Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 44
Filter
1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5856, 2022 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784021

ABSTRACT

Rapid dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 sequencing data to public repositories has enabled widespread study of viral genomes, but studies of longitudinal specimens from infected persons are relatively limited. Analysis of longitudinal specimens enables understanding of how host immune pressures drive viral evolution in vivo. Here we performed sequencing of 49 longitudinal SARS-CoV-2-positive samples from 20 patients in Washington State collected between March and September of 2020. Viral loads declined over time with an average increase in RT-QPCR cycle threshold of 0.87 per day. We found that there was negligible change in SARS-CoV-2 consensus sequences over time, but identified a number of nonsynonymous variants at low frequencies across the genome. We observed enrichment for a relatively small number of these variants, all of which are now seen in consensus genomes across the globe at low prevalence. In one patient, we saw rapid emergence of various low-level deletion variants at the N-terminal domain of the spike glycoprotein, some of which have previously been shown to be associated with reduced neutralization potency from sera. In a subset of samples that were sequenced using metagenomic methods, differential gene expression analysis showed a downregulation of cytoskeletal genes that was consistent with a loss of ciliated epithelium during infection and recovery. We also identified co-occurrence of bacterial species in samples from multiple hospitalized individuals. These results demonstrate that the intrahost genetic composition of SARS-CoV-2 is dynamic during the course of COVID-19, and highlight the need for continued surveillance and deep sequencing of minor variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/genetics , Genome, Viral , Humans , Metagenome , Metagenomics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774394

ABSTRACT

While detection of SARS-CoV-2 by diagnostic RT-PCR is highly sensitive for viral RNA, the nucleic acid amplification of subgenomic RNAs (sgRNA) that are the product of viral replication may more accurately identify replication. We characterized the diagnostic RT-PCR and sgRNA detection from nasal swabs collected daily by participants in post exposure prophylaxis or treatment studies for SARS-CoV-2. Among 1932 RT-PCR-positive swabs with sgRNA tests, 40% (767) had detectable sgRNA. Above a diagnostic PCR viral load threshold of 5.1 log10 copies/mL, 96% of samples had detectable sgRNA with viral loads that followed a linear trend. The trajectories of diagnostic and sgRNA viral loads differed, with 80% peaking on the same day but duration of sgRNA detection being shorter (8 versus 14 days). With a large sample of daily swabs we provide comparative sgRNA kinetics and a diagnostic PCR threshold that correlates with replicating virus independent of symptoms or duration of illness.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(6): 1089-1092, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703666

ABSTRACT

Across 20 vaccine breakthrough cases detected at our institution, all 20 (100%) infections were due to variants of concern (VOCs) and had a median Ct of 20.2 (IQR, 17.1-23.3). When compared with 5174 contemporaneous samples sequenced in our laboratory, VOCs were significantly enriched among breakthrough infections (P < .05).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Base Sequence , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Washington/epidemiology
5.
Br J Haematol ; 197(3): 306-309, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700211

ABSTRACT

Prior reports evaluating SARS-CoV-2 vaccine efficacy in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) used semiquantitative measurements of anti-S to evaluate immunity; however, neutralization assays were used to assess functional immunity in the trials leading to vaccine approval. Here, we identified decreased rates of seroconversion in vaccinated CLL patients and lower anti-S levels compared to healthy controls. Notably, we demonstrated similar results with the Roche anti-S assay and neutralization activity. Durable responses were seen at six months; augmentation with boosters was possible in responding patients. Absence of normal B cells, frequently seen in patients receiving Bruton tyrosine kinase and B-cell lymphoma 2 inhibitors, was a strong predictor of lack of seroconversion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313502

ABSTRACT

Background: Treatment options for outpatients with COVID-19 could reduce morbidity and prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission.Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, three-arm (1:1:1) placebo-equivalent control trial conducted remotely throughout the United States, adult outpatients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were recruited. Participants were randomly assigned to receive HCQ (400mg BID x1day, followed by 200mg BID x9days) or placebo-equivalent (ascorbic acid) and AZ (500mg, then 250mg daily x4days) or placebo-equivalent (folic acid), stratified by risk for progression to severe COVID-19 (high-risk vs. low-risk). Self-collected mid-turbinate nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 PCR, FLUPro symptom surveys, EKGs and vital signs collected daily. Primary endpoints were: (a) 14-day progression to lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), 28-day COVID-19 related hospitalization, or death;(b) 14-day time to viral clearance;secondary endpoints included time to symptom resolution (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04354428). Due to the low rate of clinical outcomes, the study was terminated for operational futility.Findings: Between 15th April and 27th July 2020, 231 participants were enrolled and 219 initiated medication a median of 5.9 days after symptom onset. Incident LRTI occurred in six participants (two control, four HCQ/AZ) and COVID-19 related hospitalization in nine (four control, two HCQ, three HCQ/AZ). There were no deaths. Median time to clearance was 5 days (95% CI=4-6) in HCQ, 6 days (95% CI=4-8) in HCQ/AZ, and 8 days (95% CI=6-10) in control. HCQ but not HCQ/AZ had faster time to viral clearance (HR=1.62, 95% CI=1.01-2.60, p=0.047 & HR=1.25, 95% CI=0.75-2.07, p=0.39) compared to control. Among 197 participants who met the COVID-19 definition at enrollment, time to symptom resolution did not differ by group.Interpretation: Neither HCQ nor HCQ/AZ shortened the clinical course of outpatients with COVID-19, and HCQ, but not HCQ/AZ, had only a modest effect on SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding. HCQ and HCQ/AZ are not effective therapies for outpatient treatment of SARV-CoV-2 infection.Trial Registration Number: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04354428Funding: The COVID-19 Early Treatment Study was funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (INV-017062) through the COVID-19 Therapeutics Accelerator. University of Washington Institute of Translational Health Science (ITHS) grant support (UL1 TR002319), KL2 TR002317, and TL1 TR002318 from NCATS/NIH funded REDCap. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the views, decisions, or policies of the institutions with which they are affiliated. PAN and MJA were supported by the Mayo Clinic Windland Smith Rice Comprehensive Sudden Cardiac Death Program. Conflict of Interest: Declaration of interests: CJ reports grants from BMGF for conduct of the study, and grants from CDC and NIH outside of the submitted work. HSK reports funding from NIH. PAN and MJA have a potential financial relationship with AliveCor related to QT assessment using the device, however the investigators would receive no financial benefit for use of the technology for patients at Mayo Clinic or for its use in the current study. AB reports consulting for Gates Ventures and grants from BMGF and NIH outside of the submitted work. HYC reports consulting for BMGF, Pfizer, Ellume, and Merck, and grants from Gates Ventures, NIH, CDC, BMGF, DARPA, Apple Inc., Sanofi-Pasteur, and Roche-Genentech, outside of the submitted work. Ethical Approval: Study visits were conducted via Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant telemedicine. The Western Institutional Review Board (WIRB) approved this study with reliance agreements with collaborating institutions.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(2): 271-277, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused one of the worst pandemics in recent history. Few reports have revealed that SARS-CoV-2 was spreading in the United States as early as the end of January. In this study, we aimed to determine if SARS-CoV-2 had been circulating in the Los Angeles (LA) area at a time when access to diagnostic testing for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was severely limited. METHODS: We used a pooling strategy to look for SARS-CoV-2 in remnant respiratory samples submitted for regular respiratory pathogen testing from symptomatic patients from November 2019 to early March 2020. We then performed sequencing on the positive samples. RESULTS: We detected SARS-CoV-2 in 7 specimens from 6 patients, dating back to mid-January. The earliest positive patient, with a sample collected on January 13, 2020 had no relevant travel history but did have a sibling with similar symptoms. Sequencing of these SARS-CoV-2 genomes revealed that the virus was introduced into the LA area from both domestic and international sources as early as January. CONCLUSIONS: We present strong evidence of community spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the LA area well before widespread diagnostic testing was being performed in early 2020. These genomic data demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 was being introduced into Los Angeles County from both international and domestic sources in January 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Humans , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(5)2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642084

ABSTRACT

Novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants pose a challenge to controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Previous studies indicate that clinical samples collected from individuals infected with the Delta variant may contain higher levels of RNA than previous variants, but the relationship between levels of viral RNA and infectious virus for individual variants is unknown. We measured infectious viral titer (using a microfocus-forming assay) and total and subgenomic viral RNA levels (using RT-PCR) in a set of 162 clinical samples containing SARS-CoV-2 Alpha, Delta, and Epsilon variants that were collected in identical swab kits from outpatient test sites and processed soon after collection. We observed a high degree of variation in the relationship between viral titers and RNA levels. Despite this, the overall infectivity differed among the three variants. Both Delta and Epsilon had significantly higher infectivity than Alpha, as measured by the number of infectious units per quantity of viral E gene RNA (5.9- and 3.0-fold increase; P < 0.0001, P = 0.014, respectively) or subgenomic E RNA (14.3- and 6.9-fold increase; P < 0.0001, P = 0.004, respectively). In addition to higher viral RNA levels reported for the Delta variant, the infectivity (amount of replication competent virus per viral genome copy) may be increased compared to Alpha. Measuring the relationship between live virus and viral RNA is an important step in assessing the infectivity of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants. An increase in the infectivity for Delta may further explain increased spread, suggesting a need for increased measures to prevent viral transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Genome, Viral , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Hepatocytes/virology , Humans , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Virulence
9.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261853, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622346

ABSTRACT

Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is used worldwide to test and trace the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). "Extraction-less" or "direct" real time-reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a transparent and accessible qualitative method for SARS-CoV-2 detection from nasopharyngeal or oral pharyngeal samples with the potential to generate actionable data more quickly, at a lower cost, and with fewer experimental resources than full RT-qPCR. This study engaged 10 global testing sites, including laboratories currently experiencing testing limitations due to reagent or equipment shortages, in an international interlaboratory ring trial. Participating laboratories were provided a common protocol, common reagents, aliquots of identical pooled clinical samples, and purified nucleic acids and used their existing in-house equipment. We observed 100% concordance across laboratories in the correct identification of all positive and negative samples, with highly similar cycle threshold values. The test also performed well when applied to locally collected patient nasopharyngeal samples, provided the viral transport media did not contain charcoal or guanidine, both of which appeared to potently inhibit the RT-PCR reaction. Our results suggest that direct RT-PCR assay methods can be clearly translated across sites utilizing readily available equipment and expertise and are thus a feasible option for more efficient COVID-19 coronavirus disease testing as demanded by the continuing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcription/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods , Specimen Handling/methods
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142796, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1615909

ABSTRACT

Importance: The SARS-CoV-2 viral trajectory has not been well characterized in incident infections. These data are needed to inform natural history, prevention practices, and therapeutic development. Objective: To characterize early SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA load (hereafter referred to as viral load) in individuals with incident infections in association with COVID-19 symptom onset and severity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study was a secondary data analysis of a remotely conducted study that enrolled 829 asymptomatic community-based participants recently exposed (<96 hours) to persons with SARS-CoV-2 from 41 US states from March 31 to August 21, 2020. Two cohorts were studied: (1) participants who were SARS-CoV-2 negative at baseline and tested positive during study follow-up, and (2) participants who had 2 or more positive swabs during follow-up, regardless of the initial (baseline) swab result. Participants collected daily midturbinate swab samples for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection and maintained symptom diaries for 14 days. Exposure: Laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: The observed SARS-CoV-2 viral load among incident infections was summarized, and piecewise linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the characteristics of viral trajectories in association with COVID-19 symptom onset and severity. Results: A total of 97 participants (55 women [57%]; median age, 37 years [IQR, 27-52 years]) developed incident infections during follow-up. Forty-two participants (43%) had viral shedding for 1 day (median peak viral load cycle threshold [Ct] value, 38.5 [95% CI, 38.3-39.0]), 18 (19%) for 2 to 6 days (median Ct value, 36.7 [95% CI, 30.2-38.1]), and 31 (32%) for 7 days or more (median Ct value, 18.3 [95% CI, 17.4-22.0]). The cycle threshold value has an inverse association with viral load. Six participants (6%) had 1 to 6 days of viral shedding with censored duration. The peak mean (SD) viral load was observed on day 3 of shedding (Ct value, 33.8 [95% CI, 31.9-35.6]). Based on the statistical models fitted to 129 participants (60 men [47%]; median age, 38 years [IQR, 25-54 years]) with 2 or more SARS-CoV-2-positive swab samples, persons reporting moderate or severe symptoms tended to have a higher peak mean viral load than those who were asymptomatic (Ct value, 23.3 [95% CI, 22.6-24.0] vs 30.7 [95% CI, 29.8-31.4]). Mild symptoms generally started within 1 day of peak viral load, and moderate or severe symptoms 2 days after peak viral load. All 535 sequenced samples detected the G614 variant (Wuhan strain). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study suggests that having incident SARS-CoV-2 G614 infection was associated with a rapid viral load peak followed by slower decay. COVID-19 symptom onset generally coincided with peak viral load, which correlated positively with symptom severity. This longitudinal evaluation of the SARS-CoV-2 G614 with frequent molecular testing serves as a reference for comparing emergent viral lineages to inform clinical trial designs and public health strategies to contain the spread of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load , Virus Shedding , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Incidence , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Prospective Studies , Serologic Tests
11.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295486

ABSTRACT

Reverse transcription–quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is used worldwide to test and trace the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). “Extraction-less” or “direct” real time–reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is an open-access qualitative method for SARS-CoV-2 detection from nasopharyngeal or oral pharyngeal samples with the potential to generate actionable data more quickly, at a lower cost, and with fewer experimental resources than full RT-qPCR. This study engaged 10 global testing sites, including laboratories currently experiencing testing limitations due to reagent or equipment shortages, in an international interlaboratory ring trial. Participating laboratories were provided a common protocol, common reagents, aliquots of identical pooled clinical samples, and purified nucleic acids and used their existing in-house equipment. We observed 100% concordance across laboratories in the correct identification of all positive and negative samples, with highly similar cycle threshold values. The test also performed well when applied to locally collected patient nasopharyngeal samples, provided the viral transport media did not contain charcoal or guanidine, both of which appeared to potently inhibit the RT-PCR reaction. Our results suggest that open-access, direct RT-PCR assays are a feasible option for more efficient COVID-19 coronavirus disease testing as demanded by the continuing pandemic.

12.
EMBO Mol Med ; 14(2): e15290, 2022 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551925

ABSTRACT

With the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 now in its second year, there remains an urgent need for diagnostic testing that can identify infected individuals, particularly those who harbor infectious virus. Various RT-PCR strategies have been proposed to identify specific viral RNA species that may predict the presence of infectious virus, including detection of transcriptional intermediates (e.g., subgenomic RNA [sgRNA]) and replicative intermediates (e.g., negative-strand RNA species). Using a novel primer/probe set for detection of subgenomic (sg)E transcripts, we successfully identified 100% of specimens containing culturable SARS-CoV-2 from a set of 126 clinical samples (total sgE CT values ranging from 12.3 to 37.5). This assay showed superior performance compared to a previously published sgRNA assay and to a negative-strand RNA assay, both of which failed to detect target RNA in a subset of samples from which we isolated live virus. In addition, total levels of viral RNA (genome, negative-strand, and sgE) detected with the WHO/Charité primer-probe set correlated closely with levels of infectious virus. Specifically, infectious virus was not detected in samples with a CT above 31.0. Clinical samples with higher levels of viral RNA also displayed cytopathic effect (CPE) more quickly than those with lower levels of viral RNA. Finally, we found that the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 samples is significantly dependent on the cell type used for viral isolation, as Vero E6 cells expressing TMRPSS2 extended the analytical sensitivity of isolation by more than 3 CT compared to parental Vero E6 cells and resulted in faster isolation. Our work shows that using a total viral RNA Ct cutoff of > 31 or specifically testing for sgRNA can serve as an effective rule-out test for the presence of culturable virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/genetics
13.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(9): e0098921, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501532

ABSTRACT

With the availability of widespread SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, high-throughput quantitative anti-spike protein serological testing will likely become increasingly important. Here, we investigated the performance characteristics of the recently FDA-authorized semiquantitative anti-spike protein AdviseDx SARS-CoV-2 IgG II assay compared to the FDA-authorized anti-nucleocapsid protein Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG, Roche Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2-S, EuroImmun anti-SARS-CoV-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and GenScript surrogate virus neutralization assays and examined the humoral response associated with vaccination, natural protection, and vaccine breakthrough infection. The AdviseDx assay had a clinical sensitivity at 14 days after symptom onset or 10 days after PCR detection of 95.6% (65/68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 87.8 to 98.8%), with two discrepant individuals seroconverting shortly thereafter. The AdviseDx assay demonstrated 100% positive percent agreement with the four other assays examined using the same symptom onset or PCR detection cutoffs. Using a recently available WHO international standard for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody, we provide assay unit conversion factors to international units for each of the assays examined. We performed a longitudinal survey of healthy vaccinated individuals, finding that median AdviseDx immunoglobulin levels peaked 7 weeks after first vaccine dose at approximately 4,000 IU/ml. Intriguingly, among the five assays examined, there was no significant difference in antigen binding level or neutralizing activity between two seropositive patients protected against SARS-CoV-2 infection in a previously described fishing vessel outbreak and five health care workers who experienced vaccine breakthrough of SARS-CoV-2 infection, all with variants of concern. These findings suggest that protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection cannot currently be predicted exclusively using in vitro antibody assays against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 spike. Further work is required to establish protective correlates for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5931-5941, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432428

ABSTRACT

Real-time epidemiological tracking of variants of concern (VOCs) can help limit the spread of more contagious forms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), such as those containing the N501Y mutation. Typically, genetic sequencing is required to be able to track VOCs in real-time. However, sequencing can take time and may not be accessible in all laboratories. Genotyping by RT-ddPCR offers an alternative to rapidly detect VOCs through discrimination of specific alleles such as N501Y, which is associated with increased transmissibility and virulence. Here we describe the first cases of the B.1.1.7 lineage of SARS-CoV-2 detected in Washington State by using a combination of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), RT-ddPCR, and next-generation sequencing. We initially screened 1035 samples positive for SARS-CoV-2 by our CDC-based laboratory-developed assay using ThermoFisher's multiplex RT-PCR COVID-19 assay over four weeks from late December 2020 to early January 2021. S gene target failures (SGTF) were subsequently assayed by RT-ddPCR to confirm four mutations within the S gene associated with the B.1.1.7 lineage: a deletion at amino acid (AA) 69-70 (ACATGT), deletion at AA 145, (TTA), N501Y mutation (TAT), and S982A mutation (GCA). All four targets were detected in two specimens; follow-up sequencing revealed a total of 9 mutations in the S gene and phylogenetic clustering within the B.1.1.7 lineage. Next, we continued screening samples for SGTF detecting 23 additional B.1.1.7 variants by RT-ddPCR and confirmed by sequencing. As VOCs become increasingly prevalent, molecular diagnostic tools like RT-ddPCR can be utilized to quickly, accurately, and sensitively distinguish more contagious lineages of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Alleles , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genotype , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mutation , Phylogeny , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Time Factors , Washington/epidemiology
15.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(10): e0052721, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430152

ABSTRACT

Determinants of protective immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection require the development of well-standardized, reproducible antibody assays. This need has led to the emergence of a variety of neutralization assays. Head-to-head evaluation of different SARS-CoV-2 neutralization platforms could facilitate comparisons across studies and laboratories. Five neutralization assays were compared using 40 plasma samples from convalescent individuals with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): four cell-based systems using either live recombinant SARS-CoV-2 or pseudotyped viral particles created with lentivirus (LV) or vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) packaging and one surrogate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based test that measures inhibition of the spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) binding its receptor human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2). Vero cells, Vero E6 cells, HEK293T cells expressing hACE2, and TZM-bl cells expressing hACE2 and transmembrane serine protease 2 were tested. All cell-based assays showed 50% neutralizing dilution (ND50) geometric mean titers (GMTs) that were highly correlated (Pearson r = 0.81 to 0.89) and ranged within 3.4-fold. The live virus assay and LV pseudovirus assays with HEK293T/hACE2 cells showed very similar mean titers, 141 and 178, respectively. ND50 titers positively correlated with plasma IgG targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and RBD (r = 0.63 to 0.89), but moderately correlated with nucleoprotein IgG (r = 0.46 to 0.73). ND80 GMTs mirrored ND50 data and showed similar correlation between assays and with IgG concentrations. The VSV pseudovirus assay and LV pseudovirus assay with HEK293T/hACE2 cells in low- and high-throughput versions were calibrated against the WHO SARS-CoV-2 IgG standard. High concordance between the outcomes of cell-based assays with live and pseudotyped virions enables valid cross-study comparison using these platforms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells
16.
J Clin Virol ; 140: 104869, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385865

ABSTRACT

Mass molecular diagnostic testing for the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has drawn on laboratory developed tests, commercial assays, and fully-automated platforms to accommodate widespread demand. The Alinity m instrument by Abbott is capable of detecting several clinically relevant pathogens and has recently received FDA emergency use authorization for SARS-CoV-2 molecular testing. The Alinity m performs automatic sample preparation, RT-PCR assembly, amplification, detection, and result calculation in under two hours. Here, we validate the performance characteristics of the Alinity m SARS-CoV-2 assay in comparison with the Roche cobas 6800 and Hologic Panther Fusion platforms. Across 178 positive and 195 negative nasopharyngeal swab specimens (CT range 14.30-38.84), the Alinity m detected one additional positive specimen that was found to be negative on the Roche cobas 6800 (PPA 100%, NPA 99.5%). Across a separate set of 30 positive and 174 negative nasopharyngeal swab specimens (CT range 14.1-38.5), the Alinity m had 100% positive and negative agreement with the Hologic Panther Fusion. Using SeraCare SARS-CoV-2 RNA standards, the assay limit of detection was verified to be two-fold more sensitive than the parameters stated by the SARS-CoV-2 AMP kit package insert, at 50 virus copies/mL. Assay specificity was 100% over 20 specimens positive for other respiratory viruses and intraday precision was 100% concordant with <2% CV. These data illst u illustrate the Abbott Alinity m system's high concordance with reference assays and analyti high analytical for SARS-CoV-2 molecular detection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/standards , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Humans , Limit of Detection , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(9): e0098921, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365134

ABSTRACT

With the availability of widespread SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, high-throughput quantitative anti-spike protein serological testing will likely become increasingly important. Here, we investigated the performance characteristics of the recently FDA-authorized semiquantitative anti-spike protein AdviseDx SARS-CoV-2 IgG II assay compared to the FDA-authorized anti-nucleocapsid protein Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG, Roche Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2-S, EuroImmun anti-SARS-CoV-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and GenScript surrogate virus neutralization assays and examined the humoral response associated with vaccination, natural protection, and vaccine breakthrough infection. The AdviseDx assay had a clinical sensitivity at 14 days after symptom onset or 10 days after PCR detection of 95.6% (65/68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 87.8 to 98.8%), with two discrepant individuals seroconverting shortly thereafter. The AdviseDx assay demonstrated 100% positive percent agreement with the four other assays examined using the same symptom onset or PCR detection cutoffs. Using a recently available WHO international standard for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody, we provide assay unit conversion factors to international units for each of the assays examined. We performed a longitudinal survey of healthy vaccinated individuals, finding that median AdviseDx immunoglobulin levels peaked 7 weeks after first vaccine dose at approximately 4,000 IU/ml. Intriguingly, among the five assays examined, there was no significant difference in antigen binding level or neutralizing activity between two seropositive patients protected against SARS-CoV-2 infection in a previously described fishing vessel outbreak and five health care workers who experienced vaccine breakthrough of SARS-CoV-2 infection, all with variants of concern. These findings suggest that protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection cannot currently be predicted exclusively using in vitro antibody assays against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 spike. Further work is required to establish protective correlates for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 1: 100018, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309321

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first confirmed case of SARS-CoV-2 in North America was identified in Washington state on January 21, 2020. We aimed to quantify the number and temporal trends of out-of-state introductions of SARS-CoV-2 into Washington. METHODS: We conducted a molecular epidemiologic analysis of 11,422 publicly available whole genome SARS-CoV-2 sequences from GISAID sampled between December 2019 and September 2020. We used maximum parsimony ancestral state reconstruction methods on time-calibrated phylogenies to enumerate introductions/exports, their likely geographic source (US, non-US, and between eastern and western Washington), and estimated date of introduction. To incorporate phylogenetic uncertainty into our estimates, we conducted 5,000 replicate analyses by generating 25 random time-stratified samples of non-Washington reference sequences, 20 random polytomy resolutions, and 10 random resolutions of the reconstructed ancestral state. FINDINGS: We estimated a minimum 287 introductions (range 244-320) into Washington and 204 exported lineages (range 188-227) of SARS-CoV-2 out of Washington. Introductions began in mid-January and peaked on March 29, 2020. Lineages with the Spike D614G variant accounted for the majority (88%) of introductions. Overall, 61% (range 55-65%) of introductions into Washington likely originated from a source elsewhere within the US, while the remaining 39% (range 35-45%) likely originated from outside of the US. Intra-state transmission accounted for 65% and 28% of introductions into eastern and western Washington, respectively. INTERPRETATION: The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Washington was continually seeded by a large number of introductions. Our findings highlight the importance of genomic surveillance to monitor for emerging variants due to high levels of inter- and intra-state transmission of SARS-CoV-2. FUNDING SOURCE: None.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL