Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 66
Filter
1.
Journal of Southwest Minzu University Natural Science Edition ; 48(2):135-141, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1958497

ABSTRACT

Feline Astrovirus (FAstV), Feline Parvovirus(FPV) and Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FECoV) are important pathogens causing diarrhea in cats.In order to establish a molecular detection method which can differentiate the three pathogens in the same PCR system, an FAstV/FPV/FECoV triple PCR method was established with optimized primer concentrations and annealing temperature, and specificity, sensitivity and repeatability were tested. The results showed that the PCR method could only identify FAstV (320 bp), FPV (468 bp) and FECoV (664 bp) genes, while not other canine and feline related pathogens. The detection limits of FAstV, FPV and FECoV were 2x10~7 copy/L (7.1 pg/L),4.7x10~6 copy/L (2.4 pg/L) and 7x10~6 copy/L (5.1 pg/L) respectively. The established triple PCR method was used to detect 207 cat fecal samples collected in Chengdu from 2019 to 2020, including 141 diarrhea samples and 66 clinical health samples. The detection rates of FAstV, FPV and FECoV were 24.15% (50/207), 37.20% (77/207) and 15.46% (32/207) respectively, and the co-infection rates of FAstV/FPV, FPV/FECoV and FAstv/FECoV were 9.18%,6.28% and 6.28% respectively. In conclusion, the triple PCR method of FAstV/FPV/FECoV was successfully established, and could be applied for virus detection and epidemiological investigation.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911670

ABSTRACT

Objective: India and Europe have large populations, a large number of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, and different healthcare systems. This study aims to investigate the differences between the hesitancy toward and preference for COVID-19 vaccines in India and four European countries, namely, the United Kingdom (UK), Germany, Italy, and Spain. Methodology: We conducted a cross-national survey for distribution in India, the UK, Germany, Italy, and Spain. More specifically, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted to evaluate vaccine preferences, and Likert scales were used to probe the underlying factors that contribute to vaccination acceptance. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to directly compare India and European countries. Results: A total of 2565 respondents (835 from India and 1730 from the specified countries in Europe) participated in the survey. After PSM, more than 82.5% of respondents from India positively accepted the COVID-19 vaccination, whereas 79.9% of respondents from Europe had a positive attitude; however, the proportion in Europe changed to 81.6% in cases in which the vaccine was recommended by friends, family, or employers. The DCE found that the COVID-19 vaccine efficacy was the most important factor for respondents in India and the four European nations (41.8% in India and 47.77% in Europe), followed by the vaccine cost (28.06% in India and 25.88% in Europe). Conclusion: Although most respondents in both regions showed high acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines, either due to general acceptance or acceptance as a result of social cues, the vaccination coverage rate shows apparent distinctions. Due to the differences in COVID-19 situations, public health systems, cultural backgrounds, and vaccine availability, the strategies for COVID-19 vaccine promotion should be nation-dependent.

3.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: China and the US play critical leading roles in the global effort to contain the COVID-19 virus. Therefore, their population's preferences for initial diagnosis in the case were compared to provide policy and clinical insights. We aim to quantify and compare China and the US population's preferences for attributes of initial diagnosis in the case of presenting symptoms, especially fever during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: We aim to quantify and compare the public's preferences for medical management of fever during the COVID-19 pandemic in China and the United States (US). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study from January to March 2021 in China and the US with an online discrete choice experiment questionnaire distributed through Amazon's MTurk (in the US) and recruited volunteers (in China). Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to match the two groups of the respondents from China and the US to minimize the confounding effects. In addition, the respondents' preferences for different diagnosis options were evaluated using mixed logit model (MXL) and latent class models. Moreover, demographic data were collected and compared with chi-square test, Fisher's test, and Mann-Whitney U-test. RESULTS: A total of 9,112 respondents (5,411 from China and 3,701 from the US) who completed our survey were included in our analysis. After PSM, 1,240 respondents from China and 1,240 from the US were matched for gender, age, educational level, occupation, and annual salary levels. The segmented sizes of three classes of respondents from China were 870, 270, and 100. Meanwhile, the US respondents' segmented sizes were 269, 139, and 832. Respondents from China attached the greatest importance to the type of medical institution (Weighted importance: 40.0%), while those from the US valued the waiting time (Weighted importance:31.5%) the most. Respondents from China preferred the emergency department (Coefficient:0.973, Reference level: Online consultation) and fever clinic (a special clinic for the treatment of fever patients for the prevention and control of acute infectious diseases in China) (Coefficient:0.974, Reference level: Online consultation), while those from the US preferred private clinics (general practices) (Coefficient:0.543, Reference level: Online consultation). Additionally, shorter waiting times, COVID-19 nucleic acid testing arrangements, higher reimbursement rates, and lower costs were always preferred. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements to the availability of COVID-19 testing and medical professional skill and increased designated healthcare facilities may help boost potential healthcare seeking during the COVID-19 and prevent unrecognized community spreading of SARS-CoV-2 in China and the United States. Moreover, to better prevent future waves of pandemics, identify undiagnosed patients and encourage the undiagnosed to seek healthcare services to curb the pandemic, the hierarchical diagnosis and treatment system needs improving in China, and the US should focus on reducing diagnosis costs and raising the reimbursement rate of medical insurance.

4.
JCI Insight ; 7(11)2022 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892019

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has been confirmed in over 450 million confirmed cases since 2019. Although several vaccines have been certified by the WHO and people are being vaccinated on a global scale, it has been reported that multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants can escape neutralization by antibodies, resulting in vaccine breakthrough infections. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is known to induce heterologous protection based on trained immune responses. Here, we investigated whether BCG-induced trained immunity protected against SARS-CoV-2 in the K18-hACE2 mouse model. Our data demonstrate that i.v. BCG (BCG-i.v.) vaccination induces robust trained innate immune responses and provides protection against WT SARS-CoV-2, as well as the B.1.617.1 and B.1.617.2 variants. Further studies suggest that myeloid cell differentiation and activation of the glycolysis pathway are associated with BCG-induced training immunity in K18-hACE2 mice. Overall, our study provides the experimental evidence that establishes a causal relationship between BCG-i.v. vaccination and protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , BCG Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Melphalan , Mice , gamma-Globulins
5.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 294, 2022 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890207

ABSTRACT

Since 2019, the novel coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) disease (COVID-19) has caused a worldwide epidemic. Anti-coronavirus peptides (ACovPs), a type of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), have demonstrated excellent inhibitory effects on coronaviruses. However, state-of-the-art AMP databases contain only a small number of ACovPs. Additionally, the fields of these databases are not uniform, and the units or evaluation standards of the same field are inconsistent. Most of these databases have not included the target domains of ACovPs and description of in vitro and in vivo assays to measure the inhibitory effects of ACovPs. Here, we present a database focused on ACovPs (ACovPepDB), which contains comprehensive and precise ACovPs information of 518 entries with 214 unique ACovPs manually collected from public databases and published peer-reviewed articles. We believe that ACovPepDB is of great significance for facilitating the development of new peptides and improving treatment for coronavirus infection. The database will become a portal for ACovPs and guide and help researchers perform further studies. The ACovPepDB is available at http://i.uestc.edu.cn/ACovPepDB/ .


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Databases, Chemical , Humans , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/pharmacology , Peptides/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
6.
Acta Biomater ; 148: 133-141, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885570

ABSTRACT

Microneedles can realize the intradermal and transdermal delivery of drugs. However, most conventional microneedles made of metal, polymer and ceramics are unsuitable for the delivery of mRNA drugs that are fragile and temperature-sensitive. This study explores the usage of cryomicroneedles (CryoMNs) for the intradermal delivery of mRNA molecules. Taking luciferase mRNA as an example, we first optimize the formulation of CryoMNs to maximize mRNA stability. Later, in the mouse model, we compare the delivery efficiency with the conventional subcutaneous injection for both the luciferase mRNA and COVID-19 Comirnaty mRNA vaccines, where CryoMNs delivered mRNA vaccines successfully induce specific B-cell antibody, neutralizing activity and T-cell responses. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: mRNA vaccines are fragile and temperature-sensitive, so they are mainly delivered by intramuscular injection that often causes pain and requires clinical expertise to immunize patients. Microneedles permit convenient, fast and safe vaccination. However, existing microneedle platforms are ineffective to protect the integrity of mRNA vaccines in fabrication, storage, and administration. This work utilizes cryomicroneedles (CryoMNs) technology to intradermally deliver mRNA. In the mouse model, CryoMNs are compared with the subcutaneous injection for the delivery efficiency of both the luciferase mRNA and COVID-19 Comirnaty mRNA vaccines, where CryoMNs delivered mRNA vaccines successfully produce specific B-cell antibodies, T-cell responses, and neutralizing activity. This work is expected to provide a new delivery strategy for the emerging mRNA therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Delivery Systems , Injections, Intradermal , Mice , Needles , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Vaccination
7.
Vaccines ; 10(6):832, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1857140

ABSTRACT

Objective: India and Europe have large populations, a large number of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, and different healthcare systems. This study aims to investigate the differences between the hesitancy toward and preference for COVID-19 vaccines in India and four European countries, namely, the United Kingdom (UK), Germany, Italy, and Spain. Methodology: We conducted a cross-national survey for distribution in India, the UK, Germany, Italy, and Spain. More specifically, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted to evaluate vaccine preferences, and Likert scales were used to probe the underlying factors that contribute to vaccination acceptance. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to directly compare India and European countries. Results: A total of 2565 respondents (835 from India and 1730 from the specified countries in Europe) participated in the survey. After PSM, more than 82.5% of respondents from India positively accepted the COVID-19 vaccination, whereas 79.9% of respondents from Europe had a positive attitude;however, the proportion in Europe changed to 81.6% in cases in which the vaccine was recommended by friends, family, or employers. The DCE found that the COVID-19 vaccine efficacy was the most important factor for respondents in India and the four European nations (41.8% in India and 47.77% in Europe), followed by the vaccine cost (28.06% in India and 25.88% in Europe). Conclusion: Although most respondents in both regions showed high acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines, either due to general acceptance or acceptance as a result of social cues, the vaccination coverage rate shows apparent distinctions. Due to the differences in COVID-19 situations, public health systems, cultural backgrounds, and vaccine availability, the strategies for COVID-19 vaccine promotion should be nation-dependent.

8.
Microb Pathog ; 166: 105548, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799780

ABSTRACT

Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is generally thought of as a mild, but highly contagious, enteritis of young dogs. This study was to investigate the molecular detection and characteristics of CCoV in Chengdu city, Southwest China. 218 canine fecal samples were collected from four animal hospitals and one animal shelter from 2020 to 2021. Fifty-nine CCoV-positive samples were detected by RT-PCR, including 40 CCoV-I, 25 CCoV-IIa, one CCoV-IIb and 10 untyped. To further analyze the genetic diversity of CCoV, we amplified ten complete spike (S) genes, including four CCoV-I and six CCoV-II strains. The amino acid sequence obtained in this study revealed 85.95% ± 12.55% homology with the reference strains. Moreover, in the N-terminal structural domain, there were two amino acid insertions (17QQ18) in two strains of CCoV-I and four amino acid insertions (95IGTN98) in CCoV-IIb strain. Interestingly, we identified that the S1/S2 cleavage site of the S protein of CCoV strains (SWU-SSX3 and SWU-SSX10) were consistent with feline coronavirus (FCoV). In the evolutionary tree, a strain of CCoV-I (SWU-SSX10) was found to be more closely related to FCoV, while SWU-SSX7 of CCoV-IIb was more closely related to coronavirus from the Chinese ferret badger. In addition, for the first time, recombination in a CCoV-IIb strain was found to occur between two subtypes occurring in the C domain of the S1 subunit, with a breakpoint starting at 2141 nt. The results enriched the epidemiological information of CCoV and provided an important reference for the prevention of CCoV in Chengdu city, Southwest China.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Canine , Dog Diseases , Amino Acids/genetics , Animals , Coronavirus, Canine/classification , Coronavirus, Canine/genetics , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Phylogeny
9.
RSC advances ; 11(24):14737-14745, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787516

ABSTRACT

The RBD (receptor binding domain) of the SARS-CoV-2 virus S (spike) protein mediates viral cell attachment and serves as a promising target for therapeutics development. Mutations on the S-RBD may alter its affinity to the cell receptor and affect the potency of vaccines and antibodies. Here we used an in silico approach to predict how mutations on RBD affect its binding affinity to hACE2 (human angiotensin-converting enzyme2). The effect of all single point mutations on the interface was predicted. SPR assay results show that 6 out of 9 selected mutations can strengthen binding affinity. Our prediction has reasonable agreement with the previous deep mutational scan results and recently reported mutants. Our work demonstrated the in silico method as a powerful tool to forecast more powerful virus mutants, which will significantly benefit the development of broadly neutralizing vaccine and antibody. The RBD (receptor binding domain) of the SARS-CoV-2 virus S (spike) protein mediates viral cell attachment and serves as a promising target for therapeutics development.

10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 861050, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785349

ABSTRACT

It has been reported that multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOCs) including Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta can reduce neutralization by antibodies, resulting in vaccine breakthrough infections. Virus-antiserum neutralization assays are typically performed to monitor potential vaccine breakthrough strains. However, experiment-based methods took several weeks whether newly emerging variants can break through current vaccines or therapeutic antibodies. To address this, we sought to establish a computational model to predict the antigenicity of SARS-CoV-2 variants by sequence alone. In this study, we firstly identified the relationship between the antigenic difference transformed from the amino acid sequence and the antigenic distance from the neutralization titers. Based on this correlation, we obtained a computational model for the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein to predict the fold decrease in virus-antiserum neutralization titers with high accuracy (~0.79). Our predicted results were comparable to experimental neutralization titers of variants, including Alpha, Beta, Delta, Gamma, Epsilon, Iota, Kappa, and Lambda, as well as SARS-CoV. Here, we predicted the fold of decrease of Omicron as 17.4-fold less susceptible to neutralization. We visualized all 1,521 SARS-CoV-2 lineages to indicate variants including Mu, B.1.630, B.1.633, B.1.649, and C.1.2, which can induce vaccine breakthrough infections in addition to reported VOCs Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron. Our study offers a quick approach to predict the antigenicity of SARS-CoV-2 variants as soon as they emerge. Furthermore, this approach can facilitate future vaccine updates to cover all major variants. An online version can be accessed at http://jdlab.online.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immune Sera , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
11.
J Clin Invest ; 132(4)2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705312

ABSTRACT

Many SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) lose potency against variants of concern. In this study, we developed 2 strategies to produce mutation-resistant antibodies. First, a yeast library expressing mutant receptor binding domains (RBDs) of the spike protein was utilized to screen for potent nAbs that are least susceptible to viral escape. Among the candidate antibodies, P5-22 displayed ultrahigh potency for virus neutralization as well as an outstanding mutation resistance profile. Additionally, P14-44 and P15-16 were recognized as mutation-resistant antibodies with broad betacoronavirus neutralization properties. P15-16 has only 1 binding hotspot, which is K378 in the RBD of SARS-CoV-2. The crystal structure of the P5-22, P14-44, and RBD ternary complex clarified the unique mechanisms that underlie the excellent mutation resistance profiles of these antibodies. Secondly, polymeric IgG enhanced antibody avidity by eliminating P5-22's only hotspot, residue F486 in the RBD, thereby potently blocking cell entry by mutant viruses. Structural and functional analyses of antibodies screened using both potency assays and the yeast RBD library revealed rare, ultrapotent, mutation-resistant nAbs against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibody Affinity , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Binding Sites/genetics , Binding Sites/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/blood , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Cloning, Molecular , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , In Vitro Techniques , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Receptors, Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325143

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Although the respiratory and immune systems are the major targets of SARS-CoV-2, increasing evidence revealed that kidney injury was not rare in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the incidences of kidney abnormalities were significantly different, from 0.5 to 75.4% in several reports. The association of kidney injury with prognosis remain controversial. Methods: : In this retrospective single center cohort study, laboratory confirmedCOVID-19inpatients with severe type were enrolled. Demographic, clinicaland laboratory data were collected. Association ofserum creatinine (SCr)with 28-days mortality in severe COVID-19 patients was analyzed. Results: : 18.79% (48/304) patients died during the first 28-days of hospitalization.Non-survivors had a significantly higher SCr levels than survivors (109.27μmol/L vs. 69.99μmol/L, P <0.001). The 28-days mortality in high SCr group (>76μmol/L) was significantly higher than that in low SCr group (31.7% vs. 7.5%, P <0.001). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the independent risk factors of 28-days outcome included age(OR: 2.95, 95%CI: 1.08-8.05), WBC (OR: 6.09, 95%CI: 2.27-6.39), lymphopenia (OR: 3.49, 95%CI: 1.55-7.92), IL-6 (OR: 4.44, 95%CI: 1.64-11.99) and SCr (OR: 2.69, 95%CI: 1.18-6.11). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated the survival disadvantage in patients with high SCr levels (>76μmol/L). ROC curve showed the SCr cut-off value for predicting 28-days death was 77.5 μmol/L, with the sensitivity of 68.8% and speciality of 74.1%. Conclusion: SCr was associated with poor prognosis and might be an independent risk factor for in-hospital death. The cut-off value of SCr for prognosis prediction was 77.5 μmol/L, with the sensitivity of 68.8% and speciality of 74.1%.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325142

ABSTRACT

Background: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) spread in many countries.Data about viral shedding duration, particularly the prolonged ones of the pathogen SARS-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is scarce. The longest viral RNA sheddingduration reported previously was 37 days. Herein, we report the clinical and immunologic features ofrecovered COVID-19cases with a medium viral RNA shedding duration of 44 days. Cases presentation: Nine laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases from Wuhan with viral RNA shedding duration more than 30 days were included in our study,5 of them were moderate.Althoughinflammatory markers were significantlyhigher, the medium duration in severepatients was similar to that in moderate patients (44.5days vs. 43.6days). Severepatients showed higher NK cells levels, although the T cells and B cells were lower as compared with moderate patients. Contrary to previous reports in influenza, prolonged viralshedding time did not cause poor prognosis in this study. Conclusions: : There could be characteristic immunological dysfunction in COVID-19 patients with prolonged viral shedding durationand interestingly, prolonged viral shedding duration seemed not to be related with poor prognosis.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324530

ABSTRACT

Background: & Aims: To develop an effective model of predicting fatal Outcome in the severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Methods: : Between February 20, 2020 and April 4, 2020, consecutive COVID-19 patients from three designated hospitals were enrolled in this study. Independent high- risk factors associated with death were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard model. A prognostic nomogram was constructed to predict the survival of severe COVID-19 patients. Results: : There were 124 severe patients in the training cohort, and there were 71 and 76 severe patients in the two independent validation cohorts, respectively. Multivariate Cox analysis indicated that age ≥ 70 years (HR 1.184, 95% CI 1.061-1.321), Panting(breathing rate ≥ 30/min) (HR 3.300, 95% CI 2.509-6.286), lymphocyte count < 1.0 × 10 9 /L (HR 2.283, 95% CI 1.779-3.267), and IL-6 >10pg/mL (HR 3.029, 95% CI 1.567-7.116) were independent high-risk factors associated with fatal outcome. We developed the nomogram for identifying survival of severe COVID-19 patients in the training cohort (AUC 0.900, [95% CI 0.841-0.960], sensitivity 95.5%, specificity 77.5%);in validation cohort 1 (AUC 0.862, [95% CI 0.763-0.961], sensitivity 92.9%, specificity 64.5%);in validation cohort 2 (AUC 0.811, [95% CI 0.698-0.924], sensitivity 77.3%, specificity 73.5%). The calibration curve for probability of death indicated a good consistence between prediction by the nomogram and the actual observation. Conclusions: : This nomogram could help clinicians to identify severe patients who have high risk of death, and to develop more appropriate treatment strategies to reduce the mortality of severe patients.

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315661

ABSTRACT

Background: Qingfei Paidu decoction (QFPDD) is a Chinese medicine compound formula recommended for combating corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. This study aims to identify the main constituents in QFPDD and the absorbed components (including prototypes and metabolites) in serum and tissues after oral administration of QFPDD to mice. Methods: : A practical and sensitive method of UHPLC-Q-Exactive-Orbitrap HRMS was developed to identify the chemical constituents in QFPDD and the absorbed prototypes as well as the metabolites in mice serum and tissues following oral administration of QFPDD. Results: : A total of 405 chemicals, including 40 kinds of alkaloids, 162 kinds of flavonoids, 44 kinds of organic acids, 71 kinds of triterpene saponins and 88 kinds of other compounds in the water extract of QFPDD were tentatively identified via comparison with the retention times and MS/MS spectra of the standards or refereed by literature. With the help of the standards and in vitro metabolites, 195 chemical components (including 104 prototypes and 91 metabolites) were identified in mice serum after oral administration of QFPDD. In addition, 165, 177, 112, 120, 44, 53 constituents were identified in the lung, liver, heart, kidney, brain, and spleen of QFPDD-treated mice, respectively. Conclusions: : An UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS based method was established for chemical profiling the constituents in QFPDD, while the absorbed prototypes and metabolites occurring in mice serum and tissues were investigated following oral administration of QFPDD. These findings provided key information and guidance for further investigation on the pharmacologically active substances and clinical applications of QFPDD.

16.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315400

ABSTRACT

Background: Quarantine for cross-region traveling has slowed the transmission of SARS-CoV-2/coronavirus. However, it has had a negative impact on mental health and economic recovery. The study aimed to estimate a responsible and pragmatic quarantine period using a mathematic model. Method: We constructed a retrospective mathematical modeling using data from the World Health Organization coronavirus disease database. Four risk levels and 16 different cross-border scenarios were designed and analyzed. We then sought the optimal quarantine duration in different situations using a logarithmic regression analysis. Findings: The mean optimal quarantine days was found to be 1·4, 6·5, 10, and 14 days for the scenarios of traveling from very-high-risk countries to very-high-, high-, moderate- and low-risk countries, respectively. The mean optimal quarantine days regarding from high-risk countries to very-high-, high-, moderate- and low-risk countries were 0, 0·8, 7·2, and 14 days, respectively. The mean optimal quarantine days for from moderate-risk countries to very-high-, high-, moderate-, and low-risk countries were 0, 0·8, 2·6, and 10·4 days, respectively. The mean optimal quarantine days for from low-risk countries to very high-, high-, moderate-, and low-risk countries were 0, 0, 0, and 2 days, respectively. Correlations in logarithmic regression between the optimal quarantine days and the ratio of incidence rate between different countries performed well.Interpretation: The quarantine period for cross-region travelling could be adjusted based on the ratio of incidence rate between the two countries. We recommend a optimal quarantine period for travelers from a low-risk country entering a higher risk country in the early stage of COVID-19 massive vaccination. Funding: No external fundingDeclaration of Interest: None to declare

17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315365

ABSTRACT

Objective: The novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) has spread rapidly across the globe with the movement of people. How to diagnose COVID-19 quickly and accurately is a concern for all. We retrospectively assessed the clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 detected by outpatient screening in areas outside Wuhan, China, to guide early screening outside the epidemic area, to isolate and treat COVID-19-positive patients, and to control the spread of this virus in the region. Results: : Among the 213 patients treated in the fever clinic of our hospital, 41 tested positive for novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) and 172 were negative. Among the positive patients, 13 (31.7%) of the patients had been to Wuhan, while 28 (68.3%) had not been to Wuhan. There were 4 cases of clustering occurrence. The main symptoms exhibited by COVID-19-positive patients were fever (87.8%), cough (68.3%), and expectoration (34.1%). The C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were increased in 35 (85.3%) positive patients;the hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase in the myocardial zymogram was increased in 22 positive patients (53.6%) and 38 negative patients (22.1%);computed tomography (CT) findings revealed lung lesions in all 41 positive patients (100%). Conclusion: We classified the patient population and analyzed the data to understand the early clinical performance of COVID-19. Our research illustrate that screening for COVID-19 outside Wuhan should focus on early symptoms such as fever and cough, in combination with lung CT findings, epidemiological history, and sputum pathogen detection to determine whether patients need further isolation.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310860

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a current global pandemic. However, impact of recent influenza A virus infection on the clinical course and outcomes of severe COVID-19 adult inpatients needs to be further explored. Methods: : In this retrospective cohort study, severe, laboratory confirmed COVID-19 adult patients from Wuhan Tongji Hospital were included. Data were obtained from electronic medical records and compared between patients with and without recent influenza A virus infection. Results: : 200 patients were included, 51.5% with recent influenza A virus infection. Recent influenza A virus infection group presented with longer persistence of cough and sputum from illness onset (35.0 vs. 27.0 days, P = 0.018) and (33.0 vs. 26.0 days, P = 0.015), respectively. Median time of progression to critical illness from illness onset was shorter (day 11.5 vs. day 16.0, P = 0.034). Time to clinical improvement and length of hospital stay were longer in recent infection group (23.0 vs. 19.0 days, P = 0.044) and (22.0 vs. 18.0 days, P = 0.030), respectively. Conclusions: : Patients with recent influenza A virus infection showed a delay in time to clinical improvement and increased length of hospital stay. There is a high clinical need to improve the detection of common respiratory pathogens to identify co-infection during the epidemic of COVID-19.

19.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309018

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently a global pandemic. Information about the death predicting of severe COVID-19 is not clear. Methods: : 151 in-patients from January 23th to March 8th 2020 were divided into severe and critically severe group, as well as survival and death group. The analysis of differences of clinical and imaging data were performed between groups. The logistic regression analysis of factors associated with death in COVID-19 were conducted, and the prediction model of death risk was developed. Results: : Many clinical and imaging indices were significantly different between groups, including the age, the epidemic history, the past medical history, the duration of symptoms prior to admission, blood routine, inflammatory related factors, Na + , myocardial zymogram, liver and renal function, coagulation function, fraction of inspired oxygen and complications. The proportion of patients in imaging stage III and comprehensive CT scores was increased significantly in death group. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve of the prediction model was 0.9593. Conclusions: : The clinical and imaging data reflect the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia. The prediction model of death risk might be a promising method to help clinicians to quickly identify and screen potential individuals who had a high-risk of death.

20.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308318

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a new type of virus that firstly confirmed in Wuhan, China recently. SARS-CoV-2 mainly spread through droplets. Infection characteristics data of SARS-CoV-2 is still limited, especially about asymptomatic infection, familial aggregation infection and infection risk in family member. Methods: From 2nd January 2020 to 23th February 2020, we have screened 22,729 throat swab samples from individuals with either have contact history of imported personnel, out-of-city travel or residence history or flu-like symptoms during the past 14 days. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was extracted and detected by real-time PCR. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 19 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). The results were confirmed by the Pearson χ 2 test;P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: 35 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients were found, 22 were asymptomatic infection, and 31 were familial aggregation infection. Odds ratio of SARS-CoV-2 infection risk between family aggregated close contacts and overall close contacts was 29.40 (95% confidence interval: 13.99 - 62.205, χ 2 = 140.23, P < 0.001);odds ratio of SARS-CoV-2 infection risk between family aggregated close contacts and non-family aggregated close contacts was 703.50 (95% confidence interval: 89.53 - 5527.95, χ 2 = 282.659, P < 0.001). One SARS-CoV-2 positive patient infected 2.08 (25/12) people on average under social control without separate isolation. Conclusions: Social control is effective in SARS-CoV-2 inhibition, but self-isolation and screening should be added as supplementary means to avoid familial aggregation infection and find out asymptomatic patients.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL