Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 17 de 17
Filter
2.
3.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S63-S64, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564271

ABSTRACT

Background Existing disparities in vaccination rates across different social and demographic groups in the US may have been exacerbated during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID) pandemic, leaving some children at risk for vaccine-preventable diseases. This study examined sociodemographic and risk factors of PCV13 infant primary series vaccination completion, before and during COVID. Methods Retrospective data from the Optum’s de-identified Clinformatics Data Mart Database were used to create 3 cohorts: C1, Pre-COVID;C2, During COVID;C3, Cross-COVID (Figure 1). C1 and C3 (C1&3) were combined and compared with C2 for primary dosing completion before and during COVID according to infant/caregiver characteristics. Full completion (FC) was defined as receipt of 3 doses of PCV13 within 8 months of birth. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare FC vs. partial completion or no vaccine. Descriptive analyses were used to compare FC before and during COVID within subgroups. Figure 1: Study population and inclusion criteria Results A total of 132,183 and 16,522 infants with at least 8 months of follow up time were enrolled in C1&3 and C2, respectively. FC was significantly higher before COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.07-1.17). Adjusting for COVID, FC was significantly lower in infants who were Black, with co-morbidities or risk factors, living in households with >1 children or no children, household annual income < &99k, residing in a neighborhood with median education of high school or below, and whose primary caregiver was aged <25 years (Table 1). Comparing FC before and during COVID, the % decline relative to pre-COVID was > 2% among infants who were White, residing in the Mountain, New England or Pacific regions, in a household with 2 children, >&100k annual income, employer-based insurance or HMO, and median neighborhood education of bachelor degree plus (Table 2). Table 1. Multivariable binomial logistic regression results for PCV13 full primary dosing completion vs. not full completion (partial or no vaccine), N=144,799* Table 2. Primary dosing full completion rate pre-COVID vs. during COVID by social, demographic, and clinical risk factors Conclusion Health inequities in PCV13 primary series completion existed prior to COVID-19 and have remained during the pandemic. Our results, however, suggest that during the pandemic, groups traditionally considered to have better healthcare access (Whites, higher income, more education) had more impact on vaccine uptake. Further research is needed to confirm these trends as COVID mitigation measures subside. Disclosures Liping Huang, MD, MA, MS, Pfizer Inc (Employee) Jennifer L Nguyen, ScD, MPH, Pfizer Inc. (Employee) Johnna Perdrizet, MPH, Pfizer Inc (Employee) Tamuno Alfred, PhD, Pfizer Inc. (Employee) Adriano Arguedas, MD, Pfizer (Employee)

4.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 199: 113868, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561218

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination efficacy depends on serum levels of the neutralizing antibodies (NAs) specific to the receptor-binding domain of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein. Therefore, a high-throughput rapid assay capable of measuring the total SARS-CoV-2 NA level is urgently needed for COVID-19 serodiagnosis, convalescent plasma therapy, vaccine development, and assessment. Here, we developed a novel nanoplasmonic immunosorbent assay (NanoPISA) platform for one-step rapid quantification of SARS-CoV-2 NAs in clinical serum samples for high-throughput evaluation of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness. The NanoPISA platform enhanced by the use of nanoporous hollow gold nanoparticle coupling was able to detect SARS-CoV-2 NAs with a limit of detection of 0.2 pM within 15 min without washing steps. The one-step NanoPISA for SARS-CoV-2 NA detection in clinical specimens yielded good results, comparable with those obtained in the gold-standard seroneutralization test and the surrogate virus-neutralizing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Collectively, the one-step NanoPISA might be a rapid and high-throughput NA-quantification platform for evaluating the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Gold , Humans , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
5.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 766764, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1459217

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fbioe.2021.718753.].

6.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 766764, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449872

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fbioe.2021.718753.].

7.
Clin Lab ; 67(9)2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431124

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been inducing an ongoing global health and economic emergency. Although viral pneumonia is the most striking presentation for COVID-19 patients, it has been noticed that some patients may also be accompanied with an abnormal liver function. METHODS: CT was performed in both lungs, and routine bloodwork and the blood metabolic panel were measured. RESULTS: Here, we report on a young male patient without any history of live diseases who suffered simultaneously both SARS-CoV-2 caused pneumonia and hepatitis as evidenced by increased serum bilirubin together with increased serum transaminases. CONCLUSIONS: Studies on mechanisms whereby SARS-CoV-2 causing liver damages might provide more information about the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and help management of this global health emergency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Pneumonia, Viral , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
8.
N Engl J Med ; 385(12): 1067-1077, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413249

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Salt substitutes with reduced sodium levels and increased potassium levels have been shown to lower blood pressure, but their effects on cardiovascular and safety outcomes are uncertain. METHODS: We conducted an open-label, cluster-randomized trial involving persons from 600 villages in rural China. The participants had a history of stroke or were 60 years of age or older and had high blood pressure. The villages were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention group, in which the participants used a salt substitute (75% sodium chloride and 25% potassium chloride by mass), or to the control group, in which the participants continued to use regular salt (100% sodium chloride). The primary outcome was stroke, the secondary outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events and death from any cause, and the safety outcome was clinical hyperkalemia. RESULTS: A total of 20,995 persons were enrolled in the trial. The mean age of the participants was 65.4 years, and 49.5% were female, 72.6% had a history of stroke, and 88.4% a history of hypertension. The mean duration of follow-up was 4.74 years. The rate of stroke was lower with the salt substitute than with regular salt (29.14 events vs. 33.65 events per 1000 person-years; rate ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 0.96; P = 0.006), as were the rates of major cardiovascular events (49.09 events vs. 56.29 events per 1000 person-years; rate ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.94; P<0.001) and death (39.28 events vs. 44.61 events per 1000 person-years; rate ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.95; P<0.001). The rate of serious adverse events attributed to hyperkalemia was not significantly higher with the salt substitute than with regular salt (3.35 events vs. 3.30 events per 1000 person-years; rate ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.37; P = 0.76). CONCLUSIONS: Among persons who had a history of stroke or were 60 years of age or older and had high blood pressure, the rates of stroke, major cardiovascular events, and death from any cause were lower with the salt substitute than with regular salt. (Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia; SSaSS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02092090.).


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Diet, Sodium-Restricted , Hypertension/diet therapy , Stroke/prevention & control , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , China , Diet, Sodium-Restricted/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Hyperkalemia/complications , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Potassium, Dietary/adverse effects , Secondary Prevention , Stroke/epidemiology
9.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 718753, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357516

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, mRNA vaccine development has undergone a tremendous drive within the pharmaceutical field. In recent years, great progress has been made into mRNA vaccine development, especially in individualized tumor vaccines. mRNA vaccines are a promising approach as the production process is simple, safety profiles are better than those of DNA vaccines, and mRNA-encoded antigens are readily expressed in cells. However, mRNA vaccines also possess some inherent limitations. While side effects such as allergy, renal failure, heart failure, and infarction remain a risk, the vaccine mRNA may also be degraded quickly after administration or cause cytokine storms. This is a substantial challenge for mRNA delivery. However, appropriate carriers can avoid degradation and enhance immune responses, effector presentation, biocompatibility and biosafety. To understand the development and research status of mRNA vaccines, this review focuses on analysis of molecular design, delivery systems and clinical trials of mRNA vaccines, thus highlighting the route for wider development and further clinical trials of mRNA vaccines.

10.
J Virol Methods ; 292: 114141, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142107

ABSTRACT

In this study, we developed and evaluated a luciferase immunosorbent assay (LISA) for quantitative detection of IgG antibody against SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein (NP). Anti-SARS-CoV-2 NP antibody in serum or plasma samples was captured by protein G-coated microtiter plate and detected using the crude cell lysates expressing Nanoluc luciferase (Nluc) enzyme fused with SARS-CoV-2 NP. After the addition of furimazine substrate, the levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 NP IgG antibody were quantitatively measured as luciferase light units. As expected, SARS-CoV-2 NP showed cross-reactivity with the monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV NP, but not MERS-CoV NP-specific monoclonal antibodies or the monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV Spike protein. LISA for detecting murine monoclonal antibody against SARS-CoV NP showed a low limit of detection of 0.4 pg/µl and linear detection range from 0.4 pg/µl to 75 pg/µl. Furthermore, LISA had a sensitivity of 71 % when testing COVID-19 patients at the second week post onset and a specificity of 100 % when testing healthy blood donors.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Cross Reactions , Humans , Luciferases
11.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 171: 112685, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-891295

ABSTRACT

The spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus in the ongoing global pandemic has led to infections of millions of people and losses of many lives. The rapid, accurate and convenient SARS-CoV-2 virus detection is crucial for controlling and stopping the pandemic. Diagnosis of patients in the early stage infection are so far limited to viral nucleic acid or antigen detection in human nasopharyngeal swab or saliva samples. Here we developed a method for rapid and direct optical measurement of SARS-CoV-2 virus particles in one step nearly without any sample preparation using a spike protein specific nanoplasmonic resonance sensor. As low as 370 vp/mL were detected in one step within 15 min and the virus concentration can be quantified linearly in the range of 0 to 107 vp/mL. Measurements shown on both generic microplate reader and a handheld smartphone connected device suggest that our low-cost and rapid detection method may be adopted quickly under both regular clinical environment and resource-limited settings.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing , Virion/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Immobilized/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/economics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/economics , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Equipment Design , Humans , Limit of Detection , Models, Molecular , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Time Factors
12.
Virology ; 551: 26-35, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-799506

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus and the cause of COVID-19. More than 80% of COVID-19 patients exhibit mild or moderate symptoms. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of viral load and antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in a longitudinal cohort of COVID-19 patients with severe and mild/moderate diseases. METHODS: Demographic and clinical information were obtained. Serial samples of blood, nasal and pharyngeal and anal swabs were collected at different time points post-onset. SARS-CoV-2 RNA and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were measured by qRT-PCR and immunoassays, respectively. RESULTS: Respiratory SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detectable in 58.0% (58/100) COVID-19 patients upon admission and lasted for a median of 13 days post-onset. In addition, 5.9% (1/17) and 20.2% (19/94) of the blood and anal swab specimens were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, respectively. Anal viral RNA was more frequently detected in the patients who were positive for viral RNA in the respiratory samples upon admission. Specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody developed within two weeks after onset, reached peak approximately 17 days post-onset and then maintained at relatively high level up to 50 days we analyzed in most patients. However, the levels of antibodies were variable among the patients. High titers of antibodies appeared to be associated with the severity of the disease. Furthermore, viral proteins from different sources showed significant difference of serological sensitivity especially during the first week post-onset. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate rapid clearance or self-elimination of viral RNA in about half of the COVID-19 patients upon admission. Viral RNA shedding of SARS-CoV-2 occurred in multiple tissues including the respiratory system, blood, and intestine. Variable levels of specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody may be associated with disease severity. These findings have shed light on viral kinetics and antibody response in COVID-19 patients and provide scientific evidence for infection control and patient management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Kinetics , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , Virus Shedding
13.
J Affect Disord ; 278: 144-148, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-746020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is well known that unexpected pandemic has led to an increase in mental health problems among a variety of populations. METHODS: In this study, an online non-probability sample survey was used to anonymously investigate the anxiety and depression symptoms among medical staff under the COVID-19 outbreak. The questionnaire included Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Factors associated with anxiety and depression symptoms were estimated by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1090 medical staff were investigated in this study. The estimated self-reported rates of anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms and both of the two were 13.3%, 18.4% and 23.9% respectively. Factors associated with self-reported anxiety symptoms include married status (OR=2.3, 95%CI: 1.2, 4.4), not living alone (OR=0.4, 95%CI: 0.2, 0.7), never confiding their troubles to others (OR=2.2, 95%CI: 1.4, 3.5) and higher stress (OR=14.4, 95%CI: 7.8, 26.4). Factors associated with self-reported depression symptoms include not living alone (OR=0.4, 95%CI: 0.3, 0.7), sometimes/often getting care from neighbours (OR=0.6, 95%CI: 0.4, 0.9), never confiding their troubles to others (OR=2.0, 95%CI: 1.3, 3.0) and higher stress (OR=9.7, 95%CI: 6.2, 15.2). LIMITATIONS: The study was a non-probability sample survey. Besides, scales used in this study can only identify mental health states. CONCLUSIONS: Under outbreak of COVID-19, self-reported rates of anxiety symptoms and depression symptoms were high in investigated medical staff. Psychological interventions for those at high risk with common mental problems should be integrated into the work plan to fight against the epidemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Medical Staff/psychology , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Staff/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Patient Health Questionnaire , Prevalence
14.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(10): 627, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-609913

ABSTRACT

Background: Glucocorticoids are widely used in the treatment of various pulmonary inflammatory diseases, but they are also often accompanied by significant adverse reactions. Published guidelines point out that low dose and short duration systemic glucocorticoid therapy may be considered for patients with rapidly progressing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) while the evidence is still limited. Methods: We comprehensively searched electronic databases and supplemented the screening by conducting a manual search. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies evaluating the effectiveness and safety of glucocorticoids in children and adults with COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and conducted meta-analyses of the main indicators that were identified in the studies. Results: Our search retrieved 23 studies, including one RCT and 22 cohort studies, with a total of 13,815 patients. In adults with COVID-19, the use of systemic glucocorticoid did not reduce mortality [risk ratio (RR) =2.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69 to 5.75, I2=90.9%] or the duration of lung inflammation [weighted mean difference (WMD) =-1 days, 95% CI: -2.91 to 0.91], while a significant reduction was found in the duration of fever (WMD =-3.23 days, 95% CI: -3.56 to -2.90). In patients with SARS, glucocorticoids also did not reduce the mortality (RR =1.52, 95% CI: 0.89 to 2.60, I2=84.6%), duration of fever (WMD =0.82 days, 95% CI: -2.88 to 4.52, I2=97.9%) or duration of lung inflammation absorption (WMD =0.95 days, 95% CI: -7.57 to 9.48, I2=94.6%). The use of systemic glucocorticoid therapy prolonged the duration of hospital stay in all patients (COVID-19, SARS and MERS). Conclusions: Glucocorticoid therapy was found to reduce the duration of fever, but not mortality, duration of hospitalization or lung inflammation absorption. Long-term use of high-dose glucocorticoids increased the risk of adverse reactions such as coinfections, so routine use of systemic glucocorticoids for patients with COVID-19 cannot be recommend.

15.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(10): 618, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-594639

ABSTRACT

Background: Existing recommendations on whether mothers with COVID-19 should continue breastfeeding are still conflicting. We aimed to conduct a rapid review of mother-to-child transmission of COVID-19 during breastfeeding. Methods: We systematically searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, China Biology Medicine disc, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and preprint articles up to March 2020. We included studies relevant to transmission through milk and respiratory droplets during breastfeeding of mothers with COVID-19, SARS, MERS and influenza. Two reviewers independently screened studies for eligibility, extracted data, assessed risk of bias and used GRADE to assess certainty of evidence. Results: A total of 4,481 records were identified in our literature search. Six studies (five case reports and one case series) involving 58 mothers (16 mothers with COVID-19, 42 mothers with influenza) and their infants proved eligible. Five case reports showed that the viral nucleic acid tests for all thirteen collected samples of breast milk from mothers with COVID-19 were negative. A case series of 42 influenza infected postpartum mothers taking precautions (hand hygiene and wearing masks) before breastfeeding showed that no neonates were infected with influenza during one-month of follow-up. Conclusions: The current evidence indicates that SARS-CoV-2 viral nucleic acid has not been detected in breast milk. The benefits of breastfeeding may outweigh the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in infants. Mothers with COVID-19 should take appropriate precautions to reduce the risk of transmission via droplets and close contact during breastfeeding.

16.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(10): 625, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-594638

ABSTRACT

Background: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is usually used as supportive therapy, but the treatment of COVID-19 by IVIG is controversial. This rapid review aims to explore the clinical effectiveness and safety of IVIG in the treatment of children with severe COVID-19. Methods: We systematically searched the literature on the use of IVIG in patients with COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), including both adults and children. We assessed the risk of bias and quality of evidence and reported the main findings descriptively. Results: A total of 1,519 articles were identified by initial literature search, and finally six studies met our inclusion criteria, included one randomized controlled trial (RCT), four case series and one case report involving 198 patients. One case series showed the survival of COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was not improved by IVIG. One case report showed high-dose IVIG could improve the outcome of COVID-19 adults. Three observational studies showed inconsistent results of the effect of IVIG on SARS patients. One RCT showed that IVIG did not reduce mortality or the incidence of nosocomial infection in adults with severe SARS. The quality of evidence was between low and very low. Conclusions: The existing evidence is insufficient to support the efficacy or safety of IVIG in the treatment of COVID-19.

17.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(10): 626, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-594423

ABSTRACT

Background: As COVID-19 has become a global pandemic, early prevention and control of the epidemic is extremely important. Telemedicine, which includes medical advice given over telephone, Internet, mobile phone applications or other similar ways, may be an efficient way to reduce transmission and pressure on medical institutions. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane, CBM, CNKI and Wanfang databases for literature on the use of telemedicine for COVID-19, SARS and MERS from their inception to March 31st, 2020. We included studies about the content of the consultation (such as symptoms, therapy and prevention, policy, public service), screening of suspected cases, the provision of advice given to those people who may have symptoms or contact history. We conducted meta-analyses on the main outcomes of the studies. Results: A total of 2,041 articles were identified after removing duplicates. After reading the full texts, we finally included nine studies. People were most concerned about symptoms (64.2%), epidemic situation and public problems (14.5%), and psychological problems (10.3%) during COVID-19 epidemic. During the SARS epidemic, the proportions of people asking for consultation for symptoms, prevention and therapy, and psychological problems were 35.0%, 22.0%, and 23.0%, respectively. Two studies demonstrated that telemedicine can be used to screen the suspected patients and give advice. One study emphasized the limited possibilities to follow up people calling hotlines and difficulties in identifying all suspect cases. Conclusions: Telemedicine services should focus on the issues that the public is most concerned about, such as the symptoms, prevention and treatment of the disease, and provide reasonable advice to patients with symptoms or people with epidemic history.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...