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1.
Pathogens ; 11(5)2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869727

ABSTRACT

Humoral immunity is an important body defense system against virus infection and is correlated to patient health status [...].

2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 122: 285-294, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867239

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the dose-response relationship of admission fasting glucose (FBG) with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality and to further evaluate potential interactions of hyperglycemia with inflammation and hypercoagulation on COVID-19 outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective study included 2555 consecutively hospitalized patients with COVID-19, until death or discharge, in Wuhan Union hospital between January 1 and April 9, 2020. The poor early outcomes included admission to intensive care unit, intubation, and deaths occurring within 28 days. We used splines nested in Cox regression to visualize dose-response associations and generalized additive models to fit three-dimensional (3D) trend plots for joint effects of FBG with markers of inflammation and coagulation. RESULTS: J-shaped associations existed between hospitalized mortality or poor early outcomes and FBG with a nadir at 5 mmol/L, which were more evident in women. 3D plots demonstrated significant joint effect trends, and patients with hyperglycemia and high neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, d-dimer, and interleukin-6 had 7.4-25.3-fold risks; the proportions of joint associations attributed to additive interactions reached 30% to 54%. CONCLUSIONS: FBG was associated with hospitalized mortality and poor early outcomes in a J-shaped manner, and a combination of hyperglycemia, inflammation, hypercoagulation, and cytokines conferred a dramatically higher risk.

3.
J Clean Prod ; 361: 132291, 2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851444

ABSTRACT

The sudden Coronavirus Disease reported at the end of 2019 (COVID-19) has brought huge pressure to Chinese Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) industry which is bearing heavy burden under the decreasing fiscal subsidy. If the epidemic continues to rage as the worst case, analysis based on System Dynamics Model (SDM) indicates that the whole PEVs industry in China may shrink by half compared with its originally expected level in 2035. To emerge from the recession, feasible industrial policies include (1) accelerating the construction of charging infrastructures, (2) mitigating the downtrend of financial assistance and (3) providing more traffic privilege for drivers. Extending the deadline of fiscal subsidy by only 2 years, which has been adopted by the Chinese central government, is demonstrated to achieve remarkable effect for the revival of PEVs market. By contrast, the time when providing best charging service or most traffic privilege to get the PEVs industry back to normal needs to be advanced by 10 years or earlier. For industrial policy makers, actively implementing the other two promoting measures on the basis of existing monetary support may be a more efficient strategy for Chinese PEVs market to revive from the shadow in post-COVID-19 era.

4.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 14: 3597-3606, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833979

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination is an effective strategy to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. This study aimed to compare predictors of vaccination intention between healthcare workers (HCWs) and non-healthcare workers (non-HCWs) in China. METHODS: A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among HCWs and non-HCWs. Several bivariate analysis techniques, eg, crosstab with Chi-square, independent t-test and single factor ANOVA, were performed to analyze the correlation. After that, a series of multivariate binary regressions were employed to determine predictors of vaccination intention. RESULTS: Intention was closely and significantly related with gender, perceived vaccination knowledge, perceived importance and effectiveness of vaccine to prevent COVID-19. HCWs and non-HCWs were heterogeneous, since vaccination intention, perceived knowledge, and attitudes (eg, importance, severity, risk) toward COVID-19 or vaccine had statistically significant difference between the two groups. With comparison of predictors of vaccination intention, for HCWs, demographic factors were the major predictors of COVID-19 vaccination intention. Female HCWs and HCWs with a Master's or higher degree were more hesitant about vaccination (P = 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively), while HCWs had greater vaccination intention as their age increased (P = 0.02). For non-HCWs, perceived vaccination knowledge was the major predictor of COVID-19 vaccination intention (P < 0.001). Additionally, perceived importance and effectiveness of vaccine were predictors for both HCWs and non-HCWs. CONCLUSION: Vaccination intention of HCWs was greater than that of non-HCWs in China. Measures should be taken to improve the vaccination rate based on the predictors of vaccination intention identified in this study. For HCWs, especially those with a high level of education or who were females, the safety and effectiveness of vaccines in use may reinforce their vaccination intention. For non-HCWs, popularization of general medical knowledge, including of vaccine-preventable diseases, may increase their vaccination intention.

5.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1826872

ABSTRACT

Lockdown and re-opening may become cyclical due to the recurrent waves of the COVID-19 epidemic. Few studies have examined temporal trends and determinants of in-hospital mortality among patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), a life-threatening condition that requires emergency medical care. Using nation-wide data before, during and after the Wuhan lockdown, we aimed to depict temporal patterns and major determinants of STEMI in-hospital mortality in China across five time periods of the COVID-19 epidemic. We analyzed the data of 283,661 STEMI patients who were admitted to 4,487 chest-pain-centers across China, from January 1, 2019 to May 31, 2020. Compared with the period before the lockdown, STEMI in-hospital mortality increased by 25% (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.16-1.34) during Early Lockdown, by 12% (OR 1.12, 95%CI 1.03-1.22) during Later Lockdown, by 35% (OR 1.35, 95%CI 1.21-1.50) during Early Lift, and returned to pre-COVID risk (OR 1.04, 95%CI 0.95-1.14) during Later Lift. For each time-period, we observed a clear mortality gradient by timing and types of revascularization procedure. In conclusion, the COVID-19 epidemic had a significant adverse impact on STEMI in-hospital mortality, with bimodal peaks during early lockdown and early lift periods and clear mortality gradients by timing and types of revascularization procedure, independent of the time periods.

6.
NPJ Vaccines ; 7(1): 47, 2022 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805616

ABSTRACT

Respiratory tract vaccination has an advantage of needle-free delivery and induction of mucosal immune response in the portal of SARS-CoV-2 entry. We utilized human parainfluenza virus type 3 vector to generate constructs expressing the full spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2, its S1 subunit, or the receptor-binding domain, and tested them in hamsters as single-dose intranasal vaccines. The construct bearing full-length S induced high titers of neutralizing antibodies specific to S protein domains critical to the protein functions. Robust memory T cell responses in the lungs were also induced, which represent an additional barrier to infection and should be less sensitive than the antibody responses to mutations present in SARS-CoV-2 variants. Following SARS-CoV-2 challenge, animals were protected from the disease and detectable viral replication. Vaccination prevented induction of gene pathways associated with inflammation. These results indicate advantages of respiratory vaccination against COVID-19 and inform the design of mucosal SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.

8.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(7): 2253-2260, 2022 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Plexiform fibromyxoma (PF) is a rare mesenchymal tumor, with limited case reports worldwide. Common clinical symptoms are abdominal discomfort and bleeding signs, which frequently present slow-onset in reported cases. Herein, we report a case of gastric PF presenting as acute onset and with pyemia accom-panying tumor rupture. We resected the tumor as well as the distal gastric, bulbus duodeni and gallbladder for treatment in emergency surgery. Notably, before the onset of the disease, the patient received coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. CASE SUMMARY: A 26-year-old man was admitted to our hospital, due to abdominal pain and fever after having received COVID-19 vaccines. Laboratory examination indicated severe sepsis. Computed tomography scan revealed a large mass in the abdomen. Deformation of the gastrointestinal tract was seen during gastroscopy. After failure of anti-infective treatment and symptoms of shock developed, he received an emergency surgery. We found a huge and partly ruptured mass, with thick purulence. Microscopically, the mass was composed of spindle cells with clarified cytoplasm, accompanied by myxoid stroma and arborizing blood vessels. Immunohistochemistry showed the tumor cells as positive for smooth muscle actin and succinate dehydrogenase subunit B but negative for DOG-1 and CD117. Finally, the patient was diagnosed with gastric PF and discharged from the hospital. CONCLUSION: Gastric PF manifesting as tumor rupture combined with pyemia is rare. Timely surgery is critical for optimal prognosis.

9.
Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing (Online) ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1731357

ABSTRACT

With the advent of the digital age in recent years, the application of artificial intelligence in urban Internet of Things (IoT) systems has become increasingly important. The concept of smart cities has gradually formed, and smart firefighting under the smart city system has also become important. The method of machine learning is now applied in various fields, but seldom to the data prediction of smart firefighting. Various types of applications including data applications of machine learning algorithms in smart firefighting have yet to be explored. In this article, we propose using machine learning algorithms to predict building fire-resistance data, aiming to provide more theoretical and technical support for IoT smart cities. This article adopts the fire-resistance data of building beam components in a real fire environment, using three integrated machine learning algorithms, Extreme random Tree (ET), AdaBoost, and Gradient Boosting Machine (GBM), and the grey wolf optimization algorithm to optimize. We improve the grey wolf algorithm and combine the grey wolf algorithm with the machine learning model. The algorithm constitutes three machine learning hybrid models: GWO-ET, GWO-AdaBoost, and GWO-GBM. Compared with traditional grid tuning, particle swarm optimization (PSO), and genetic algorithm (GA) optimization, the robustness and accuracy of the three optimization algorithms and the machine learning hybrid algorithm on the data set are compared and analyzed. Performance is measured through various performance comparisons and experimental result comparisons. For various building beam component data sets under real fires, the optimization and comparison show that the mean square error (MSE) of the proposed algorithm is extremely small. The results indicate that the GWO machine learning hybrid model is superior to other models and has a smaller prediction error.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315261

ABSTRACT

Background: Given that 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) spreads rapidly, it is critical to make rapid and accurate detection of COVID-19 patients towards containment of SARS-CoV-2 virus. At present, COVID-19 patients are mainly identified through viral nuclear acid testing (NAT). However, factors such as time for patients being tested, experience of test operators, and specimen’s preparation, might affect the accuracy of testing results. The purpose of this study was to use different classification and feature selection methods to improve the diagnostic accuracy of COVID-19 patients. Methods: We utilized seven machine learning algorithms for assisting diagnosis of COVID-19 by developing a non-NAT algorithm. In order to reduce the number of input features while maintaining the models’ performance so as to decrease the cost and time consumption, we adopted three algorithms, such as Chi-square test, variance analysis, and feature importance tests to identify the optimal feature sets. Findings: The XGBoost and RF models displayed the best performance for COVID-19 detection, with the highest accuracy rate more than 0·96. The accuracy of RF model was 0·968 when using only ten hematological features and body temperature. Interpretation: Ten blood features and body temperature can fairly accurately determine whether a suspected patient is infected with COVID-19. Our model can improve the diagnostic accuracy of COVID-19 and reduce the spread. Funding: This work is supported by grants from the National Key Research and Development Program of China under Grant 2017YFE0123600, the Natural Science Foundation of China (81873931, 81974382 and 81773104), the Frontier Exploration Program of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (2015TS153), and the Major Scientific and Technological Innovation Projects in Hubei Province (2018ACA136).Declaration of Interests: All the authors stated that the paper had never been published elsewhere, and that there were no competing economic interests.Ethics Approval Statement: The collection, use, and retrospective analysis of chest CT images, CFs and SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid PCR results of patients were approved by the institutional ethical committees of HUST-UH (IRB ID: [2020] IEC(A001)).

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312711

ABSTRACT

Background: S. aureus (Staphylococcus aureus) infection imposes a serious burden to global healthcare systems. WWXDY (Wuweixiaoduyin) is a traditional Chinese medicine, and it is usually used to treat infections in China. This study aimed to explore the active compounds, therapeutic targets, key pathways, and potential mechanisms of WWXDY in the treatment of S. aureus infection. Materials: & Methods: Data related to active compounds and therapeutic targets of WWXDY for treating S. aureus were collected from DisGeNET, GeneCards, and DrugBank databases. To explore the roles of the active targets in gene function and signaling pathways, KEGG (Kyoto Gene and Genomics Encyclopedia) pathway enrichment and GO (Gene Ontology) analyses of the 122 target genes in the PPI (protein-protein interaction) network were performed. We further performed NP (network pharmacology) by using a network analyzer to screen 30 key targets. Results: : A total 92 active compounds of WWXDY were screened. The 122 overlapped genes were found from 785 therapeutic targets and 684 S. aureus-related genes. Besides, 92 active compounds of WWXDY, such as mandenol, ethyllinolenate, eriodyctiol, secologanic dibutylacetal_qt, etc., were identified. The PPI network of the effective ingredients of WWXDY in treating S. aureus infection identified the top 30 genes, including IL-6 (interleukin-6), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A), AKT1, CXCL8, MAPK3 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 3), TLR (toll-like receptor 4), IL-1β, EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), and MMP9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9). Conclusion: The GO functional and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses indicated that 122 overlapped genes were mainly enriched in COVID-19, AGE-RAGE signaling pathway, C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway, Pertussis, and Chagas disease. Our findings indicated the active compounds and therapeutic targets of WWXDY in treating S. aureus infection, as well as its potential mechanisms.

12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296715

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Motivated by perceived dissatisfaction within our lab’s changed working environment brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic, we performed a self-assessment of our lab culture through anonymous surveys and live sessions. Methods: In Survey 1, we asked each lab member to identify and rank up to 10 values that are important for a healthy lab environment. They were then asked to rate how well the lab embodied those values at two time points: before the COVID-19 pandemic while working onsite, and at the time of the survey while working remotely (10 months into the pandemic). In a series of live group sessions, we reviewed relevant literature and the survey results to finalize ten themes. We then reflected on each theme and proposed action items to address any deficiencies. Finally, we conducted Survey 2 after the self-assessment to judge the group's finalized themes, implemented changes, and overall satisfaction with the assessment process. Results: Themes identified were attitude, accountability, teamwork/collaboration, communication, diversity/inclusion, emotional intelligence, integrity, training, well-being, and adaptability in crisis-management. All lab members liked the self-assessment process and felt their voices were heard. On average, there was a 1 2 % increase in satisfaction across all themes from the start to end of the lab assessment. Conclusion: We successfully assessed the culture of our lab and subsequently improved lab member satisfaction. The success of this team project suggests that other scientific labs could benefit from similar interactive self-assessments.

13.
Frontiers in microbiology ; 12, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1562999
14.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294972

ABSTRACT

Hyperactive and damaging inflammation is a hallmark of severe rather than mild COVID-19 syndrome. To uncover key inflammatory differentiators between severe and mild COVID-19 disease, we applied an unbiased single-cell transcriptomic analysis. We integrated a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) dataset with a peripheral blood mononuclear cell dataset (PBMC) and analyzed the combined cell population, focusing on genes associated with disease severity. Distinct cell populations were detected in both BAL and PBMC where the immunomodulatory long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) NEAT1 and MALAT1 were highly differentially expressed between mild and severe patients. The detection of other severity associated genes involved in cellular stress response and apoptosis regulation suggests that the pro-inflammatory functions of these lncRNAs may foster cell stress and damage. The lncRNAs NEAT1 andMALAT1 are potential components of immune dysregulation in COVID-19 that may provide targets for severity related diagnostic measures or therapy.

15.
mBio ; 12(5): e0254221, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462902

ABSTRACT

Damage in COVID-19 results from both the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its triggered overactive host immune responses. Therapeutic agents that focus solely on reducing viral load or hyperinflammation fail to provide satisfying outcomes in all cases. Although viral and cellular factors have been extensively profiled to identify potential anti-COVID-19 targets, new drugs with significant efficacy remain to be developed. Here, we report the potent preclinical efficacy of ALD-R491, a vimentin-targeting small molecule compound, in treating COVID-19 through its host-directed antiviral and anti-inflammatory actions. We found that by altering the physical properties of vimentin filaments, ALD-491 affected general cellular processes as well as specific cellular functions relevant to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Specifically, ALD-R491 reduced endocytosis, endosomal trafficking, and exosomal release, thus impeding the entry and egress of the virus; increased the microcidal capacity of macrophages, thus facilitating the pathogen clearance; and enhanced the activity of regulatory T cells, therefore suppressing the overactive immune responses. In cultured cells, ALD-R491 potently inhibited the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and human ACE2-mediated pseudoviral infection. In aged mice with ongoing, productive SARS-CoV-2 infection, ALD-R491 reduced disease symptoms as well as lung damage. In rats, ALD-R491 also reduced bleomycin-induced lung injury and fibrosis. Our results indicate a unique mechanism and significant therapeutic potential for ALD-R491 against COVID-19. We anticipate that ALD-R491, an oral, fast-acting, and non-cytotoxic agent targeting the cellular protein with multipart actions, will be convenient, safe, and broadly effective, regardless of viral mutations, for patients with early- or late-stage disease, post-COVID-19 complications, and other related diseases. IMPORTANCE With the Delta variant currently fueling a resurgence of new infections in the fully vaccinated population, developing an effective therapeutic drug is especially critical and urgent in fighting COVID-19. In contrast to the many efforts to repurpose existing drugs or address only one aspect of COVID-19, we are developing a novel agent with first-in-class mechanisms of action that address both the viral infection and the overactive immune system in the pathogenesis of the disease. Unlike virus-directed therapeutics that may lose efficacy due to viral mutations, and immunosuppressants that require ideal timing to be effective, this agent, with its unique host-directed antiviral and anti-inflammatory actions, can work against all variants of the virus, be effective during all stages of the disease, and even resolve post-disease damage and complications. Further development of the compound will provide an important tool in the fight against COVID-19 and its complications, as well as future outbreaks of new viruses.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Organic Chemicals/therapeutic use , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vimentin/metabolism , Animals , Endocytosis/drug effects , Endosomes/drug effects , Endosomes/metabolism , Exosomes/drug effects , Exosomes/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , RAW 264.7 Cells
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 681586, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285292

ABSTRACT

We investigated serological responses following a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in spring 2020 on a US Marine recruit training base. 147 participants that were isolated during an outbreak of respiratory illness were enrolled in this study, with visits approximately 6 and 10 weeks post-outbreak (PO). This cohort is comprised of young healthy adults, ages 18-26, with a high rate of asymptomatic infection or mild symptoms, and therefore differs from previously reported longitudinal studies on humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2, which often focus on more diverse age populations and worse clinical presentation. 80.9% (119/147) of the participants presented with circulating IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) receptor-binding domain (RBD) at 6 weeks PO, of whom 97.3% (111/114) remained positive, with significantly decreased levels, at 10 weeks PO. Neutralizing activity was detected in all sera from SARS-CoV-2 IgG positive participants tested (n=38) at 6 and 10 weeks PO, without significant loss between time points. IgG and IgA antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 RBD, S1, S2, and the nucleocapsid (N) protein, as well neutralization activity, were generally comparable between those participants that had asymptomatic infection or mild disease. A multiplex assay including S proteins from SARS-CoV-2 and related zoonotic and human endemic betacoronaviruses revealed a positive correlation for polyclonal cross-reactivity to S after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Overall, young adults that experienced asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection developed comparable humoral responses, with no decrease in neutralizing activity at least up to 10 weeks after infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Military Personnel , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibody Formation , Asymptomatic Diseases , Cohort Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
Light Sci Appl ; 10: 129, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275899

ABSTRACT

As demonstrated during the COVID-19 pandemic, advanced deep ultraviolet (DUV) light sources (200-280 nm), such as AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) show excellence in preventing virus transmission, which further reveals their wide applications from biological, environmental, industrial to medical. However, the relatively low external quantum efficiencies (mostly lower than 10%) strongly restrict their wider or even potential applications, which have been known related to the intrinsic properties of high Al-content AlGaN semiconductor materials and especially their quantum structures. Here, we review recent progress in the development of novel concepts and techniques in AlGaN-based LEDs and summarize the multiple physical fields as a toolkit for effectively controlling and tailoring the crucial properties of nitride quantum structures. In addition, we describe the key challenges for further increasing the efficiency of DUV LEDs and provide an outlook for future developments.

19.
Pharmacol Ther ; 225: 107843, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211101

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has remained an uncontained, worldwide pandemic. While battling for the disease in China, six Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) recipes have been shown to be remarkably effective for treating patients with COVID-19. The present review discusses principles of TCM in curing infectious disease, and clinical evidence and mechanisms of the 6 most effective TCM recipes used in treating COVID-19 in 92% of all of the confirmed cases in China. Applications of TCM and specific recipes in the treatment of other viral infections, such as those caused by SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, influenza A virus (including H1N1 and H7N9), influenza B, dengue virus as well as Ebola virus, are also discussed. Among the 6 TCM recipes, Jinhua Qinggan (JHQG) granules and Lianhua Qingwen (LHQW) capsules are recommended during medical observation; Lung Cleansing and Detoxifying Decoction (LCDD) is recommended for the treatment of both severe and non-severe patients; Xuanfeibaidu (XFBD) granules are recommended for treating moderate cases; while Huashibaidu (HSBD) and Xuebijing (XBJ) have been used in managing severe cases effectively. The common components and the active ingredients of the six TCM recipes have been summarized to reveal most promising drug candidates. The potential molecular mechanisms of the active ingredients in the six TCM recipes that target ACE2, 3CLpro and IL-6, revealed by molecular biological studies and/or network pharmacology prediction/molecular docking analysis/visualization analysis, are fully discussed. Therefore, further investigation of these TCM recipes may be of high translational value in enabling novel targeted therapies for COVID-19, potentially via purification and characterization of the active ingredients in the effective TCM recipes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
20.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5321

ABSTRACT

A review. Remdesivir is a phosphoramidate prodrug of an adenine derivative, an RNA-dependent Rna polymerases(RdRp) inhibitor. Remdesivir has broad-spectrum activities against RNA viruses such as MERS and SARS virus in cell cultures and animal models. As a potential drug for the treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus(2019nCoV)infections, two phase III trials were initiated in early Feb. this year to evaluate the efficacy and safety after i.v. administration in patients infected with 2019-nCoV. This review will focus on the antiviral mechanism, in vitro antiviral activity, animal experiments, toxicol., pharmacokinetics, and clin. studies of remdesivir to help clinician gain a better understanding to the agent.

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