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1.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120 Suppl 1: S38-S45, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Household transmission is responsible for the subsequent outbreak of community-acquired COVID-19. The aim of this study was to elucidate the household transmission mode and to further estimate effective and basic reproductive number with and without non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). METHODS: A total of 26 households with 39 family clusters between January, 2020 and February, 2021 in Taiwan were enrolled for analysis. The Becker's chain binomial model was used to analyze the probabilities of being infected and escaping from SARS-COV-2 before and after January 1st, 2021, which were further converted to estimating basic reproductive numbers in the absence of NPIs. The likelihood of leading to the subsequent community-acquired outbreak given NPIs was further assessed. RESULTS: The secondary attack rate was 46.2%. Given the saturated Greenwood model selected as the best fitted model, the probability of being infected and escaping from COVID-19 within household was estimated as 44.4% (95% CI: 5.0%-53.7%) and 55.7% (95% CI: 46.3%-65.0%), respectively. In the second period of early 2021, the infected probability was increased to 58.3% (95% CI: 12.7%-90.0%) and the escape probability was lowered to 41.7% (95% CI: 0.0%-86.9%). The corresponding basic reproductive numbers (R0) increased from 4.29 in the first period to 6.73 in the second period without NPIs. However, none of subsequent community-acquired outbreak was noted in Taiwan given very effective NPIs in both periods. CONCLUSION: The proposed method and results are useful for designing household-specific containment measures and NPIs to stamp out a large-scale community-acquired outbreak as demonstrated in Taiwan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Family Characteristics , Humans , Taiwan/epidemiology
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324445

ABSTRACT

Background: Travel has become one of the most popular leisure activities in the world, especially international traveling. The risk of accident and travel related illness including infectious and non-communicable diseases should not be neglected. To provide more comprehensive pre-travel consultation to the international travelers, we aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitude, and awareness of travel health insurance for travelers. Methods Anonymous structured questionnaires were distributed to 1,000 visitors of the Taiwan International Travel Fair in May 2019. Results The top three kinds of travel health insurance were accidental death and disablement insurance (92%), accidental medical reimbursement (90.4%) and 24 hours of emergency assistance (89%). In addition to education level, travel-associated illness, and special activities during travel, a significant association was observed between the willingness to buy various travel insurance and willingness of pre-travel consultation. Conclusions Although most travelers would buy travel health insurance, disproportional respondents understood the content of travel insurance. Most travelers considered travel clinics to be the most reliable information resources of travel insurance. Therefore, travel specialists are encouraged to offer more information about travel insurance during pre-travel consultation, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262660, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a great impact on global health, but with relatively few confirmed cases in Taiwan. People in Taiwan showed excellent cooperation with the government for disease prevention and faced social and behavioral changes during this period. This study aimed to investigate people's knowledge of COVID-19, attitudes and practices regarding vaccinations for influenza, pneumococcus and COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a community-based, cross-sectional questionnaire survey from September 2020 to October 2020 among adults in northern Taiwan. The four-part questionnaire included questions on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude, and practice toward COVID-19. RESULTS: Among a total of 410 respondents, 58.5% were categorized as having "good knowledge" responding to COVID-19. Among the total respondents, 86.6% were willing to receive influenza or pneumococcal vaccines, and 76% of them acted to receive COVID-19 immunization once the vaccine became available. Compared with the respondents with poor knowledge of COVID-19, those with good knowledge had a more positive attitude toward receiving influenza or pneumococcal immunization (OR 3.26, 95% CI = 1.74-6.12). CONCLUSIONS: Participants with good knowledge of COVID-19 had greater intent to receive immunization for influenza or pneumococcal vaccine. The promotion of correct knowledge of both COVID-19 and immunization preparations is necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Influenza Vaccines , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taiwan/epidemiology , Vaccination Refusal
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