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1.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(12)2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1590575

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid-based therapeutics have demonstrated their efficacy in the treatment of various diseases and vaccine development. Antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) technology exploits a single-strand short oligonucleotide to either cause target RNA degradation or sterically block the binding of cellular factors or machineries to the target RNA. Chemical modification or bioconjugation of ASOs can enhance both its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic performance, and it enables customization for a specific clinical purpose. ASO-based therapies have been used for treatment of genetic disorders, cancer and viral infections. In particular, ASOs can be rapidly developed for newly emerging virus and their reemerging variants. This review discusses ASO modifications and delivery options as well as the design of antiviral ASOs. A better understanding of the viral life cycle and virus-host interactions as well as advances in oligonucleotide technology will benefit the development of ASO-based antiviral therapies.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4154-e4165, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children and older adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) display a distinct spectrum of disease severity yet the risk factors aren't well understood. We sought to examine the expression pattern of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cell-entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the role of lung progenitor cells in children and older patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical features in a cohort of 299 patients with COVID-19. The expression and distribution of ACE2 and lung progenitor cells were systematically examined using a combination of public single-cell RNA-seq data sets, lung biopsies, and ex vivo infection of lung tissues with SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in children and older adults. We also followed up patients who had recovered from COVID-19. RESULTS: Compared with children, older patients (>50 years.) were more likely to develop into serious pneumonia with reduced lymphocytes and aberrant inflammatory response (P = .001). The expression level of ACE2 and lung progenitor cell markers were generally decreased in older patients. Notably, ACE2 positive cells were mainly distributed in the alveolar region, including SFTPC positive cells, but rarely in airway regions in the older adults (P < .01). The follow-up of discharged patients revealed a prolonged recovery from pneumonia in the older (P < .025). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to children, ACE2 positive cells are generally decreased in older adults and mainly presented in the lower pulmonary tract. The lung progenitor cells are also decreased. These risk factors may impact disease severity and recovery from pneumonia caused by SARS-Cov-2 infection in older patients.

3.
Comput Biol Med ; 140: 105119, 2021 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559652

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A new coronavirus disease named COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is rapidly spreading worldwide. However, there is currently no effective drug to fight COVID-19. METHODS: In this study, we developed a Virus-Drug Association (VDA) identification framework (VDA-RWLRLS) combining unbalanced bi-Random Walk, Laplacian Regularized Least Squares, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics simulation to find clues for the treatment of COVID-19. First, virus similarity and drug similarity are computed based on genomic sequences, chemical structures, and Gaussian association profiles. Second, an unbalanced bi-random walk is implemented on the virus network and the drug network, respectively. Third, the results of the random walks are taken as the input of Laplacian regularized least squares to compute the association score for each virus-drug pair. Fourth, the final associations are characterized by integrating the predictions from the virus network and the drug network. Finally, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation are implemented to measure the potential of screened anti-COVID-19 drugs and further validate the predicted results. RESULTS: In comparison with six state-of-the-art association prediction models (NGRHMDA, SMiR-NBI, LRLSHMDA, VDA-KATZ, VDA-RWR, and VDA-BiRW), VDA-RWLRLS demonstrates superior VDA prediction performance. It obtains the best AUCs of 0.885 8, 0.835 5, and 0.862 5 on the three VDA datasets. Molecular docking and dynamics simulations demonstrated that remdesivir and ribavirin may be potential anti-COVID-19 drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Integrating unbalanced bi-random walks, Laplacian regularized least squares, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics simulation, this work initially screened a few anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs and may contribute to preventing COVID-19 transmission.

4.
Humanities & Social Sciences Communications ; 8(1), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1545729

ABSTRACT

We shed light on the importance of government disclosure in public emergency management. During the outbreak of COVID-19, provinces in China entered a government disclosure regime, which mandated the disclosure of the number of people infected with the virus on a daily basis. Each province also voluntarily disclosed its own virus situation. We find that various forms of province-level government disclosure generally reduced the number of trips made by the infected and sped up their diagnosis. They also raised attention paid to the virus and self-protection awareness as well as reduced mobility among the susceptible. Finally, government voluntary disclosure helped to reduce the duration of local epidemics. We conclude that government disclosure can be effective in instilling the correct human behaviors that are conducive to fighting the pandemic.

5.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536161

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of arbidol and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using a meta-analysis method. METHODS: The China Knowledge Network, VIP database, WanFang database PubMed database, Embase database, and Cochrane Library were searched for a collection of comparative studies on arbidol and lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of COVID-19. Meta-analysis was used to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Arbidol and lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of COVID-19. RESULTS: The results of the systematic review indicated that Arbidol had a higher positive-to-negative conversion rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid on Day 7 (p = 0.03), a higher positive-to-negative conversion rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid on Day 14 (p = 0.006), a higher improvement rate of chest computed tomography on Day 14 (p = 0.02), a lower incidence of adverse reactions (p = 0.002) and lower rate of mortality (p = 0.007). There was no difference in the rate of cough disappearance on Day 14 (p = 0.24) or the rate of severe/critical illness (p = 0.07) between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Arbidol may be superior to lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of COVID-19. However, due to the small number of included studies and the number of patients, high-quality multicenter large-sample randomized double-blind controlled trials are still needed for verification.

6.
Brain Stimulation ; 14(6):1660-1660, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1530654
7.
J Integr Med ; 2021 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a worldwide life-threatening pandemic. Lianhua Qingwen is believed to possess the ability to treat or significantly improve the symptoms of COVID-19. These claims make it important to systematically evaluate the effects of using Lianhua Qingwen with Western medicine to treat COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of combination therapy, employing Lianhua Qingwen with Western medicine, to treat COVID-19, using a meta-analysis approach. SEARCH STRATEGY: China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, VIP Database, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for studies evaluating the effect of Lianhua Qingwen-Western medicine combination therapy in the treatment of COVID-19. INCLUSION CRITERIA: (1) Research object: hospitalized patients meeting the diagnostic criteria of COVID-19 were included. (2) Intervention measures: patients in the treatment group received Lianhua Qingwen treatment combined with Western medicine, while the control group received either Western medicine or Chinese medicine treatment. (3) Research type: randomized controlled trials and retrospective study were included. DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS: Two researchers extracted the first author, the proportion of males and females, age, body temperature, course of treatment, rate of disappearance of main symptoms, duration of fever, adverse reactions, and total effectiveness from the literature. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used as the effect value for count data, and mean difference (MD) and 95% CI were used as the effect value for measurement data. RESULTS: Six articles met the inclusion criteria, including a total of 856 COVID-19 patients. The meta-analysis showed that Lianhua Qingwen combination therapy achieved higher rates of fever reduction (OR = 3.43, 95% CI [1.78, 6.59], P = 0.0002), cough reduction (OR = 3.39, 95% CI [1.85, 6.23], P < 0.0001), recovery from shortness of breath (OR = 10.62, 95% CI [3.71, 30.40], P < 0.0001) and recovery from fatigue (OR = 2.82, 95% CI [1.44, 5.53], P = 0.003), higher total effectiveness rate (OR = 2.51, 95% CI [1.73, 3.64], P < 0.00001), and shorter time to recovery from fever (MD = -1.00, 95% CI [-1.04, 0.96], P < 0.00001), and did not increase the adverse reaction rate (OR = 0.65, 95% CI [0.42, 1.01], P = 0.06), compared to the single medication control. CONCLUSION: The Lianhua Qingwen and Western medicine combination therapy is highly effective for COVID-19 patients and has good clinical safety. As only a small number of studies and patients were included in this review, more high-quality, multicenter, large-sample-size, randomized, double-blind, controlled trials are still needed for verification.

9.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; 22(3):221-225, 2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1389762

ABSTRACT

This article reports the diagnosis and treatment of twin girls who were diagnosed with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in Hunan Province, China. The twin girls, aged 1 year and 2 months, were admitted on January 29, 2020 due to fever for one day and cough and sneezing for two days respectively. Both recovered after symptomatic treatment. The two girls had mild symptoms and rapid recovery, suggesting that children with SARS-CoV-2 infection may be mild and have a good prognosis. There were differences in the clinical symptoms and imaging findings between the twin girls, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 infection has diverse clinical features in children.

10.
Clin Chim Acta ; 511: 177-180, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385202

ABSTRACT

To clarify the effect of different respiratory sample types on SARS-CoV-2 detection, we collected throat swabs, nasal swabs and hock-a-loogie saliva or sputum, and compared their detection rates and viral loads. The detection rates of sputum (95.65%, 22/23) and hock-a-loogie saliva (88.09%, 37/42) were significantly higher than those in throat swabs (41.54%, 27/65) and nasal swabs (72.31%, 47/65) (P < 0.001). The Ct Values of sputum, hock-a-loogie saliva and nasal swabs were significantly higher than that in throat swabs, whereas no significant difference was observed between sputum and saliva samples. Hock-a-loogie saliva are reliable sample types that can be used to detect SARS-CoV-2, and worthy of clinical promotion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/virology , Specimen Handling/standards , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods , Sputum/virology , Viral Load/methods , Viral Load/standards
11.
QJM ; 2021 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371744

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccine remains critical to control the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV 2), early recognition and management for COVID-19 vaccine associated side effects are imperative for physicians. COVID-19 vaccine-induced thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) is one of potential life-threating complication. The pathophysiology of TTS is presumably the development of antibodies against platelet factor 4 (PF4), further resulting in platelet consumption, depletion, and thrombus formation. COVID-19 vaccine-induced TTS has been reported as a very rare complication after the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca) vaccination and usually manifesting as cerebral venous thrombosis or pulmonary artery embolism. Comparison with stroke and pulmonary embolism, TTS associated intra-abdominal thrombosis is less common. We report a rare case of abdominal pain after the first-dose ChAdOx1 COVID-19 (AstraZeneca) vaccination, the final diagnosis is TTS complicated by hepatic vein thrombosis. Early diagnosis and timely management strategies for TTS are required.

12.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 365, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371271

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, convalescent plasma (CP) transfusion was employed for severe or critically ill patients with coronavirus disease-2019. However, the benefits of CP for patients with different conditions are still in debate. To contribute clinical evidence of CP on critically ill patients, we analyze the characteristics and outcomes of patients with or without CP transfusion. METHODS: In this cohort study, 14 patients received CP transfusion based on the standard treatments, whereas the other 10 patients received standard treatments as control. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were analyzed. The cumulative survival rate was calculated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. RESULTS: Data analysis was performed on 24 patients (male/female: 15/9) with a median age of 64.0 (44.5-74.5) years. Transient fever was reported in one patient. The cumulative mortality was 21% (3/14) in patients receiving CP transfusion during a 28-day observation, whereas one dead case (1/10) was reported in the control group. No significant difference was detected between groups in 28-day mortality (P = 0.615) and radiological alleviation of lung lesions (P = 0.085). CONCLUSION: In our current study, CP transfusion was clinically safe based on the safety profile; however, the clinical benefit was not significant in critically ill patients with more comorbidities at the late stage of disease during a 28-day observation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 597894, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359241

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic broke out from Wuhan in Hubei province, China, spread nationwide and then gradually developed into other countries in the world. The implementation of unprecedented strict isolation measures has affected many aspects of people's lives and posed a challenge to psychological health. To explore whether people isolated for 14 days due to having contact with COVID-19 patients had more psychosocial problems. We conducted an online survey from February 29 to March 10, 2020. Depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and coping style were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire-20-Chinese Version. This study included 1,315 isolated respondents in Hubei province (58.5% located in Wuhan). 69.3% respondents isolated at home, 30.7% respondents isolated at centralized quarantined spot. Of all respondents, 66.8% reported depressive symptoms, 49.7% reported anxiety symptoms, 89.0% reported PTSD symptoms. The Cronbach α of the IES-R, PHQ-9, GAD-7, and total SCSQ-20 were 0.935, 0.847, 0.843, and 0.888, respectively. Persons who isolated at home were associated with a lower risk of PTSD, depressive and anxiety symptoms (P < 0.01). People who knew someone to have COVID-19 were associated with severe symptoms of PTSD symptoms (P = 0.001). As for coping style, higher level of passive coping style was associated with severe symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety (P < 0.001). Our findings identify that person isolated during the COVID-19 epidemic was associated with high proportion of depression, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms. Public health officials should be aware of and prepared to take necessary measures.

14.
Mathematics ; 9(15):1715, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1325728

ABSTRACT

Since its conception, corporate social responsibility (CSR) has seen continuous growth and become a highly discussed issue. In this paper, we propose an evaluation of how the COVID-19 pandemic could impact CSR applications. The pandemic has provided an opportunity for commerce to move on to being more authentic, to offer genuine CSR applications and to contribute toward dealing with pressing environmental and social issues. Hence, this purpose of the research is to obtain a better understanding of whether the integration of environment, social, corporate governance and economic (ESGE) aspects into CSR strategies can support sustainable development toward more sustainable growth during the COVID-19 pandemic. To meet this challenge, we offer a mixture multiple-criteria decision making (MCDM) model. Very few empirical studies have discussed CSR in the high-tech industry and proposed strategies and planning for ESGE efficiency. Using interviews with experts and a literature review, we identify the elements related to actual practices of the high-tech industry’s appraisal and the integrated MCDM techniques to suggest efficient enhancement models. The best worst method (BWM) and modified VIKOR are implemented to estimate the strategic weights and the gaps of the aspiration value. The results are valuable for classifying the priorities of CSR and are therefore helpful for those who are associated with high-tech industry management, practices and implementation.

15.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120 Suppl 1: S19-S25, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307037

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As COVID-19 has become a pandemic emerging infectious disease it is important to examine whether there was a spatiotemporal clustering phenomenon in the globe during the rapid spread after the first outbreak reported from southern China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The open data on the number of COVID-19 cases reported at daily basis form the globe were used to assess the evolution of outbreaks with international air link on the same latitude and also including Taiwan. The dynamic Susceptible-Infected-Recovered model was used to evaluate continental transmission from December 2019 to March 2020 before the declaration of COVID-19 pandemic with basic reproductive number and effective reproductive number before and after containment measurements. RESULTS: For the initial COVID-19 outbreak in China, the estimated reproductive number was reduced from 2.84 during the overwhelming outbreaks in early January to 0.43 after the strict lockdown policy. It is very surprising to find there were three countries (including South Korea, Iran, and Italy) and the Washington state of the USA on the 38° North Latitude involved with large-scale community-acquired outbreaks since the first imported COVID-19 cases from China. The propagation of continental transmission was augmented from hotspot to hotspot with higher reproductive number immediately before the declaration of pandemic. By contrast, there was not any large community-acquired outbreak in Taiwan. CONCLUSION: The propagated spatiotemporal transmission from China to other hotspots may explain the emerging pandemic that can only be exempted by timely border control and preparedness of containment measurements according to Taiwan experience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan/epidemiology , Washington/epidemiology
16.
J Emerg Crit Care Med ; 52021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285625

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has overwhelmed hospital systems in multiple countries and necessitated caring for patients in atypical healthcare settings. The goal of this study was to ascertain if the conventional critical care severity scores qSOFA, SOFA, APACHE-II, and SAPS-II could predict which patients admitted to the hospital from an emergency department would eventually require intensive care. Methods: This single-center, retrospective cohort study enrolled patients admitted to Vanderbilt University Hospital from the emergency room with symptomatic, confirmed COVID-19 infection between March 8, 2020 through May 15, 2020. Clinical phenotyping was performed by chart abstraction, and the correlation of the qSOFA, SOFA, APACHE-II, and SAPS-II scores for the primary endpoint of ICU admission and secondary endpoint of in-hospital mortality was evaluated. Results: During the study period, 128 patients were admitted to Vanderbilt University Hospital from the emergency room with COVID-19. Of these, 39 patients eventually required intensive care; the remaining 89 were discharged from the medical ward. All severity of illness scores demonstrated at least moderate ability to identify patients who would die or require ICU admission. Of the three severity of illness scores assessed, the APACHE-II score performed best with an AUC of 0.851 (95% CI: 0.786 to 0.917) for identifying patient that would require ICU admission. No patient with an APACHE-II score at the time of presentation less than 8 or qSOFA of 0 required intensive care unit (ICU) admission. All patients with an APACHE-II score less than 10 or qSOFA score of 0 survived to hospital discharge. Conclusions: The APACHE-II score accurately predicts the eventual need for ICU admission. This may allow for risk-stratification of patients safe to treat in alternative health care settings and prognostic enrichment to accelerate clinical trials of COVID-19 therapies.

17.
J Ophthalmol ; 2021: 9997631, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282173

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aims to examine the prevalence rate of ocular manifestations and the positive rate for the real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in conjunctival/tear swabs among adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: PubMed and EMBASE were reviewed between December 1, 2019, and January 31, 2021, and only peer-reviewed clinical studies in our pooled analyses were included. Details regarding the patient numbers, demographics, ocular manifestations, positivity of ocular surface RT-PCR, and severity of pneumonia were recorded from each study. Primary outcomes were the occurrence of ocular manifestations and virus detection on the ocular surface. Meanwhile, secondary outcomes included frequencies of various ocular symptoms/signs (s/s), the proportion of patients with ocular manifestation as the initial symptom, and the relationship between the severity of pneumonia and the presentation of ocular manifestations. Results: In total, 35 studies with 4,432 adult COVID-19 patients were included in this analysis. The overall prevalence rate of ocular manifestations was found to be 11.3%, and the positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 in the ocular surface was 7.4%. The four most common ocular s/s were follicular conjunctivitis, redness, watering, and discharge. A proportion of 3.3% presented with ocular s/s preceding other findings. Besides, patients with higher severity of pneumonia were more likely to have ocular manifestations (odds ratio = 2.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45-3.50). Conclusion: As per our findings, it was determined that ocular transmission of SARS-CoV-2 might be possible, highlighting the importance of eye protective equipment among healthcare personnel.

18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 580032, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247931

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The aim of this study was to explore the impact of diabetes self-management and HbA1c affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and the epidemic prevention work. Methods: This quasi-experimental study collected a pooled data from a randomized-control study between February and May 2020 in which 114 participants who presented type 2 diabetes were recruited. The intervention group had health coaching and usual care, whereas the control had usual care only. The main outcome variables of this observation study were the change of HbA1c, physical activity, and eating out behavior within this time interval. Results: We found that the eating out behavior of both groups had decreased, and if a health coach helped the patients set physical activity goals in the two groups, the physical activity behavior will not be impacted due to the pandemic. Conclusions: While every country is focusing on COVID-19 pandemic prevention, especially when strict home quarantine measures and social distancing are adopted, reminding and assisting chronic patients to maintain good self-management behavior may lessen the social and medical system burdens caused by the deterioration of chronic conditions due to the excessive risk prevention behavior and the epidemic prevention work. Trial Registration: www.isrctn.com, identifier number: ISRCTN14167790, date: 12 July, 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Mentoring , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Res Sq ; 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237042

ABSTRACT

The nose is the portal for SARS-CoV-2 infection, suggesting the nose as a target for topical antiviral therapies. Because detergents are virucidal, Johnson and Johnson's Baby Shampoo (J&J) was tested as a topical virucidal agent in SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects. Twice daily irrigation of J&J in hypertonic saline, hypertonic saline alone, or no intervention were compared (n = 24/group). Despite demonstrated safety and robust efficacy in in vitro virucidal assays, J&J irrigations had no impact on viral titers or symptom scores in treated subjects relative to controls. Similar findings were observed administering J&J to infected cultured human airway epithelia using protocols mimicking the clinical trial regimen. Additional studies of cultured human nasal epithelia demonstrated that lack of efficacy reflected pharmacokinetic failure, with the most virucidal J&J detergent components rapidly absorbed from nasal surfaces. This study emphasizes the need to assess the pharmacokinetic characteristics of virucidal agents on airway surfaces to guide clinical trials.

20.
Front Public Health ; 9: 622762, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221989

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The current outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), originating from Wuhan (Hubei, China), has rapidly spread across China and several other countries. During the outbreak of COVID-19, mental health of the general population in Hubei province may be affected. This study aimed to assess the psychological status and associated risk factors of the general population in Hubei province during the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was used to evaluate the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety, which were assessed by the Chinese version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, the Patient Health Questionnaire 9, and the seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, respectively. Coping style was assessed by the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to detect factors associated with mental health outcomes. Results: Among 9,225 participants, 44.5% rated symptoms of PTSD, and 17.9 and 12.7% suffered from moderate and severe symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. Individuals who were geographically located in Wuhan and familiar with someone who has COVID-19 had more severe symptoms of PTSD, depression, and anxiety, as well as a higher score in passive coping style (P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that people who were geographically located in Wuhan [odds ratio (OR) = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14-1.36, P < 0.001] were associated with severe symptoms of PTSD. Besides, individuals who were familiar with someone who had COVID-19 (OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 2.07-2.63, P < 0.001; OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.66-2.17, P < 0.001; OR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.78-2.39, P < 0.001) and had a higher score in passive coping style (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.14-1.17, P < 0.001; OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.15-1.19, P < 0.001; OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.15-1.19, P < 0.001) were associated with severe symptoms of PTSD, depression, and anxiety. Moreover, a higher score in active coping style (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.95-0.97, P < 0.001; OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.93-0.94, P < 0.001; OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.94-0.96, P < 0.001) was associated with a lower risk of symptoms of PTSD, depression, and anxiety. Conclusions: During the midphase of COVID-19 outbreak, quite a few people have mental health problems; nearly half of the respondents rated symptoms of PTSD, and approximately one-fifth reported moderate to severe symptoms of anxiety and depression. Our findings may lead to better comprehend the psychological status of the general public and alleviate the public mental health crisis during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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