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1.
Green Energy & Environment ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1773326

ABSTRACT

Air-borne pollutants in particulate matter (PM) form, produced either physically during industrial processes or certain biological routes, have posed a great threat to human health. Particularly during the current COVID-19 pandemic, effective filtration of the virus is an urgent matter worldwide. In this review, we first introduce some fundamentals about PM, including its source and classification, filtration mechanisms, and evaluation parameters. Advanced filtration materials and their functions are then summarized, among which polymers and MOFs are discussed in detail together with their antibacterial performance. The discussion on the application is divided into end-of-pipe treatment and source control. Finally, we conclude this review with our prospective view on future research in this area.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310368

ABSTRACT

Background: We aim to explore the safety and feasibility of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) transplantation in severe and critically severe type Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Methods: In addition to normal therapy, we performed four times transplantation of UC-MSCs in 16 severe and critically severe type COVID-19 patients. We observed adverse events from enrollment to D28. We evaluated the oxygenation index, inflammatory biomarkers, chest imaging, lymphocyte subsets count et al on the 7th day (D7±1 day), the 14th day (D14±1 day) and the 28th day (D28±3 days). Results: There were no infusion-related or allergic reactions. The oxygenation index was improved after transplantation. The mortality of enrolled patients was 6.25%. The level of cytokines estimated was varied in normal range, the chest imaging was improved, the lymphocyte count and lymphocyte subsets count were recovered after transplantation. Conclusions: Intravenous transplantation of UC-MSCs was safe and feasible for treatment in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.Trial registration: Clinical Trial, NCT04269525. Registered 7 February 2020. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04269525

3.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(12): 1654-1664, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531911

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 has caused millions of deaths, and, since Aug 11, 2020, 20 intramuscular COVID-19 vaccines have been approved for use. We aimed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of an aerosolised adenovirus type-5 vector-based COVID-19 vaccine (Ad5-nCoV) in adults without COVID-19 from China. METHOD: This was a randomised, single-centre, open-label, phase 1 trial done in Zhongnan Hospital (Wuhan, China), to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the Ad5-nCoV vaccine by aerosol inhalation in adults (≥18 years) seronegative for SARS-CoV-2. Breastfeeding or pregnant women and people with major chronic illnesses or history of allergies were excluded. Participants were enrolled and randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1) into five groups to be vaccinated via intramuscular injection, aerosol inhalation, or both. Randomisation was stratified by sex and age (18-55 years or ≥56 years) using computer-generated randomisation sequences (block sizes of five). Only laboratory staff were masked to group assignment. The participants in the two aerosol groups received an initial high dose (2 × 1010 viral particles; HDmu group) or low dose (1 × 1010 viral particles; LDmu group) of Ad5-nCoV vaccine on day 0, followed by a booster on day 28. The mixed vaccination group received an initial intramuscular (5 × 1010 viral particles) vaccine on day 0, followed by an aerosolised booster (2 × 1010 viral particles) vaccine on day 28 (MIX group). The intramuscular groups received one dose (5 × 1010 viral particles; 1Dim group) or two doses (10 × 1010 viral particles; 2Dim group) of Ad5-nCoV on day 0. The primary safety outcome was adverse events 7 days after each vaccination, and the primary immunogenicity outcome was anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor IgG antibody and SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibody geometric mean titres at day 28 after last vaccination. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04552366. FINDINGS: Between Sept 28, 2020, and Sept 30, 2020, 230 individuals were screened for inclusion, of whom 130 (56%) participants were enrolled into the trial and randomly assigned into one of the five groups (26 participants per group). Within 7 days after vaccination, adverse events occurred in 18 (69%) in the HDmu group, 19 (73%) in the LDmu group, 19 (73%) in the MIX group, 19 (73%) in the 1Dim group, and 15 (58%) in the 2Dim group. The most common adverse events reported 7 days after the first or booster vaccine were fever (62 [48%] of 130 participants), fatigue (40 [31%] participants), and headache (46 [35%] participants). More adverse events were reported in participants who received intramuscular vaccination, including participants in the MIX group (49 [63%] of 78 participants), than those who received aerosol vaccine (13 [25%] of 52 participants) after the first vaccine vaccination. No serious adverse events were noted within 56 days after the first vaccine. At days 28 after last vaccination, geometric mean titres of SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibody was 107 (95% CI 47-245) in the HDmu group, 105 (47-232) in the LDmu group, 396 (207-758) in the MIX group, 95 (61-147) in the 1Dim group, and 180 (113-288) in the 2Dim group. The geometric mean concentrations of receptor binding domain-binding IgG was 261 EU/mL (95% CI 121-563) in the HDmu group, 289 EU/mL (138-606) in the LDmu group, 2013 EU/mL (1180-3435) in the MIX group, 915 EU/mL (588-1423) in the 1Dim group, and 1190 EU/mL (776-1824) in the 2Dim group. INTERPRETATION: Aerosolised Ad5-nCoV is well tolerated, and two doses of aerosolised Ad5-nCoV elicited neutralising antibody responses, similar to one dose of intramuscular injection. An aerosolised booster vaccination at 28 days after first intramuscular injection induced strong IgG and neutralising antibody responses. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of aerosol vaccination should be evaluated in future studies. FUNDING: National Key Research and Development Programme of China and National Science and Technology Major Project. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the Summary see Supplementary Material.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Administration, Inhalation , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , China , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunization Schedule , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Injections, Intramuscular , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Young Adult
4.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258042, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448577

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the perceived-stigma level of COVID-19 patients in the early stage of the epidemic and analysed related factors and correlations that affected the stigma levels. METHODS: The COVID-19 patients were selected using the convenience sampling method. Perceived-stigma level was evaluated using the Social Impact Scale (SIS). Frequency was used to describe the general information and disease investigation status of COVID-19 patients; mean and standard deviation were used for describing stigma levels, Wilcoxon signed-ranks test (nonparametric test) was applied for pairwise comparison. Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test for grade data, and Dwass-Steel-Critchlow-Fligner test for multiple comparative analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed, and statistically significant indicators in single-factor analysis were included to investigate the independent factors of stigma. The p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: SIS score of the 122 COVID-19 patients averaged 57.37±9.99 points. There were statistically significant differences in perceived-stigma levels among patients of different ages (p = 0.008), occupation (p <0.001), marital status (p = 0.009), and disease severity (p = 0.020). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age was the main influencing factor of stigma (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The overall perceived-stigma level of COVID-19 patients in the early stage of the epidemic was moderate. Younger, unmarried, and severely ill patients had a higher level of perceived-stigma, with age being the main factor. More attention should be given to the young COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Social Stigma , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Marriage , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 683296, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430716

ABSTRACT

Background: In addition to supportive therapy, antiviral therapy is an effective treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of favipiravir and umifenovir (Arbidol) to treat COVID-19 patients. Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled, open-label multicenter trial involving adult patients with COVID-19. Enrolled patients with initial symptoms within 12 days were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive conventional therapy plus Arbidol (200 mg*3/day) or favipiravir (1600 mg*2/first day followed by 600 mg*2/day) for 7 days. The primary outcome was the clinical recovery rate at day 7 of drug administration (relief for pyrexia and cough, respiratory frequency ≤24 times/min; oxygen saturation ≥98%). Latency to relief for pyrexia and cough and the rate of auxiliary oxygen therapy (AOT) or noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NMV)/mechanical ventilation (MV) were the secondary outcomes. Safety data were collected for 17 days. Results: A total of 240 enrolled COVID-19 patients underwent randomization; 120 patients were assigned to receive favipiravir (116 assessed), and 120 patients were assigned to receive Arbidol (120 assessed). The clinical recovery rate at day 7 of drug administration did not significantly differ between the favipiravir group (71/116) and Arbidol group (62/120) (p = 0.1396, difference in recovery rate: 0.0954; 95% CI: -0.0305∼0.2213). Favipiravir contributed to relief for both pyrexia (difference: 1.70 days, p < 0.0001) and cough (difference: 1.75 days, p < 0.0001). No difference was observed in the AOT or NMV/MV rate (both p > 0.05). The most frequently observed favipiravir-associated adverse event was increased serum uric acid (16/116, OR: 5.52, p = 0.0014). Conclusion: Among patients with COVID-19, favipiravir, compared to Arbidol, did not significantly improve the clinical recovery rate at day 7. Favipiravir significantly improved the latency to relieve pyrexia and cough. Adverse effects caused by favipiravir are mild and manageable.

6.
Cell Prolif ; 53(12): e12947, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933976

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aim to explore the safety and feasibility of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) transplantation in patients with severe and critically severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We conducted a small sample, single arm, pilot trial. In addition to standard therapy, we performed four rounds of transplantation of UC-MSCs in sixteen patients with severe and critically severe COVID-19. We recorded adverse events from enrolment to Day 28. We evaluated the oxygenation index, inflammatory biomarkers, radiological presentations of the disease and lymphocyte subsets count on the 7th day (D7 ± 1 day), the 14th day (D14 ± 1 day) and the 28th day (D28 ± 3 days). RESULTS: There were no infusion-related or allergic reactions. The oxygenation index was improved after transplantation. The mortality of enrolled patients was 6.25%, whereas the historical mortality rate was 45.4%. The level of cytokines estimated varied in the normal range, the radiological presentations (ground glass opacity) were improved and the lymphocyte count and lymphocyte subsets (CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and NK cells) count showed recovery after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous transplantation of UC-MSCs was safe and feasible for treatment of patients with severe and critically severe COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Safety , Umbilical Cord/cytology
7.
Lancet ; 396(10249): 479-488, 2020 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-666142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This is the first randomised controlled trial for assessment of the immunogenicity and safety of a candidate non-replicating adenovirus type-5 (Ad5)-vectored COVID-19 vaccine, aiming to determine an appropriate dose of the candidate vaccine for an efficacy study. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial of the Ad5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine was done in a single centre in Wuhan, China. Healthy adults aged 18 years or older, who were HIV-negative and previous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-free, were eligible to participate and were randomly assigned to receive the vaccine at a dose of 1 × 1011 viral particles per mL or 5 × 1010 viral particles per mL, or placebo. Investigators allocated participants at a ratio of 2:1:1 to receive a single injection intramuscularly in the arm. The randomisation list (block size 4) was generated by an independent statistician. Participants, investigators, and staff undertaking laboratory analyses were masked to group allocation. The primary endpoints for immunogenicity were the geometric mean titres (GMTs) of specific ELISA antibody responses to the receptor binding domain (RBD) and neutralising antibody responses at day 28. The primary endpoint for safety evaluation was the incidence of adverse reactions within 14 days. All recruited participants who received at least one dose were included in the primary and safety analyses. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04341389. FINDINGS: 603 volunteers were recruited and screened for eligibility between April 11 and 16, 2020. 508 eligible participants (50% male; mean age 39·7 years, SD 12·5) consented to participate in the trial and were randomly assigned to receive the vaccine (1 × 1011 viral particles n=253; 5 × 1010 viral particles n=129) or placebo (n=126). In the 1 × 1011 and 5 × 1010 viral particles dose groups, the RBD-specific ELISA antibodies peaked at 656·5 (95% CI 575·2-749·2) and 571·0 (467·6-697·3), with seroconversion rates at 96% (95% CI 93-98) and 97% (92-99), respectively, at day 28. Both doses of the vaccine induced significant neutralising antibody responses to live SARS-CoV-2, with GMTs of 19·5 (95% CI 16·8-22·7) and 18·3 (14·4-23·3) in participants receiving 1 × 1011 and 5 × 1010 viral particles, respectively. Specific interferon γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay responses post vaccination were observed in 227 (90%, 95% CI 85-93) of 253 and 113 (88%, 81-92) of 129 participants in the 1 × 1011 and 5 × 1010 viral particles dose groups, respectively. Solicited adverse reactions were reported by 183 (72%) of 253 and 96 (74%) of 129 participants in the 1 × 1011 and 5 × 1010 viral particles dose groups, respectively. Severe adverse reactions were reported by 24 (9%) participants in the 1 × 1011 viral particles dose group and one (1%) participant in the 5 × 1010 viral particles dose group. No serious adverse reactions were documented. INTERPRETATION: The Ad5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine at 5 × 1010 viral particles is safe, and induced significant immune responses in the majority of recipients after a single immunisation. FUNDING: National Key R&D Programme of China, National Science and Technology Major Project, and CanSino Biologics.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Adenoviridae , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Young Adult
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