Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 30
Filter
1.
Land ; 12(1):158, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2166689

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been a great challenge to society, the economy, and population health. It has become a significant public health event and social problem. Exploring the impact of COVID-19 on the accessibility of outdoor sports venues is crucial for people's health. Based on spatial theory, the quantitative and qualitative analyses of outdoor sports venues' spatial distribution and accessibility were conducted, and the epidemic's impact on them was analyzed. The results show that: (1) The existing outdoor sports venues in Nanchang show a distribution pattern of 'sparse in the north and south, and strong aggregation in the middle';. (2) As a result of the epidemic, the center of the standard deviation ellipse in outdoor sports sites shifted to the southeast, while the number of open venues decreased by 68%. (3) Before COVID-19, the entire study area could achieve full coverage by driving for 17 min, riding for 70 min, or walking for 119 min. After COVID-19, the time increased to 29, 109, and 193 min, respectively. (4) Under the high-risk scenario of COVID-19, the average walking time for people to reach outdoor sports venues increased from 6.2 min to 14.0 min in the study area, with an increase of 126%. Finally, according to the findings of this study, recommendations were made on how government departments could build or re-open outdoor sports venues during and after this epidemic.

2.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 876227, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142087

ABSTRACT

Background: The accurate detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the key to control Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). The performance of different antibody detection methods for diagnosis of COVID-19 is inconclusive. Methods: Between 16 February and 28 February 2020, 384 confirmed COVID-19 patients and 142 healthy controls were recruited. 24 different serological tests, including 4 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (EIAs), 10 chemiluminescent immunoassays (CLIAs), and 10 lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs), were simultaneously performed. Results: The sensitivities of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies with different reagents ranged from 75 to 95.83% and 46.09 to 92.45%, respectively. The specificities of both anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM were relatively high and comparable among different reagents, ranged from 88.03 to 100%. The area under the curves (AUCs) of different tests ranged from 0.733 to 0.984, and the AUCs of EIAs or CLIAs were significantly higher than those of LFIAs. The sensitivities of both IgG and IgM gradually increased with increase of onset time. After 3-4 weeks, the sensitivities of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG were maintained at a certain level but the sensitivities of IgM were gradually decreased. Six COVID-19 patients who displayed negative anti-SARS-CoV-2 results were associated with the factors such as older age, having underlying diseases, and using immunosuppressant. Conclusion: Besides the purpose of assessing the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the population, SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays may have an adjunct role in the diagnosis and exclusion of COVID-19, especially by using high-throughput technologies (EIAs or CLIAs).

3.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2148500, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123049

ABSTRACT

Taiwan's coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine procurement was delayed until October 2021. With the vaccine's introduction in Taiwan, the public will have an opportunity to choose vaccination. Choosing to vaccinate involves considerations regarding the trade-off between the protective power of the vaccine and its side effects, which is a planned behavior. College students have considered high-risk objects for COVID-19 outbreaks given their lifestyle, and their efficient vaccination may help reduce mutual infection between college students and the general public. This study obtained 707 valid questionnaires from Taiwan college students (20 years old and above). We investigated several factors during our college students' survey regarding vaccination. Among this integrated TPB model, "Attitude," "Subjective Norm," "Perceived Behavioral Control," and "COVID-19 Information Asymmetry" had a positive impact on vaccination "Behavioral Intention." COVID-19 information asymmetry positively and significantly affected behavioral intention through perceived behavioral control, while perceived behavioral control had a mediating effect. To promote the behavioral intention of college students to choose COVID-19 vaccination, public and private departments for epidemic prevention must aim to overcome the self-efficacy barriers of perceived behavioral control and promote the primary group influence effect of subjective norm and the self-interest factor of attitude. Governments and NGOs should also ensure prompt and accurate transmission of epidemic and vaccine information and actively investigate and prohibit misleading details from unknown sources and no scientific basis. Such a policy will generate trust, effectively increasing the vaccination rate and reducing cluster infection.

4.
Radiation physics and chemistry (Oxford, England : 1993) ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2045727

ABSTRACT

Beginning with the outbreak of COVID-19 at the dawn of 2020, the continuing spread of the pandemic has challenged the healthcare market and the supply chain of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) around the world. Moreover, the emergence of the variants of COVID-19 occurring in waves threatens the sufficient supply of PPE. Among the various types of PPE, N95 Respirators, surgical masks, and medical gowns are the most consumed and thus have a high potential for a serious shortage during such emergencies. Considering the unanticipated demand for PPE during a pandemic, re-processing of used PPE is one approach to continue to protect the health of first responders and healthcare personnel. This paper evaluates the viability and efficacy of using FDA-approved electron beam (eBeam) sterilization technology (ISO 11137) to re-process used PPE. PPEs including 3M N95 Respirators, Proxima Sirus gowns, and face shields were eBeam irradiated in different media (air, argon) over a dose range of 0–200 kGy. Several tests were then performed to examine surface properties, mechanical properties, functionality performance, discoloration phenomenon, and liquid barrier performance. The results show a reduction of filtration efficiency to about 63.6% in the N95 Respirator;however, charge regeneration may improve the re-processed efficiency. Additionally, mechanical degradation was observed in Proxima Sirus gown with increasing dose up to 100 kGy. However, no mechanical degradation was observed in the face shields after 10 times donning and doffing. Apart from the face shield, N95 Respirators and Proxima Sirus gown both show significant mechanical degradation with ebeam dose over sterilization doses (>25 kGy), indicating that eBeam technology is not appropriate for the re-processing these PPEs.

5.
Frontiers in microbiology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999647

ABSTRACT

Background The accurate detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the key to control Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). The performance of different antibody detection methods for diagnosis of COVID-19 is inconclusive. Methods Between 16 February and 28 February 2020, 384 confirmed COVID-19 patients and 142 healthy controls were recruited. 24 different serological tests, including 4 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (EIAs), 10 chemiluminescent immunoassays (CLIAs), and 10 lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs), were simultaneously performed. Results The sensitivities of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies with different reagents ranged from 75 to 95.83% and 46.09 to 92.45%, respectively. The specificities of both anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM were relatively high and comparable among different reagents, ranged from 88.03 to 100%. The area under the curves (AUCs) of different tests ranged from 0.733 to 0.984, and the AUCs of EIAs or CLIAs were significantly higher than those of LFIAs. The sensitivities of both IgG and IgM gradually increased with increase of onset time. After 3–4 weeks, the sensitivities of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG were maintained at a certain level but the sensitivities of IgM were gradually decreased. Six COVID-19 patients who displayed negative anti-SARS-CoV-2 results were associated with the factors such as older age, having underlying diseases, and using immunosuppressant. Conclusion Besides the purpose of assessing the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the population, SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays may have an adjunct role in the diagnosis and exclusion of COVID-19, especially by using high-throughput technologies (EIAs or CLIAs).

6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4958, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000890

ABSTRACT

Omicron SARS-CoV-2 is rapidly spreading worldwide. To delineate the impact of emerging mutations on spike's properties, we performed systematic structural analyses on apo Omicron spike and its complexes with human ACE2 or S309 neutralizing antibody (NAb) by cryo-EM. The Omicron spike preferentially adopts the one-RBD-up conformation both before and after ACE2 binding, which is in sharp contrast to the orchestrated conformational changes to create more up-RBDs upon ACE2 binding as observed in the prototype and other four variants of concern (VOCs). Furthermore, we found that S371L, S373P and S375F substitutions enhance the stability of the one-RBD-up conformation to prevent exposing more up-RBDs triggered by ACE2 binding. The increased stability of the one-RBD-up conformation restricts the accessibility of S304 NAb, which targets a cryptic epitope in the closed conformation, thus facilitating the immune evasion by Omicron. These results expand our understanding of Omicron spike's conformation, receptor binding and antibody evasion mechanism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Humans , Mutation , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
Immunity ; 55(8): 1501-1514.e3, 2022 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885835

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has presented significant challenges to current antibodies and vaccines. Herein, we systematically compared the efficacy of 50 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), covering the seven identified epitope classes of the SARS-CoV-2 RBD, against Omicron sub-variants BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2, and BA.3. Binding and pseudovirus-based neutralizing assays revealed that 37 of the 50 mAbs lost neutralizing activities, whereas the others displayed variably decreased activities against the four Omicron sub-variants. BA.2 was found to be more sensitive to RBD-5 antibodies than the other sub-variants. Furthermore, a quaternary complex structure of BA.1 RBD with three mAbs showing different neutralizing potencies against Omicron provided a basis for understanding the immune evasion of Omicron sub-variants and revealed the lack of G446S mutation accounting for the sensitivity of BA.2 to RBD-5 mAbs. Our results may guide the application of the available mAbs and facilitate the development of universal therapeutic antibodies and vaccines against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Envelope Proteins
8.
J Virol ; 96(12): e0068622, 2022 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874505

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a γ-coronavirus, causes the economically important poultry disease infectious bronchitis. Cellular stress response is an effective antiviral strategy that leads to stress granule (SG) formation. Previous studies suggested that SGs were involved in the antiviral activity of host cells to limit viral propagation. Here, we aimed to delineate the molecular mechanisms regulating the SG response to pathogenic IBV strain infection. We found that most chicken embryo kidney (CEK) cells formed no SGs during IBV infection and IBV replication inhibited arsenite-induced SG formation. This inhibition was not caused by changes in the integrity or abundance of SG proteins during infection. IBV nonstructural protein 15 (Nsp15) endoribonuclease activity suppressed SG formation. Regardless of whether Nsp15 was expressed alone, with recombinant viral infection with Newcastle disease virus as a vector, or with EndoU-deficient IBV, the Nsp15 endoribonuclease activity was the main factor inhibiting SG formation. Importantly, uridine-specific endoribonuclease (EndoU)-deficient IBV infection induced colocalization of IBV N protein/dsRNA and SG-associated protein TIA1 in infected cells. Additionally, overexpressing TIA1 in CEK cells suppressed IBV replication and may be a potential antiviral factor for impairing viral replication. These data provide a novel foundation for future investigations of the mechanisms by which coronavirus endoribonuclease activity affects viral replication. IMPORTANCE Endoribonuclease is conserved in coronaviruses and affects viral replication and pathogenicity. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a γ-coronavirus, infects respiratory, renal, and reproductive systems, causing millions of dollars in lost revenue to the poultry industry worldwide annually. Mutating the viral endoribonuclease poly(U) resulted in SG formation, and TIA1 protein colocalized with the viral N protein and dsRNA, thus damaging IBV replication. These results suggest a new antiviral target design strategy for coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Endoribonucleases , Infectious bronchitis virus , Stress Granules , Virus Replication , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chick Embryo , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Endoribonucleases/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/enzymology , Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Poultry Diseases/virology , RNA, Double-Stranded
9.
Journal of Asian Public Policy ; : 1-25, 2022.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1868209
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820291

ABSTRACT

During the sustained COVID-19 pandemic, global mass vaccination to achieve herd immunity can prevent further viral spread and mutation. A protein subunit vaccine that is safe, effective, stable, has few storage restrictions, and involves a liable manufacturing process would be advantageous to distribute around the world. Here, we designed and produced a recombinant spike (S)-Trimer that is maintained in a prefusion state and exhibits a high ACE2 binding affinity. Rodents received different doses of S-Trimer (0.5, 5, or 20 µg) antigen formulated with aluminum hydroxide (Alum) or an emulsion-type adjuvant (SWE), or no adjuvant. After two vaccinations, the antibody response, T-cell responses, and number of follicular helper T-cells (Tfh) or germinal center (GC) B cells were assessed in mice; the protective efficacy was evaluated on a Syrian hamster infection model. The mouse studies demonstrated that adjuvating the S-Trimer with SWE induced a potent humoral immune response and Th1-biased cellular immune responses (in low dose) that were superior to those induced by Alum. In the Syrian hamster studies, when S-Trimer was adjuvanted with SWE, higher levels of neutralizing antibodies were induced against live SARS-CoV-2 from the original lineage and against the emergence of variants (Beta or Delta) with a slightly decreased potency. In addition, the SWE adjuvant demonstrated a dose-sparing effect; thus, a lower dose of S-Trimer as an antigen (0.5 µg) can induce comparable antisera and provide complete protection from viral infection. These data support the utility of SWE as an adjuvant to enhance the immunogenicity of the S-Trimer vaccine, which is feasible for further clinical testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Th1 Cells , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Cricetinae , Emulsions , Humans , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology
11.
Nat Methods ; 19(4): 479-485, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764194

ABSTRACT

The recent development of solvent- and polymer-based brain-clearing techniques has advanced our ability to visualize the mammalian nervous system in three dimensions. However, it remains challenging to image the mammalian body en bloc. Here we developed HYBRiD (hydrogel-based reinforcement of three-dimensional imaging solvent-cleared organs (DISCO)), by recombining components of organic- and polymer-based clearing pipelines. We achieved high transparency and protein retention, as well as compatibility with direct fluorescent imaging and immunostaining in cleared mammalian bodies. Using parvalbumin- and somatostatin-Cre models, we demonstrated the utility of HYBRiD for whole-body imaging of genetically encoded fluorescent reporters without antibody enhancement of signals in newborn and juvenile mice. Using K18-hACE2 transgenic mice, HYBRiD enabled perfusion-free clearing and visualization of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a whole mouse chest, revealing macroscopic and microscopic features of viral pathology in the same sample. HYBRiD offers a simple and universal solution to visualize large heterogeneous body parts or entire animals for basic and translational research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydrogels , Animals , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Mammals , Mice , Polymers , SARS-CoV-2 , Solvents
12.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262818, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705625

ABSTRACT

This paper reports a plasma reactive oxygen species (ROS) method for decontamination of PPE (N95 respirators and gowns) using a surface DBD source to meet the increased need of PPE due to the COVID-19 pandemic. A system is presented consisting of a mobile trailer (35 m3) along with several Dielectric barrier discharge sources installed for generating a plasma ROS level to achieve viral decontamination. The plasma ROS treated respirators were evaluated at the CDC NPPTL, and additional PPE specimens and material functionality testing were performed at Texas A&M. The effects of decontamination on the performance of respirators were tested using a modified version of the NIOSH Standard Test Procedure TEB-APR-STP-0059 to determine particulate filtration efficiency. The treated Prestige Ameritech and BYD brand N95 respirators show filtration efficiencies greater than 95% and maintain their integrity. The overall mechanical and functionality tests for plasma ROS treated PPE show no significant variations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Reactive Oxygen Species , Equipment Reuse , Humans , N95 Respirators
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 697622, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518482

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The longitudinal and systematic evaluation of immunity in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is rarely reported. Methods: Parameters involved in innate, adaptive, and humoral immunity were continuously monitored in COVID-19 patients from onset of illness until 45 days after symptom onset. Results: This study enrolled 27 mild, 47 severe, and 46 deceased COVID-19 patients. Generally, deceased patients demonstrated a gradual increase of neutrophils and IL-6 but a decrease of lymphocytes and platelets after the onset of illness. Specifically, sustained low numbers of CD8+ T cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells were noted in deceased patients, while these cells gradually restored in mild and severe patients. Furthermore, deceased patients displayed a rapid increase of HLA-DR expression on CD4+ T cells in the early phase, but with a low level of overall CD45RO and HLA-DR expressions on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, respectively. Notably, in the early phase, deceased patients showed a lower level of plasma cells and antigen-specific IgG, but higher expansion of CD16+CD14+ proinflammatory monocytes and HLA-DR-CD14+ monocytic-myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) than mild or severe patients. Among these immunological parameters, M-MDSCs showed the best performance in predicting COVID-19 mortality, when using a cutoff value of ≥10%. Cluster analysis found a typical immunological pattern in deceased patients on day 9 after onset, which was characterized as the increase of inflammatory markers (M-MDSCs, neutrophils, CD16+CD14+ monocytes, and IL-6) but a decrease of host immunity markers. Conclusions: This study systemically characterizes the kinetics of immunity of COVID-19, highlighting the importance of immunity in patient prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/classification , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokines/blood , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
14.
mBio ; 12(6): e0297521, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518123

ABSTRACT

Several severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants have arisen that exhibit increased viral transmissibility and partial evasion of immunity induced by natural infection and vaccination. To address the specific antibody targets that were affected by recent viral variants, we generated 43 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from 10 convalescent donors that bound three distinct domains of the SARS-CoV-2 spike. Viral variants harboring mutations at K417, E484, and N501 could escape most of the highly potent antibodies against the receptor binding domain (RBD). Despite this, we identified 12 neutralizing mAbs against three distinct regions of the spike protein that neutralize SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern (VOCs), including B.1.1.7 (alpha), P.1 (gamma), and B.1.617.2 (delta). Notably, antibodies targeting distinct epitopes could neutralize discrete variants, suggesting that different variants may have evolved to disrupt the binding of particular neutralizing antibody classes. These results underscore that humans exposed to the first pandemic wave of prototype SARS-CoV-2 possess neutralizing antibodies against current variants and that it is critical to induce antibodies targeting multiple distinct epitopes of the spike that can neutralize emerging variants of concern. IMPORTANCE We describe the binding and neutralization properties of a new set of human monoclonal antibodies derived from memory B cells of 10 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent donors in the first pandemic wave of prototype SARS-CoV-2. There were 12 antibodies targeting distinct epitopes on spike, including two sites on the RBD and one on the N-terminal domain (NTD), that displayed cross-neutralization of VOCs, for which distinct antibody targets could neutralize discrete variants. This work underlines that natural infection by SARS-CoV-2 induces effective cross-neutralization against only some VOCs and supports the need for COVID-19 vaccination for robust induction of neutralizing antibodies targeting multiple epitopes of the spike protein to combat the current SARS-CoV-2 VOCs and any others that might emerge in the future.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/blood , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , Convalescence , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Plasma/immunology , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
15.
J Mol Cell Biol ; 13(10): 748-759, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483467

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, has become a global public health crisis. Some patients who have recovered from COVID-19 subsequently test positive again for SARS-CoV-2 RNA after discharge from hospital. How such retest-positive (RTP) patients become infected again is not known. In this study, 30 RTP patients, 20 convalescent patients, and 20 healthy controls were enrolled for the analysis of immunological characteristics of their peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We found that absolute numbers of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and natural killer cells were not substantially decreased in RTP patients, but the expression of activation markers on these cells was significantly reduced. The percentage of granzyme B-producing T cells was also lower in RTP patients than in convalescent patients. Through transcriptome sequencing, we demonstrated that high expression of inhibitor of differentiation 1 (ID1) and low expression of interferon-induced transmembrane protein 10 (IFITM10) were associated with insufficient activation of immune cells and the occurrence of RTP. These findings provide insight into the impaired immune function associated with COVID-19 and the pathogenesis of RTP, which may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying RTP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , Reinfection/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Transcriptome/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antigens, CD/genetics , Antigens, CD/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Case-Control Studies , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1/genetics , Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Readmission , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Reinfection/genetics , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
16.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; 47(8): 1279-1289, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450327

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Through the method of network pharmacology, the active components and targets of Shenqi Wan (SQW) were excavated, the relationship with novel Coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) was discussed, and the possible mechanism of SQW in the treatment of COVID-19 was revealed from the aspects of multicomponents, multitargets, and multipathways. METHODS: Firstly, the active components of SQW were screened from traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform and the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopeia, and the related targets of the components were obtained. Then the disease targets related to COVID-19 were screened from GeneCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. Venny was used to map the relationship between component-target and disease-target, and String was used to analyze the interaction of common targets. The network was constructed and analyzed by Cytoscape, the function of Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) genes was enriched by Metascape, and the molecular docking was verified by CB-Dock. RESULTS: Finally, 45 active components of SQW were obtained, and 72 potential targets were related to COVID-19, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), interleukin (IL)-6, nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) and, C-reactive protein (CRP),may be the key targets. GO enrichment of 1715 projects, such as lipopolysaccharide stress response, active oxygen metabolism, positive regulation of cell migration, and other GO enrichment. About 136 KEGG pathways, tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α signaling pathway were obtained. Molecular docking showed that kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin, astragaloside, calyx isoflavone glucoside, matrine, and other COVID-19-related targets such as ACE2, chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro), papain-like protease (PLpro), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) have good binding ability. CONCLUSION: According to the above results, it is suggested that SQW may play a role in the treatment of COVID-19 by directly or indirectly combining kaempferol, quercetin, and luteolin with ACE2, 3CLpro, PLpro, and PTGS2 to regulate multiple biological functions and signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Luteolin , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Molecular Docking Simulation , Quercetin
17.
Drug Evaluation Research ; 43(9):1685-1692, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1395260

ABSTRACT

Objective: Analyzed the prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for patients diagnosed with Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (COVID-19), and the medication patterns were statistically analyzed to provide reference for the treatment of COVID-19.

19.
EXCLI J ; 20: 894-906, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261489

ABSTRACT

Sleep is believed to benefit the host defense against pathogens. We aimed to investigate the association of sleep quality with clinical outcomes among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 205 adult hospitalized patients with diagnosed moderate COVID-19, with follow-up until hospital discharge or death. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) assessed sleep quality before and after infection. The primary outcome was the incidence of severe or critical pneumonia, and the secondary outcomes were duration of hospital stay and laboratory measurements during the follow up. Among the 205 included hospitalized patients, 185 (90.2 %) experienced poorer sleep quality after infection than before according to the PSQI score, and 25 (12.2 %) developed severe or critical pneumonia during follow-up. In Cox regression models, the adjusted hazard ratio of developing severe or critical pneumonia associated with each 1 score increment in the PSQI score before and after infection was 1.23 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.39) and 1.35 (95 % CI: 1.08, 1.67), respectively. Poorer sleep quality was also significantly associated with a prolonged hospital stay and more serious dysregulations in immune system indicated by several laboratory markers. Poorer sleep quality, either in the daily time or after infection with SARS-CoV-2, was associated with worse clinical outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of good sleep in confronting the emerging pandemic of COVID-19.

20.
Immunity ; 54(6): 1290-1303.e7, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237724

ABSTRACT

Dissecting the evolution of memory B cells (MBCs) against SARS-CoV-2 is critical for understanding antibody recall upon secondary exposure. Here, we used single-cell sequencing to profile SARS-CoV-2-reactive B cells in 38 COVID-19 patients. Using oligo-tagged antigen baits, we isolated B cells specific to the SARS-CoV-2 spike, nucleoprotein (NP), open reading frame 8 (ORF8), and endemic human coronavirus (HCoV) spike proteins. SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific cells were enriched in the memory compartment of acutely infected and convalescent patients several months post symptom onset. With severe acute infection, substantial populations of endemic HCoV-reactive antibody-secreting cells were identified and possessed highly mutated variable genes, signifying preexisting immunity. Finally, MBCs exhibited pronounced maturation to NP and ORF8 over time, especially in older patients. Monoclonal antibodies against these targets were non-neutralizing and non-protective in vivo. These findings reveal antibody adaptation to non-neutralizing intracellular antigens during infection, emphasizing the importance of vaccination for inducing neutralizing spike-specific MBCs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibody Formation/genetics , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Computational Biology/methods , Cross Reactions/immunology , Epitope Mapping , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/genetics , Immunologic Memory , Male , Neutralization Tests , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Transcriptome
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL