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1.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022:4303-4307, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2018749

ABSTRACT

Continuous clinical grade measurement of SpO(2) in out-of-hospital settings remains a challenge despite the widespread use of photoplethysmography (PPG) based wearable devices for health and wellness applications. This article presents two SpO(2) algorithms: PRR (pulse rate derived ratio-of-ratios) and GPDR (green-assisted peak detection ratio-of-ratios), that utilize unique pulse rate frequency estimations to isolate the pulsatile (AC) component of red and infrared PPG signals and derive SpO(2) measurements. The performance of the proposed SpO(2) algorithms are evaluated using an upper-arm wearable device derived green, red, and infrared PPG signals, recorded in both controlled laboratory settings involving healthy subjects (n=36) and an uncontrolled clinic application involving COVID-19 patients (n=52). GPDR exhibits the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.6±0.6% for a respiratory exercise test, 3.6 ±1.0% for a standard hypoxia test, and 2.2±1.3% for an uncontrolled clinic use-case. In contrast, PRR provides relatively higher error but with greater coverage overall. Mean error across all combined datasets were 0.2±2.8% and 0.3±2.4% for PRR and GPDR respectively. Both SpO(2) algorithms achieve great performance of low error with high coverage on both uncontrolled clinic and controlled laboratory conditions.

2.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; : 1-14, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2014078

ABSTRACT

Phase separation is an emerging paradigm for understanding the biochemical interactions between proteins, DNA, and RNA. Research over the past decade has provided mounting evidence that phase separation modulates a great variety of cellular activities. Particularly, phase separation is directly relevant to immune signaling, immune cells, and immune-related diseases like cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and even SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we summarized current knowledge of phase separation in immunology and emerging findings related to immune responses as they enable possible treatment approaches.

3.
Journal of Medical Virology ; 02:02, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013639

ABSTRACT

We aim to evaluate the evolution differences in the incidence and case fatality rate (CFR) of SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron variants. The average incidence and CFRs were described between different countries. Generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) was used to compare the CFRs of Delta and Omicron variants based on the vaccination coverage. Totally, 50 countries were included for analyses. The incidence of COVID-19 ranged from 0.16/100,000 to 82.95/100,000 during the Delta period and 0.03/100,000 to 440.88/100,000 during the Omicron period. The median CFRs were 8.56 (interquartile range [IQR] 4.76~18.39) during the Delta period and 3.04 (IQR 1.87~7.48) during the Omicron period, respectively. 47 out of 50 countries showed decreased CFRs of Omicron variant with the rate ratio ranging from 0.02 (95%CI 0.01~0.03) (in Cambodia) to 0.97 (95%CI 0.87~1.08) (in Ireland). Gamma GLMM analysis showed that the decreased CFR was largely a result of the decreased pathogenicity of Omicron besides the increased vaccination coverage. The Omicron variant shows a higher incidence but a lower CFR around the world as a whole, which is mainly a result of the decreased pathogenicity by SARS-CoV-2's mutation, while the vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 still acts as a valuable measure in preventing people from death. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Thorax ; 76(Suppl 2):A1, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1507054

ABSTRACT

T1 Figure 1ConclusionsOverall, this largest paediatric single cell COVID-19 study to date showed significant differences in response to SARS-CoV-2 between children and adults, reflecting the changes of the immune landscape over developmental time, which in children are dominated by naïve and innate responses.

7.
Mater Today Bio ; 12: 100145, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492443

ABSTRACT

Currently, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-a respiratory contagion spreading through expiratory droplets-has evolved into a global pandemic, severely impacting the public health. Importantly, the emerging of immune evasion SARS-CoV-2 variants and the limited effect of current antivirals against SARS-CoV-2 in clinical trials suggested that alternative strategies in addition to the conventional vaccines and antivirals are required to successfully control the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we propose to use liquid-repellent coatings to prevent the spread of the disease in the absence of effective vaccines, antimicrobial agents, or therapeutics, wherein the deposition and penetration of pathogen droplets are prohibited. We use SARS-CoV-2 as a model pathogen and find that SARS-CoV-2 remnants are reduced by seven orders of magnitude on coated surfaces, yielding a repelling efficacy far outperforming the inactivation rate of disinfectants. The SARS-CoV-2 remnant scales exponentially with the liquid/solid adhesion, uncovering the mechanism and effective means for minimizing pathogen attachment. The antipathogen coating that both repels and inactivates pathogens is demonstrated by incorporating the super-liquid-repellent coating with antipathogen additives. Together with its versatility over a wide range of substrates and pathogens, the novel antipathogen coating is of considerable value for infection control in everyday life as well as during pandemics.

8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(8): 1371-1375, 2021 Aug 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468526

ABSTRACT

Human challenge trial (HCT) is a test in which human volunteers are intentionally infected with pathogens in order to evaluate the efficacy of candidate preventive or therapeutic drugs. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the HCT of vaccines has aroused people's attention due to its significant advantages over clinical trial. This paper introduces the concept, development and application of HCT, the advantages and limitations of HCT for vaccine evaluation, and the consideration of future HCT of COVID-19 vaccine in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-6479

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, the etiologic agent responsible for COVID-19 coronavirus disease, is a global threat. To better understand viral tropism, we assessed the RNA expression of the coronavirus receptor, ACE2, as well as the viral S protein priming protease TMPRSS2 thought to govern viral entry in single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) datasets from healthy individuals generated by the Human Cell Atlas consortium. We found that ACE2, as well as the protease TMPRSS2, are differentially expressed in respiratory and gut epithelial cells. In-depth analysis of epithelial cells in the respiratory tree reveals that nasal epithelial cells, specifically goblet/secretory cells and ciliated cells, display the highest ACE2 expression of all the epithelial cells analyzed. The skewed expression of viral receptors/entry-associated proteins towards the upper airway may be correlated with enhanced transmissivity. Finally, we showed that many of the top genes associated with ACE2 airway epithelial expression are innate immune-associated, antiviral genes, highly enriched in the nasal epithelial cells. This association with immune pathways might have clinical implications for the course of infection and viral pathology, and highlights the specific significance of nasal epithelia in viral infection. Our findings underscore the importance of the availability of the Human Cell Atlas as a reference dataset. In this instance, analysis of the compendium of data points to a particularly relevant role for nasal goblet and ciliated cells as early viral targets and potential reservoirs of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This, in turn, serves as a biological framework for dissecting viral transmission and developing clinical strategies for prevention and therapy.

11.
ACM Int. Conf. Proc. Ser. ; : 113-117, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1028987

ABSTRACT

The spread of COVID-19 around the world has profoundly affected the process of world development, making significant changes in people's behavior, government operations, and business operations. The spread of COVID-19 is a complex process, closely related to isolation patterns, population risk perception, geospatial and other factors, and simulation of the spread of covid-19 under the prevention and control policy is an important method to test the effectiveness of prevention and control measures. Using the MAS-SEIR-II model to carry out scenario analysis, the results we got show that establishing a cubicle hospital for rapid isolation of susceptible populations, flattening grassroots prevention and control organizations, and establishing a modern emergency logistics system are effective prevention and control measures. © 2020 ACM.

12.
Cell Death Discovery ; (2058-7716 (Electronic))2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-851264

ABSTRACT

The SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) outbreak was caused by a coronavirus (CoV) named the SARS-CoV. SARS pathology is propagated both by direct cytotoxic effects of the virus and aberrant activation of the innate immune response. Here, we identify several mechanisms by which a SARS-CoV open reading frame (ORF) activates intracellular stress pathways and targets the innate immune response. We show that ORF8b forms insoluble intracellular aggregates dependent on a valine at residue 77. Aggregated ORF8b induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, lysosomal damage, and subsequent activation of the master regulator of the autophagy and lysosome machinery, Transcription factor EB (TFEB). ORF8b causes cell death in epithelial cells, which is partially rescued by reducing its ability to aggregate. In macrophages, ORF8b robustly activates the NLRP3 inflammasome by providing a potent signal 2 required for activation. Mechanistically, ORF8b interacts directly with the Leucine Rich Repeat domain of NLRP3 and localizes with NLRP3 and ASC in cytosolic dot-like structures. ORF8b triggers cell death consistent with pyroptotic cell death in macrophages. While in those cells lacking NLRP3 accumulating ORF8b cytosolic aggregates cause ER stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and caspase-independent cell death. FAU - Shi, Chong-Shan

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