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1.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 53, 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes an immense disease burden. Although public health countermeasures effectively controlled the epidemic in China, non-pharmaceutical interventions can neither be maintained indefinitely nor conveniently implemented globally. Vaccination is mainly used to prevent COVID-19, and most current antiviral treatment evaluations focus on clinical efficacy. Therefore, we conducted population-based simulations to assess antiviral treatment effectiveness among different age groups based on its clinical efficacy. METHODS: We collected COVID-19 data of Wuhan City from published literature and established a database (from 2 December 2019 to 16 March 2020). We developed an age-specific model to evaluate the effectiveness of antiviral treatment in patients with COVID-19. Efficacy was divided into three types: (1) viral activity reduction, reflected as transmission rate decrease [reduction was set as v (0-0.8) to simulate hypothetical antiviral treatments]; (2) reduction in the duration time from symptom onset to patient recovery/removal, reflected as a 1/γ decrease (reduction was set as 1-3 days to simulate hypothetical or real-life antiviral treatments, and the time of asymptomatic was reduced by the same proportion); (3) fatality rate reduction in severely ill patients (fc) [reduction (z) was set as 0.3 to simulate real-life antiviral treatments]. The population was divided into four age groups (groups 1, 2, 3 and 4), which included those aged ≤ 14; 15-44; 45-64; and ≥ 65 years, respectively. Evaluation indices were based on outbreak duration, cumulative number of cases, total attack rate (TAR), peak date, number of peak cases, and case fatality rate (f). RESULTS: Comparing the simulation results of combination and single medication therapy s, all four age groups showed better results with combination medication. When 1/γ = 2 and v = 0.4, age group 2 had the highest TAR reduction rate (98.48%, 56.01-0.85%). When 1/γ = 2, z = 0.3, and v = 0.1, age group 1 had the highest reduction rate of f (83.08%, 0.71-0.12%). CONCLUSIONS: Antiviral treatments are more effective in COVID-19 transmission control than in mortality reduction. Overall, antiviral treatments were more effective in younger age groups, while older age groups showed higher COVID-19 prevalence and mortality. Therefore, physicians should pay more attention to prevention of viral spread and patients deaths when providing antiviral treatments to patients of older age groups.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , /drug effects , Adolescent , Age Factors , Aged , /virology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Young Adult
2.
The Journal of Academic Librarianship ; 47(4):102363, 2021.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-1179185

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 poses new challenges to information literacy education Facing the worldwide pandemic, academic libraries in various countries are still exploring how to cope with the situation Little research has been carried out on how academic libraries should systematically promote information literacy education during the pandemic This study uses 42 academic libraries at the top universities in China as cases for content analysis, focusing on information literacy education via online mini-courses, lectures, and other online teaching methods The study has found that information literacy education during the pandemic has several characteristics, such as rapid response to information needs, recommending reliable information resources to users, developing and gathering current information on COVID-19 cases, and resisting misinformation and false information Although libraries act quickly to meet users' needs in this new situation, they are still confronted with some problems, such as insufficient planning, untimely updates, incomplete resources, etc This study suggests that libraries adopt the following approaches to the development of information literacy education under the new norm of the pandemic: boosting online courses with multi-platform linkage;developing innovative teaching models with online and offline combination;exploring teaching opportunities and expanding teaching content according to new information needs;fighting misinformation

3.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 73(6): 459-461, 2020 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-961834

ABSTRACT

The number of reported cases of the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has increased since December 2019. The initial high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images of 7 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in the Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University, China, were collected and analyzed. The study showed that all patients had had close contact with other COVID-19 patients and presented with fever. The initial white blood cell counts of all patients were normal. Subsequently, the percentage of lymphocytes decreased in 3 patients. In all 7 patients with COVID-19, ground-glass opacity (GGO) was found in the HRCT images, mainly distributed in the subpleural region of the lungs. The HRCT scans of 6 patients showed bilateral lobar lesions, with mainly peripheral subpleural distribution; 1 patient, instead, showed unilateral lobar involvement. The right lung was more extensively involved than the left lung in 6 patients, and the lower lobe was more extensively involved than the upper lobe in 5 patients. The initial chest HRCT images of the lungs of the analyzed COVID-19 patients had specific characteristics. The typical manifestation at both lungs was an extensive GGO-type infiltrate, with thickened vascular bundles and focal center consolidation. Pleural effusion, bilateral hilar, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy were rare.

4.
Journal of Chemical Education ; 97(9):2810-2814, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-805016

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in China has changed higher education dramatically, with a distinctive rise in online instruction Here, we describe the major successes and challenges encountered during the full implementation of online chemistry instruction in higher education in China based on questionnaires answered by 56 teachers and 432 students in two universities In addition to describing the impacts of online chemistry instruction on teachers, students, chemistry experiments, student assessments, and technology, our work seeks to provide insights into how teachers, students, and technologies rise to meet the challenges in this difficult time Our survey indicates the common challenges for teachers and students that arise from no face-to-face interaction in online instruction Apart from that, teachers have to be familiar with internet-based technologies and online teaching tools, adjust their teaching plans and teaching methods, and quickly adapt to the new situation Teachers also need to improve their teacher student interaction and maintain student interest and engagement during online teaching To become a successful online learner, students need to be more proactive and self-disciplined In addition, an effective online teaching method for chemistry experiments has been proposed While teachers and students still prefer classroom education, the vast majority of them are satisfied with the online chemistry course with significant support from technologies and online platforms

5.
Scott Med J ; 65(4): 154-160, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-736303

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prognostic value of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte-monocyte ratio and red cell distribution width in type 2 diabetics with COVID-19. METHODS: We collected the data of type 2 diabetics with COVID-19 treated in our hospital from January 28 to March 15, 2020 and performed a retrospective analysis. Using severity, duration of hospital stay, and the time required for nucleic acid results became negative as prognostic indicators, we explored the relationship between these inflammation-based markers and prognosis of type 2 diabetics with COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 134 type 2 diabetics with COVID-19 were selected for this study. Correlation analysis showed that NLR, LMR and RDW were correlated with prognosis (P < 0.05). In multivariate regression analysis after controlling for the relevant confounding factors, COVID-19 diabetes patients with higher NLR had heavier severity, longer duration of hospital stay, more time required for nucleic acid results became negative, and heavier hospital expenses (P < 0.05). ROC curve result displayed that higher NLR predicted all prognostic indicators with statistical significance, and lower LMR predicted severe and extremely severe with statistical significance (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: NLR is a more powerful and practical marker for predicting the prognosis of type 2 diabetic COVID-19 patients that is simple and fast.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Lymphocyte Count , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes , Neutrophils , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
6.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 589, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-689162

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a novel coronavirus pneumonia (named by the World Health Organization, WHO), has spread widely since the end of 2019. Research on synthetic drugs and vaccines has become a focus of attention in China and other countries, as such approaches are regarded as key tools for disease prevention and control; however, the development of these therapeutics will take months, or even years. Under such circumstances, development of coronavirus specific therapeutics is urgent. For this specific indication, the rapid performance of natural products, such as plant compounds, herbal extracts, and traditional Chinese medicine, could contribute as alternative measures. Recent investigations have provided evidence that these natural products are potential candidates for development as therapeutic agents against the virus that causes COVID-19, 2019-nCoV. Targeting the structural proteins or cellular receptors of 2019-nCoV, including coronavirus chymotrypsin-like (3CLpro or Mpro), helicase (nsP13), S protein, and human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), holds promise for preventing infection. In this review, we summarize some representative natural products and their active components that have potential anti-2019-nCoV effects. We focus on the basic structural elements of 2019-nCoV, its main mechanisms of action, and the feasibility and potential of products to inhibit the novel coronavirus. In addition, the relative advantages, additional functions, and precautions that should be used with typical natural products are also discussed. The aim is to make the case that natural products could be a valuable pool for the development of active compounds for treating 2019-nCoV infection, which may contribute to mitigation of the spread of the pandemic.

7.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(11): 1380-1388, 2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436947

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is now a global health concern.Objectives: We compared the clinical characteristics, laboratory examinations, computed tomography images, and treatments of patients with COVID-19 from three different cities in China.Methods: A total of 476 patients were recruited from January 1, 2020, to February 15, 2020, at three hospitals in Wuhan, Shanghai, and Anhui. The patients were divided into four groups according to age and into three groups (moderate, severe, and critical) according to the fifth edition of the Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of COVID-19 issued by the National Health Commission of China.Measurements and Main Results: The incidence of comorbidities was higher in the severe (46.3%) and critical (67.1%) groups than in the moderate group (37.8%). More patients were taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers in the moderate group than in the severe and critical groups. More patients had multiple lung lobe involvement and pleural effusion in the critical group than in the moderate group. More patients received antiviral agents within the first 4 days in the moderate group than in the severe group, and more patients received antibiotics and corticosteroids in the critical and severe groups. Patients >75 years old had a significantly lower survival rate than younger patients.Conclusions: Multiple organ dysfunction and impaired immune function were the typical characteristics of patients with severe or critical illness. There was a significant difference in the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers among patients with different severities of disease. Involvement of multiple lung lobes and pleural effusion were associated with the severity of COVID-19. Advanced age (≥75 yr) was a risk factor for mortality.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Pandemics , Pleural Effusion/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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