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1.
JMIR Hum Factors ; 9(2): e35187, 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, patient portals and their message platforms allowed remote access to health care. Utilization patterns in patient messaging during the COVID-19 crisis have not been studied thoroughly. In this work, we propose characterizing patients and their use of asynchronous virtual care for COVID-19 via a retrospective analysis of patient portal messages. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to perform a retrospective analysis of portal messages to probe asynchronous patient responses to the COVID-19 crisis. METHODS: We collected over 2 million patient-generated messages (PGMs) at Mayo Clinic during February 1 to August 31, 2020. We analyzed descriptive statistics on PGMs related to COVID-19 and incorporated patients' sociodemographic factors into the analysis. We analyzed the PGMs on COVID-19 in terms of COVID-19-related care (eg, COVID-19 symptom self-assessment and COVID-19 tests and results) and other health issues (eg, appointment cancellation, anxiety, and depression). RESULTS: The majority of PGMs on COVID-19 pertained to COVID-19 symptom self-assessment (42.50%) and COVID-19 tests and results (30.84%). The PGMs related to COVID-19 symptom self-assessment and COVID-19 test results had dynamic patterns and peaks similar to the newly confirmed cases in the United States and in Minnesota. The trend of PGMs related to COVID-19 care plans paralleled trends in newly hospitalized cases and deaths. After an initial peak in March, the PGMs on issues such as appointment cancellations and anxiety regarding COVID-19 displayed a declining trend. The majority of message senders were 30-64 years old, married, female, White, or urban residents. This majority was an even higher proportion among patients who sent portal messages on COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, patients increased portal messaging utilization to address health care issues about COVID-19 (in particular, symptom self-assessment and tests and results). Trends in message usage closely followed national trends in new cases and hospitalizations. There is a wide disparity for minority and rural populations in the use of PGMs for addressing the COVID-19 crisis.

2.
J Evid Based Med ; 15(1): 30-38, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784678

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Qingjin Yiqi granules (QJYQ) on post-COVID-19 condition (PCC). METHOD: Patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to two groups, the QJYQ group received QJYQ combined with standard rehabilitation treatments (SRTs) and the control group only received SRTs. The treatment course was 14 days. The primary outcomes were modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scale and Borg scale, while the secondary outcomes included symptoms score and 6-minute walking distance (6MWD). The safety outcome was the incidence of adverse events. RESULTS: A total of 388 patients with PCC were enrolled and randomly assigned to the QJYQ group (n = 194) and the control group (n = 194). Compared to the controls, the mMRC scale was improved in the QJYQ group, which was better than that of the control group [ß (95%CI): -0.626 (-1.101, -0.151), p = 0.010]. A significant improvement in Borg scale was also observed in the QJYQ group compared to the control group [ß (95%CI): -0.395(-0.744, -0.046), p = 0.026]. There was no statistically significant difference in symptoms score and 6MWD between the two groups (p = 0.293, p = 0.724). No treatment-related adverse events were observed in either group. CONCLUSIONS: QJYQ can bring benefits to patients with PCC, mainly in the improvement of breathlessness and fatigue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Treatment Outcome
3.
J Rural Health ; 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731215

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Rural populations are disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. We characterized urban-rural disparities in patient portal messaging utilization for COVID-19, and, of those who used the portal during its early stage in the Midwest. METHODS: We collected over 1 million portal messages generated by midwestern Mayo Clinic patients from February to August 2020. We analyzed patient-generated messages (PGMs) on COVID-19 by urban-rural locality and incorporated patients' sociodemographic factors into the analysis. FINDINGS: The urban-rural ratio of portal users, message senders, and COVID-19 message senders was 1.18, 1.31, and 1.79, indicating greater use among urban patients. The urban-rural ratio (1.69) of PGMs on COVID-19 was higher than that (1.43) of general PGMs. The urban-rural ratios of messaging were 1.72-1.85 for COVID-19-related care and 1.43-1.66 for other health care issues on COVID-19. Compared with urban patients, rural patients sent fewer messages for COVID-19 diagnosis and treatment but more messages for other reasons related to COVID-19-related health care (eg, isolation and anxiety). The frequent senders of COVID-19-related messages among rural patients were 40+ years old, women, married, and White. CONCLUSIONS: In this Midwest health system, rural patients were less likely to use patient online services during a pandemic and their reasons for its use differ from urban patients. Results suggest opportunities for increasing equity in rural patient engagement in patient portals (in particular, minority populations) for COVID-19. Public health intervention strategies could target reasons why rural patients might seek health care in a pandemic, such as social isolation and anxiety.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312708

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic is still spreading rapidly around the world. Recent cases with prolonged detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA have been successively reported and the phenomenon of false-negative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results of SARS-CoV-2 RNA or “repositive” was also described in patients with COVID-19. Case presentation A 69-year-old female with hypertension, total hysterectomy for hysteromyoma and suspected lung tumor presented with moderate COVID-19 symptoms was testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR when she travelled from USA to China. The patient required second and third re-hospitalization due to repositive SARS-CoV-2 test results of throat swaps during post-charge solitary isolation and observation. The serum SARS-CoV-2-IgG decayed rapidly and disappeared on illness day 139 when the throat swab was still positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Finally the virus shedding lasted at least146 days (the last positive test result of throat swap on illness day 146 and the first true-negative test result on illness day 151) from her initial positive test. Conclusions: Prolonged viral shedding of SARS-CoV RNA is prone to occur in an immunocompromised host. With the change of host immune status, SARS-CoV-2 detection can be repeatedly positive. The SARS-CoV-2-IgG may decrease rapidly and disappear before the virus removal, indicating there may be certain limitations on the protective effect of antibody against SARS-CoV-2 which deserves attention of clinicians.

5.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(1): e17273, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patient-clinician secure messaging is an important function in patient portals and enables patients and clinicians to communicate on a wide spectrum of issues in a timely manner. With its growing adoption and patient engagement, it is time to comprehensively study the secure messages and user behaviors in order to improve patient-centered care. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to analyze the secure messages sent by patients and clinicians in a large multispecialty health system at Mayo Clinic, Rochester. METHODS: We performed message-based, sender-based, and thread-based analyses of more than 5 million secure messages between 2010 and 2017. We summarized the message volumes, patient and clinician population sizes, message counts per patient or clinician, as well as the trends of message volumes and user counts over the years. In addition, we calculated the time distribution of clinician-sent messages to understand their workloads at different times of a day. We also analyzed the time delay in clinician responses to patient messages to assess their communication efficiency and the back-and-forth rounds to estimate the communication complexity. RESULTS: During 2010-2017, the patient portal at Mayo Clinic, Rochester experienced a significant growth in terms of the count of patient users and the total number of secure messages sent by patients and clinicians. Three clinician categories, namely "physician-primary care," "registered nurse-specialty," and "physician-specialty," bore the majority of message volume increase. The patient portal also demonstrated growing trends in message counts per patient and clinician. The "nurse practitioner or physician assistant-primary care" and "physician-primary care" categories had the heaviest per-clinician workload each year. Most messages by the clinicians were sent from 7 AM to 5 PM during a day. Yet, between 5 PM and 7 PM, the physicians sent 7.0% (95,785/1,377,006) of their daily messages, and the nurse practitioner or physician assistant sent 5.4% (22,121/408,526) of their daily messages. The clinicians replied to 72.2% (1,272,069/1,761,739) patient messages within 1 day and 90.6% (1,595,702/1,761,739) within 3 days. In 95.1% (1,499,316/1,576,205) of the message threads, the patients communicated with their clinicians back and forth for no more than 4 rounds. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found steady increases in patient adoption of the secure messaging system and the average workload per clinician over 8 years. However, most clinicians responded timely to meet the patients' needs. Our study also revealed differential patient-clinician communication patterns across different practice roles and care settings. These findings suggest opportunities for care teams to optimize messaging tasks and to balance the workload for optimal efficiency.


Subject(s)
Medicine , Patient Portals , Communication , Humans , Patient Participation , Retrospective Studies
6.
Journal of multidisciplinary healthcare ; 14:3485-3495, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602540

ABSTRACT

Purpose This study investigated the association between professional quality of life, working context, and mental health outcomes among hospital personnel in Taiwan during the worldwide upsurge in COVID-19 cases. Patients and Methods We recruited 503 hospital personnel to whom we administered online questionnaires containing items from the Professional Quality of Life (ProQoL) scale, which covers compassion satisfaction (CS), burnout (BO) and compassion fatigue (CF), the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and questions on work-related variables. Data were collected from 13 July to 19 August 2020. Results The participants generally reported moderate CS and BO and low CF. Overall prevalence of mild-to-extremely-severe stress, anxiety and depression was 24.5%, 39.6% and 31.2%, respectively. Multiple logistic regression revealed that moderate-to-high BO and CF correlated with increased risks of mild-to-extremely-severe stress (OR = 4.17 and 2.23, respectively), anxiety (OR = 4.86 and 2.81, respectively) and depression (OR = 5.83 and 3.01, respectively), while moderate-to-high CS correlated with reduced risks of stress (OR = 0.53) and depression (OR = 0.45) only. There were CS and BO differences in groups categorized by marital status and profession. Anxiety increased linearly by seniority <10, 10–19 and ≥20 years (p for trend <0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, the subscales of ProQOL, BO and CF appeared to be associated with increased risks of stress, anxiety and depression among hospital personnel during the COVID-19 epidemic. A long-term contingency program may be needed to adjust work context variables and support emotional well-being of these workers.

7.
Front Digit Health ; 3: 643042, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497044

ABSTRACT

Telework has become a universal working style under the background of COVID-19. With the increased time of working at home, problems, such as lack of physical activities and prolonged sedentary behavior become more prominent. In this situation, a self-managing working pattern regulation may be the most practical way to maintain worker's well-being. To this end, this paper validated the idea of using an Internet of Things (IoT) system (a smartphone and the accompanying smartwatch) to monitor the working status in real-time so as to record the working pattern and nudge the user to have a behavior change. By using the accelerometer and gyroscope enclosed in the smartwatch worn on the right wrist, nine-channel data streams of the two sensors were sent to the paired smartphone for data preprocessing, and action recognition in real time. By considering the cooperativity and orthogonality of the data streams, a shallow convolutional neural network (CNN) model was constructed to recognize the working status from a common working routine. As preliminary research, the results of the CNN model show accurate performance [5-fold cross-validation: 0.97 recall and 0.98 precision; leave-one-out validation: 0.95 recall and 0.94 precision; (support vector machine (SVM): 0.89 recall and 0.90 precision; random forest: 0.95 recall and 0.93 precision)] for the recognition of working status, suggesting the feasibility of this fully online method. Although further validation in a more realistic working scenario should be conducted for this method, this proof-of-concept study clarifies the prospect of a user-friendly online working tracking system. With a tailored working pattern guidance, this method is expected to contribute to the workers' wellness not only during the COVID-19 pandemic but also take effect in the post-COVID-19 era.

8.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(10)2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480911

ABSTRACT

Clinical cases of allergic reaction that are due to excipients containing polyethylene glycol (PEG), a hydrophilic molecule commonly used in drug/vaccine formulations, has attracted much attention in recent years. In order to develop PEG-free adjuvants, we investigated the feasibility of natural ingredients in the human body such as hyaluronic acid in the form of hyaluronic acid-glycine cholesterol (HACH) conjugate as an excipient for vaccine formulation. Interestingly, HACH grafted with ~13 wt.% cholesterol has good water dispersity and can serve as an emulsifier to stabilize the squalene/water interfaces, yielding a milky white and isotropic emulsion (SQ@HACH) after being passed through a high-shear microfluidizer. Our results show that SQ@HACH particles possessed a unimodal average hydrodynamic diameter of approximately 190 nm measured by dynamic light scattering and exhibited good stability upon storage at 4 °C and 37 °C for over 20 weeks. The results of immunogenicity using a mouse model with ovalbumin (OVA) as the antigen revealed that SQ@HACH significantly enhanced antigen-specific immune responses, including the polarization of IgG antibodies, the cytokine secretions of T cells, and enhancement of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activation. Moreover, SQ@HACH revealed lower local inflammation and rapidly absorbing properties compared with AlPO4 after intramuscular injection in vivo, indicating the potential functions of the HA-derived conjugate as an excipient in vaccine formulations for enhancement of T cell-mediated immunity.

9.
Int Dent J ; 72(2): 236-241, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440051

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to examine changes in the number of patient visits and types of oral services in an oral emergency department from the beginning to the control stage of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Beijing. METHODS: The numbers of daily oral emergency visits from January 20 to March 24, 2020, at a dental university hospital in Beijing and daily newly confirmed COVID-19 cases in Beijing during the same period were collected and analysed. All oral emergency patient information (including sex, age, and oral diagnosis) was also collected and analysed. Patients with incomplete medical data were excluded. RESULTS: In total, 12,416 patients were included in this study. The number of daily emergency visits was negatively correlated with the number of newly confirmed local COVID-19 cases in Beijing (P < .001). The number of daily emergency visits during the COVID-19 stable period in Beijing was greater than that during the outbreak period (P < .001). Compared to those in the COVID-19 outbreak period, the percentages of females, children and adolescents, patients with acute toothache, and patients with nonurgent cases were higher in the stable period, and the numbers of patients with toothache, trauma, infection, and nonemergency conditions increased in the COVID-19 stable period (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 significantly influenced the number of patient visits and the percentages of patients with oral emergency situations in the oral emergency department. There were obvious differences in treatment seeking for oral emergencies between the COVID-19 periods in Beijing. There was an inverse relationship between daily oral emergency visits and daily confirmed COVID-19 cases in Beijing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430879

ABSTRACT

Taiwan was successful in containing the spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) in 2020. One major factor in this success was the compilation and provision of comprehensive information about the pandemic. The present study proposes a pandemic intelligence system that provides data on the number of epidemic prevention professionals in each county and city, as well as daily confirmed cases, the demographics of the confirmed cases, and available resources (negative-pressure room beds and artificial ventilation apparatuses) in hospitals. Furthermore, the system provides the location of pharmacies selling masks and their current inventories, as well as the distribution of crowds at popular tourist destinations and social-distance monitoring. The most frequently used map layer in the thematic map of the pandemic is that of crowd distribution during the study period from March 2020 until the end of the same year. The case study used in this investigation for applying the system is represented by the 4-day weekend for Tomb-Sweeping Day of 2020. Through the real-time analysis of dynamic data and the integration of intelligence, the system offers a clear insight into changes in relevant information and, thus, enables the preemptive deployment of control measures by the county/city governments regarding pandemic management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Intelligence , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan/epidemiology
11.
Int J Pharm ; 607: 121024, 2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364121

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is regarded as the most effective intervention for controlling the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The objective of this study is to provide comprehensive information on lipid squalene nanoparticle (SQ@NP)-adjuvanted COVID-19 vaccines regarding modulating immune response and enhancing vaccine efficacy. After being adjuvanted with SQ@NP, the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) subunit protein was intramuscularly (i.m.) administered to mice. Serum samples investigated by ELISA and virus neutralizing assay showed that a single-dose SQ@NP-adjuvanted S-protein vaccine can induce antigen-specific IgG and protective antibodies comparable with those induced by two doses of nonadjuvanted protein vaccine. When the mice received a boosting vaccine injection, anamnestic response was observed in the groups of adjuvanted vaccine. Furthermore, the secretion of cytokines in splenocytes, such as interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-10, was significantly enhanced after adjuvantation of S-protein vaccine with SQ@NP; however, this was not the case for the vaccine adjuvanted with conventional aluminum mineral salts. Histological examination of injection sites showed that the SQ@NP-adjuvanted vaccine was considerably well tolerated following i.m. injection in mice. These results pave the way for the performance tuning of optimal vaccine formulations against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Lipids , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Squalene
12.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 163, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309910

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies had described the health consequences of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) especially in those with severe infections after discharge from hospital. Moreover, no research had reported the health consequences in health care workers (HCWs) with COVID-19 after discharge. We aimed to investigate the health consequences in HCWs with severe COVID-19 after discharge from hospital in Hubei Province, China. METHODS: We conducted an ambidirectional cohort study in "Rehabilitation Care Project for Medical Staff Infected with COVID-19" in China. The participants were asked to complete three physical examinations (including the tests of functional fitness, antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and immunological indicators) at 153.4 (143.3, 164.8), 244.3 (232.4, 259.1), and 329.4 (319.4, 339.3) days after discharge, respectively. Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, t test, one-way ANOVA, χ2, and Fisher's exact test were used to assess the variance between two or more groups where appropriate. RESULTS: Of 333 HCWs with severe COVID-19, the HCWs' median age was 36.0 (31.0, 43.0) years, 257 (77%) were female, and 191 (57%) were nurses. Our research found that 70.4% (114/162), 48.9% (67/137), and 29.6% (37/125) of the HCWs with severe COVID-19 were considered to have not recovered their functional fitness in the first, second, and third functional fitness tests, respectively. The HCWs showed improvement in muscle strength, flexibility, and agility/dynamic balance after discharge in follow-up visits. The seropositivity of IgM (17.0% vs. 6.6%) and median titres of IgM (3.0 vs. 1.4) and IgG (60.3 vs. 45.3) in the third physical examination was higher than that in the first physical examination. In the third physical examination, there still were 42.1% and 45.9% of the HCWs had elevated levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, and 11.9% and 6.3% of the HCWs had decreased relative numbers of CD3+ T cells and CD4+ T cells. CONCLUSION: The HCWs with severe COVID-19 showed improvement in functional fitness within 1 year after discharge, active intervention should be applied to help their recovery if necessary. It is of vital significance to continue monitoring the functional fitness, antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and immunological indicators after 1 year of discharge from hospital in HCWs with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 , Exercise Test , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/rehabilitation , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , China/epidemiology , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Test/statistics & numerical data , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Functional Status , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 374, 2021 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297295

ABSTRACT

Suffering from COVID-19 and witnessing the suffering and deaths of patients with COVID-19 may place frontline healthcare workers (HCWs) at particularly high risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, few data are available on the clinical characteristics of PTSD among frontline HCWs who survived COVID-19 ("surviving HCWs" hereafter). The present study examined the prevalence, correlates, and clinical symptoms of possible PTSD in surviving HCWs 6 months after the COVID-19 outbreak in China. A total of 291 surviving HCWs and 42 age- and gender-matched COVID-19-free frontline HCWs (control group) were recruited and administered the Chinese Essen Trauma Inventory, which was used to assess the presence of possible PTSD according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Survivors' clinical data and characteristics of exposure to COVID-19 were collected via self-report questionnaires. Surviving HCWs had significantly higher rates of possible PTSD than controls (19.9% vs. 4.8%, P = 0.017). Correlates of PTSD in survivors were ICU admission (OR = 8.73, P = 0.003), >10 respiratory symptoms during the most symptomatic period of COVID-19 (OR = 3.08, P = 0.006), the residual symptom of dizziness (OR = 2.43, P = 0.013), the residual symptom of difficult breathing (OR = 2.23, P = 0.027), life in danger due to COVID-19 (OR = 16.59, P = 0.006), and exposure to other traumatic events (OR = 2.94, P = 0.035). Less commonly seen PTSD symptoms in survivors were having nightmares about the event (34.5%), suddenly feeling like they were living through the event suddenly (25.9%), being unable to remember an important part of the event (32.8%), and overalertness (31.0%). Nearly one-fifth of the surviving HCWs had possible PTSD 6 months after the COVID-19 outbreak. Mental health services for this vulnerable population should include periodic screening for PTSD, expanded social support, and, when necessary, psychotherapy and psychopharmacological treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Health Personnel , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
17.
J Biomed Inform ; 113: 103660, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972883

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 has emerged as a significant global concern, triggering harsh public health restrictions in a successful bid to curb its exponential growth. As discussion shifts towards relaxation of these restrictions, there is significant concern of second-wave resurgence. The key to managing these outbreaks is early detection and intervention, and yet there is a significant lag time associated with usage of laboratory confirmed cases for surveillance purposes. To address this, syndromic surveillance can be considered to provide a timelier alternative for first-line screening. Existing syndromic surveillance solutions are however typically focused around a known disease and have limited capability to distinguish between outbreaks of individual diseases sharing similar syndromes. This poses a challenge for surveillance of COVID-19 as its active periods tend to overlap temporally with other influenza-like illnesses. In this study we explore performing sentinel syndromic surveillance for COVID-19 and other influenza-like illnesses using a deep learning-based approach. Our methods are based on aberration detection utilizing autoencoders that leverages symptom prevalence distributions to distinguish outbreaks of two ongoing diseases that share similar syndromes, even if they occur concurrently. We first demonstrate that this approach works for detection of outbreaks of influenza, which has known temporal boundaries. We then demonstrate that the autoencoder can be trained to not alert on known and well-managed influenza-like illnesses such as the common cold and influenza. Finally, we applied our approach to 2019-2020 data in the context of a COVID-19 syndromic surveillance task to demonstrate how implementation of such a system could have provided early warning of an outbreak of a novel influenza-like illness that did not match the symptom prevalence profile of influenza and other known influenza-like illnesses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Sentinel Surveillance , COVID-19/virology , Deep Learning , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
19.
CAplus; 2020.
Preprint | CAplus | ID: ppcovidwho-2040

ABSTRACT

A review. This is an authoritative explanation by academician Zhang Bolon what are the advantages of Chinese Medicine treatment in response to the COVID-19 epidemic situation.

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