conditions. Healthcare costs and morbidity rates often parallel mortality rates. New root-cause risk and health tools that accommodate low health literacy and are linked to personalized health improvement care plans are needed to reverse the chronic disease epidemic. Reported here is a study on 70 manufacturing employees in the Midwest US using a personalized and group approach to chronic disease reversal and prevention which may also find utility in pandemic severity and policy decisions. Methods Health, lifestyle, behavior, and motivation data were collected on 70 individuals at the beginning of a nine-month disease reversal and prevention program. The data were updated every two to six months over the period. Inputs included information from a novel health risk assessment, serum biomarkers specific for chronic disease, and traditional medical information. Using all these data we generated robust, personalized, and modifiable care plans that were implemented by the participant and guided by a care team including health coaches and medical providers. Periodic renewal of profile data and biomarkers facilitated adjustment of care plans to optimize the path toward health goals set mutually by the participant and the care team. Results Ninety percent of participants experienced a favorable reduction in chronic disease biomarkers. The reduction in serum biomarkers coincided with a reduction in disease and risk attributes based on medical chart data and before and after interviews. Hemoglobin A1C, for example, lowered in all but one participant concomitant with reported improved energy and reduced need for medications in the majority of participants. Markers of inflammation lowered across the population. Most importantly each individual reported improvement in their overall health. Conclusions This simple, inexpensive, root-cause based risk and health approach generates a "do no harm" action plan that guides a care team, including the participant, on a path to improved health. The data demonstrate that changes in a novel risk calculator score coincide with changes in sensitive biomarkers for chronic disease. When the risks of an individual are reduced, the biomarkers reflect that change with self-reported wellbeing also improved. This program and process may be of value to society plagued with escalating levels of chronic disease and merits further study and implementation.

7.
Neurol Res ; 42(10): 811-817, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-627855

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic poses a substantial threat to the health of healthcare personnel on the front line of caring for COVID-19 patients. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services previously announced that all non-essential planned surgeries and procedures should be postponed until further notice and only urgent procedures should proceed. METHODS: We share our experiences with safely performing neurosurgical procedures on confirmed and suspected COVID-19 patients, to aide other neurosurgical teams in preparing for these high-risk cases, especially for neurosurgical interventions which are essential at saving a life or preserving functioning of the central nervous system that cannot be delayed. Perioperative and intraoperative strategies, considerations, as well as challenges arisen under the specific circumstance have been discussed: the hospital should be equipped with negative pressure areas and multiple areas to quarantine positive patients; the operating rooms should be negative pressure or have HEPA-filtration systems in place; all healthcare personnel who immediately participate in neurosurgical interventions for confirmed and suspected COVID-19 patients should take airborne precautions and wear enhanced personal protective equipment. RESULTS: Successful management of neurosurgical emergencies without healthcare personnel infection has been achieved during this pandemic crisis. CONCLUSION: Following the proposed guidance, urgent neurosurgical surgeries and procedures can be safely performed for the benefit of critical patients with or suspected for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Neurosurgery , Neurosurgical Procedures , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Occupational Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
8.
World Neurosurg ; 138: e955-e960, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-274866

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a substantial threat to the health of health care personnel on the front line of caring for patients with COVID-19. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services have announced that all nonessential planned surgeries and procedures should be postponed until further notice and only urgent procedures should proceed. Neurologic surgeries and procedures should not be delayed under the circumstance in which it is essential at saving a life or preserving functioning of the central nervous system. METHODS: With the intent to advise the neurosurgery team on how to adequately prepare and safely perform neurosurgical procedures on confirmed and suspected patients with COVID-19, we discuss considerations and recommendations based on the lessons and experience shared by neurosurgeons in China. RESULTS: Perioperative and intraoperative strategies, considerations, as well as challenges arisen under the specific circumstance have been discussed. In addition, a case of a ruptured aneurysm in a suspected patient with COVID-19 is reported. It is advised that all health care personnel who immediately participate in neurosurgical surgeries and procedures for confirmed and suspected patients with COVID-19 should take airborne precautions and wear enhanced personal protective equipment. CONCLUSIONS: Following the proposed guidance, urgent neurosurgical surgeries and procedures can be safely performed for the benefit of critical patients with or suspected for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, Ruptured/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intracranial Aneurysm/surgery , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/surgery , Air Filters , Aneurysm, Ruptured/complications , Aneurysm, Ruptured/diagnostic imaging , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Computed Tomography Angiography , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Craniotomy/methods , Drainage , Emergencies , Hematoma/complications , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Hematoma/surgery , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/complications , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Pressure , Intraoperative Care , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Monitoring, Physiologic , Operating Rooms , Pandemics , Perioperative Care , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , United States
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