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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(12):e062032, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193760

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to identify concerns and stimuli regarding COVID-19 vaccination acceptance and to compare the findings by occupation.

2.
Medicine ; 101(49):e32223, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191108

ABSTRACT

Out of the global outbreak of COVID-19, clinical pharmaceutical therapeutic analytical-teaching laboratories underwent an increasing number of digitally-led teaching research. A teaching system working online and offline to monitor medicinal drugs was explored and established using a clinical pharmaceutical therapy through a drug concentration monitoring laboratory within a comprehensive tertiary hospital. Meanwhile, laboratory access training and standards of laboratory biosafety management system were also strictly implemented, improving the technical operation and daily management. Moreover, a new, significant, and efficient teaching mode was set up based on vocational training needs for efficient and professional learning. The learning results are enforced to have dynamic checks accomplished using stage-oriented assessment. Moreover, the questionnaire survey results, especially during independent learning ability and laboratory skills training, reveal that teachers and students have commented positively on the new teaching mode. Hereon, a clinical pharmaceutical teaching system during the Post-Epidemic Era was elaborated to provide a unique teaching mode and experience dedicated to teaching and scientific research in clinical therapeutic drug monitoring laboratory.

3.
Environment ; 64(5-6):4-16, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2186740
4.
Urban Informatics ; 1(1):19, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2175646

ABSTRACT

Although the disparities in COVID-19 outcomes have been proved, they have not been explicitly associated with COVID-19 full vaccinations. This paper examines the spatial and temporal patterns of the county-level COVID-19 case rates, fatality rates, and full vaccination rates in the United States from December 24, 2020 through September 30, 2021. Statistical and geospatial analyses show clear temporal and spatial patterns of the progression of COVID-19 outcomes and vaccinations. In the relationship between two time series, the fatality rates series was positively related to past lags of the case rates series. At the same time, case rates series and fatality rates series were negatively related to past lags of the full vaccination rates series. The lag level varies across urban and rural areas. The results of partial correlation, ordinary least squares (OLS) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) also confirmed that the existing COVID-19 infections and different sets of socioeconomic, healthcare access, health conditions, and environmental characteristics were independently associated with COVID-19 vaccinations over time and space. These results empirically identify the geographic health disparities with COVID-19 vaccinations and outcomes and provide the evidentiary basis for targeting pandemic recovery and public health mitigation actions.

5.
Chung-Hua Chieh Ho Ho Hu Hsi Tsa Chih Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis & Respiratory Diseases ; 46(1):77-81, 2023.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201067

ABSTRACT

In this article, we searched the research literatures related to clinical investigation of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in acute respiratory failure(ARF)/chronic respiratory failure(CRF) between 1st October 2021 and 30th September 2022 through Medline, and reviewed the important advances. Three prospective randomized controlled studies related to the efficacy and safety of NPPV and/or high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) on patients with COVID-19 with ARF were reported, showing that NPPV (including continuous positive airway pressure and bilevel positive airway pressure) was able to reduce the intubation rate, but the efficacy of HFNC was contradictory. In addition, progress has been made in outcome prediction models for ARF treated with NPPV, NPPV-related cardiac arrest, and the impact of human-machine interface on NPPV treatment outcomes. The effects of NPPV as preoxygenation method before intubation was reported to be able to reduce severe desaturation during intubation, especially in obese population. The use of NPPV in extubated patients resulting in reduced reintubation rate was also studied. With regard to long-term home application of NPPV, five indicators of successful initiation were proposed, but the success rate was low in clinical practice. Some reports showed that psychological support could improve the adherence to NPPV. The results of these studies contributed to the rational selection and optimal application of NPPV in clinical practice.

6.
China Biotechnology ; 42(10):51-59, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2203854

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid vaccine based on messenger RNA (mRNA) is a kind of mRNA technology emerging in recent years. mRNA vaccines have many advantages over traditional vaccines, which can be manufactured in a cell-free manner, enabling rapid, economical and efficient production. In addition, single mRNA vaccines can encode multiple antigens, enhance the immune response against certain pathogens, improve the efficiency of treatment process of diseases, and can target multiple microbial or viral variants in a single formulation. mRNA is seen as a revolutionary vaccine technology in COVID-19 prevention and control, which has been developed and successfully applied in record time. The mRNA vaccine is with poor stability, so the development and applications of novel delivery systems are essential. With the intensive study of pharmacology of mRNA vaccines, the clinical applications of mRNA vaccines enter into a new stage. Recently, mRNA technologies were used in the prevention and therapies of diseases, and some results were published. Here, the output of mRNA vaccines used in prevention and therapies of diseases was summarized, and the development of mRNA vaccines was also discussed. © 2022, China Biotechnology Press. All rights reserved.

7.
Blood Press ; 32(1):6-15, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2160599

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) concentration in a population sample and the ACE2 expression quantitated with the diaminobenzidine mean intensity in the lung tissue in patients who underwent lung surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study participants were recruited from a residential area in the suburb of Shanghai for the plasma ACE2 concentration study (n = 503) and the lung tissue samples were randomly selected from the storage in Ruijin Hospital (80 men and 78 age-matched women). RESULTS: In analyses adjusted for covariables, men had a significantly higher plasma ACE2 concentration (1.21 vs. 0.98 ng/mL, p = 0.027) and the mean intensity of ACE2 in the lung tissue (55.1 vs. 53.9 a.u., p = 0.037) than women. With age increasing, plasma ACE2 concentration decreased (p = 0.001), while the mean intensity of ACE2 in the lung tissue tended to increase (p = 0.087). Plasma ACE2 concentration was higher in hypertension than normotension, especially treated hypertension (1.23 vs. 0.98 ng/mL, p = 0.029 vs. normotension), with no significant difference between users of RAS inhibitors and other classes of antihypertensive drugs (p = 0.64). There was no significance of the mean intensity of ACE2 in the lung tissue between patients taking and those not taking RAS inhibitors (p = 0.14). Neither plasma ACE2 concentration nor the mean intensity of ACE2 in the lung tissue differed between normoglycemia and diabetes (p ≥ 0.20). CONCLUSION: ACE2 in the plasma and lung tissue showed divergent changes according to several major characteristics of patients.Plain language summary What is the context? • The primary physiological function of ACE2 is the degradation of angiotensin I and II to angiotensin 1-9 and 1-7, respectively. • ACE2 was found to behave as a mediator of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS) infection. • There is little research on ACE2 in humans, especially in the lung tissue. • In the present report, we investigated plasma ACE2 concentration and the ACE2 expression quantitated with the diaminobenzidine mean intensity in the lung tissue respectively in two study populations. What is new? • Our study investigated both circulating and tissue ACE2 in human subjects. The main findings were: • In men as well as women, plasma ACE2 concentration was higher in younger than older participants, whereas the mean intensity of ACE2 in the lung tissue increase with age increasing. • Compared with normotension, hypertensive patients had higher plasma ACE2 concentration but similar mean intensity of ACE2 in the lung tissue. • Neither plasma ACE2 concentration nor lung tissue ACE2 expression significantly differed between users of RAS inhibitors and other classes of antihypertensive drugs. What is the impact? • ACE2 in the plasma and lung tissue showed divergent changes according to several major characteristics, such as sex, age, and treated and untreated hypertension. • A major implication is that plasma ACE2 concentration might not be an appropriate surrogate for the ACE2 expression in the lung tissue, and hence not a good predictor of SARS-COV-2 infection or fatality.

8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1):7629, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2160211

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated that viral diseases represent an enormous public health and economic threat to mankind and that individuals with compromised immune systems are at greater risk of complications and death from viral diseases. The development of broad-spectrum antivirals is an important part of pandemic preparedness. Here, we have engineer a series of designer cells which we term autonomous, intelligent, virus-inducible immune-like (ALICE) cells as sense-and-destroy antiviral system. After developing a destabilized STING-based sensor to detect viruses from seven different genera, we have used a synthetic signal transduction system to link viral detection to the expression of multiple antiviral effector molecules, including antiviral cytokines, a CRISPR-Cas9 module for viral degradation and the secretion of a neutralizing antibody. We perform a proof-of-concept study using multiple iterations of our ALICE system in vitro, followed by in vivo functionality testing in mice. We show that dual output ALICE(SaCas9+Ab) system delivered by an AAV-vector inhibited viral infection in herpetic simplex keratitis (HSK) mouse model. Our work demonstrates that viral detection and antiviral countermeasures can be paired for intelligent sense-and-destroy applications as a flexible and innovative method against virus infection.

9.
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise ; 54(9):410-410, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2157090
10.
Chinese General Practice ; 25(33):4117-4122, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2145250

ABSTRACT

Background The spreading epidemic of novel coronavirus (corona virus disease 2019, COVID-19) pneumonia poses a serious challenge to global life health and disease control, with significantly higher mortality rates among individuals infected with COVID-19 comorbid underlying disease. Inhibitors of the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAASi), an important class of anti-hypertensive drugs, have been found to increase the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19. This study aimed to clarify the efficacy and safety of RAASi treatment in COVID-19 patients with hypertension. Objective To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of RAASi therapy in COVID-19 patients with hypertension. Methods PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched from inception to January 2022. A publicly available case-control studies of COVID-19 patients with hypertension treated with RAASi versus non RAASi therapy were included, and outcome measures were overall mortality, incidence of critical illness, incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), incidence of myocardial injury, and incidence of renal injury, with meta-analysis performed using Revman 5.3. Results Seventeen studies with a total of 5 689 patients were included, of whom 2 168 received RAASi therapy and 3 521 did not. Meta analysis showed that overall mortality was lower in COVID-19 comorbid hypertensive patients treated with RAASi compared with non RAASi treated patients 〔OR=0.54, 95%CI (0.41, 0.72), P<0.000 1〕;Between RAASi treated and non RAASi treated COVID-19 patients associated with hypertension, the incidence of critical illness 〔OR=0. 92, 95%CI (0.79, 1.08), P=0.30〕, the incidence of ARDS 〔OR=0.81, 95%CI (0.57, 1.13, P=0.22〕, the incidence of myocardial injury 〔OR=1.03, 95%CI (0.83, 1.27), P=0.82〕, and the incidence of kidney injury 〔OR=1.13, 95%CI (0.78, 1.66), P=0.52〕, differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion Treatment with RAASi in COVID-19 patients with hypertension reduced the overall mortality rate, and did not increase the incidence of critical illness, ARDS, myocardial injury, and renal injury in COVID-19 patients with hypertension. RAASi therapy is effective and safe in treating patients with COVID-19 combined with hypertension. © 2022 Chinese General Practice. All rights reserved.

11.
16th IEEE International Conference on Networking, Architecture and Storage, NAS 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2136446

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic scattered businesses and their workforces into new scales of remote work, vital security concerns arose surrounding remote access. Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) also plays a growing role in the ability of companies to support remote workforces. As more enterprises embrace concepts of zero trust in their network security posture, access control policy management problems become a more significant concern as it relates to BYOD security enforcement. This BYOD security policy must enable work from home, but enterprises have a vested interest in maintaining the security of their assets. Therefore, the BYOD security policy must strike a balance between access, security, and privacy, given the personal device use. This paper explores the challenges and opportunities of enabling zero trust in BYOD use cases. We present a BYOD policy specification to enable the zero trust access control known as BYOZ. Accompanying this policy specification, we have designed a network architecture to support enterprise zero trust BYOD use cases through the novel incorporation of continuous authentication & authorization enforcement. We evaluate our architecture through a demo implementation of BYOZ and demonstrate how it can meet the needs of existing enterprise networks using BYOD. © 2022 IEEE.

12.
National Science Review ; 9(11), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2123132

ABSTRACT

This is the first study to characterize post-COVID-19 syndrome and identify risk factors for clinical and psychological sequelae of COVID-19 in two distinct cohorts of patients in China. This cross-sectional study evaluated the long-term health effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Jianghan District (Wuhan, China). The results showed that 61.4% of COVID-19 patients reported at least one symptom and 8.8% had depressive symptoms at the 17-month follow-up. The proportion of patients with chest radiographic abnormalities in Fangcang shelter hospitals and designated COVID-19 hospitals was 31.6% and 41.1%, respectively, and the proportion of patients with impaired pulmonary diffusion capacity in these hospitals was 52.8% and 60.9%, respectively. Female sex (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-1.88), severe disease (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.01-2.10) and a higher number of initial symptoms (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.23-1.40) were associated with the development of sequelae symptoms at 17 months. This study involving community-dwelling COVID-19 adults may help determine the long-term effects of COVID-19 during the first pandemic wave. Nonetheless, larger follow-up studies are needed to characterize the post-COVID-19 condition.

13.
World Journal of Emergency Medicine ; 13(6):453-458, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2124060

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the event of a sudden shortage of medical resources, a rapid, simple, and accurate prediction model is essential for the 30-day mortality rate of patients with COVID-19.METHODS: This retrospective study compared the characteristics of the survivals and non -survivals of 278 patients with COVID-19. Logistic regression analysis was performed to obtain the "COVID-19 death risk score" (CDRS) model. Using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve and Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, discrimination and calibration were assessed. Internal validation was conducted using a regular bootstrap method. RESULTS: A total of 63 (22.66%) of 278 included patients died. The logistic regression analysis revealed that high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP;odds ratio [OR]=1.018), D-dimer (OR=1.101), and respiratory rate (RR;OR =1.185) were independently associated with 30-day mortality. CDRS was calculated as follows: CDRS=-10.245+(0.022xhsCRP)+(0.172xD-dimer)+(0.203xRR). CDRS had the same predictive effect as the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) and "confusion, uremia, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and age over 65 years" (CURB-65) scores, with AUROCs of 0.984 for CDRS, 0.975 for SOFA, and 0.971 for CURB-65, respectively. And CDRS showed good calibration. The AUROC through internal validations was 0.980 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.965-0.995). Regarding the clinical value, the decision curve analysis of CDRS showed a net value similar to that of CURB-65 in this cohort.CONCLUSION: CDRS is a novel, efficient and accurate prediction model for the early identification of COVID-19 patients with poor outcomes. Although it is not as advanced as the other models, CDRS had a similar performance to that of SOFA and CURB-65.

14.
ECONOMICS OF THE PANDEMIC: Weathering the Storm and Restoring Growth ; : 160-183, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068068
15.
Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering ; 19(12):13861-13877, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2066722

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has created major public health and socio-economic challenges across the United States. Among them are challenges to the educational system where college administrators are struggling with the questions of how to mitigate the risk and spread of diseases on their college campus. To help address this challenge, we developed a flexible computational framework to model the spread and control of COVID-19 on a residential college campus. The modeling framework accounts for heterogeneity in social interactions, activities, environmental and behavioral risk factors, disease progression, and control interventions. The contribution of mitigation strategies to disease transmission was explored without and with interventions such as vaccination, quarantine of symptomatic cases, and testing. We show that even with high vaccination coverage (90%) college campuses may still experience sizable outbreaks. The size of the outbreaks varies with the underlying environmental and socio-behavioral risk factors. Complementing vaccination with quarantine and mass testing was shown to be paramount for preventing or mitigating outbreaks. Though our quantitative results are likely provisional on our model assumptions, sensitivity analysis confirms the robustness of their qualitative nature. ©2022 the Author(s)

16.
Chinese Medical Ethics ; 35(8):838-842, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056377

ABSTRACT

“Mutual assistance” with profound moral significance, is a traditional social moral code and way of life, inherits the essence of ancient philosophers, is gradually regarded as a principle of dealing with neighborhood and social relations, which embodies the organic unity of social value and individual value. Actively carrying forward the ethical idea of “mutual assistance” is of great practical significance for preventing and controlling COVID-1 9, winning the prevention and control war, and promoting the construct ion of community of human health. Therefore, it is necessary to cultivate and practice “mutual assistance” vigorously to strengthen the moral consciousness of ‘iife first”, stimulate individual moral consciousness, and construct socialbenign moralrelations. © 2022, Editorial department of Chinese Medical Ethics. All rights reserved.

17.
International Journal of Information and Learning Technology ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1997103

ABSTRACT

Purpose While blended learning has been proved to be successful in learning outcomes, the landscape of blended learning has changed under coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Hence, the present study aims to explore first-year university students' perceptions of wholly blended learning during the pandemic, through the three constructs in the community of inquiry (CoI) instrument, namely teaching, social and cognitive presences (CPs). Design/methodology/approach Survey data (N = 449) were collected from the 2020 Fall Cohort in Hong Kong for quantitative analysis. Reliability and validity of the CoI model is examined, followed by correlation and independent-samples t-tests. Findings First-year students perceived overall low teaching, social and CPs with social presence (SP) scoring the highest. Findings also indicated that teaching presence (TP) significantly determined CP and SP;SP was a mediating variable in CoI. Students' gender and prior learning experience (online/blended) were not associated with perceptions of presences. Practical implications Students today are more familiar with technology-based communication, and staying up to date in educational technology is crucial for teachers. Trainings in online teaching should be provided to teachers. Also, interactive technology should focus on improving peer interaction. Originality/value The proposed study is novel in that it used the CoI model among first-year students in Hong Kong during the pandemic. Findings are valuable to higher education in understanding students' perception of bended learning and in addressing issues.

18.
Frontiers in Bioengineering & Biotechnology ; 10:952510, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974640

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is still a major public health concern in many nations today. COVID-19 transmission is now controlled mostly through early discovery, isolation, and therapy. Because of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the contributing factor to COVID-19, establishing timely, sensitive, accurate, simple, and budget detection technologies for the SARS-CoV-2 is urgent for epidemic prevention. Recently, several electrochemical DNA biosensors have been developed for the rapid monitoring and detection of SARS-CoV-2. This mini-review examines the latest improvements in the detection of SARS-COV-2 utilizing electrochemical DNA biosensors. Meanwhile, this mini-review summarizes the problems faced by the existing assays and puts an outlook on future trends in the development of new assays for SARS-CoV-2, to provide researchers with a borrowing role in the generation of different assays.

19.
Frontiers in Pharmacology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1969055

ABSTRACT

Background: Qingfei Paidu decoction (QFPDD) has been widely used in treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. However, studies on the treatment effect of COVID-19 patients and other respiratory diseases have not been well demonstrated. Our study aims to determine the treatment effect of QFPDD in combination with conventional treatment on COVID-19 patients and other respiratory diseases. Methods: This retrospective study recruited COVID-19 patients who were treated with QFPDD for at least two courses (6 days) from seven hospitals in five provinces from January 21 to March 18 2020. Demographic, epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, computed tomography characteristics, treatment, and outcome data were collected and analyzed. The improvements in clinical symptoms before and after QFPDD treatment were compared. Results: Eight COVID-19 patients were included in this study. Of them, six were males (75.0%). The median age of the patients was 66 (60–82) years. Four patients were classified as mild and moderate cases (50.0%);there were two severe cases (25.0%) and critical cases (25.0%). The most common symptom was cough (7 [87.5%]), followed by fever (6 [75.0%]), fatigue (4 [50.0%]), asthma (4 [50.0%]), and anorexia (3 [37.5%]). Abnormal findings included decrease in neutrophils (3 [37.5%]), lymphocytes (2 [25.0%]), alkaline phosphatase (3 [37.5%]), lactic dehydrogenase (4 [50.0%]), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (2 [25.0%]), and C-reactive protein (5 [83.3%]) at admission. After one course (3 days) of QFPDD, nasal obstruction and sore throat completely disappeared, and fever (5 [83.3%]), fatigue (2 [50.0%]), and cough (2 [28.6%]) were improved. After two courses (6 days), the fever disappeared completely in all patients, and the other symptoms showed a tendency to improve. In non-severe patients, 87.5% baseline symptoms completely disappeared. In severe patients, 61.1% of the baseline symptoms completely disappeared after patients were administered QFPDD for two courses. Of the abnormal indicators, 55.6% returned to normal levels. The median duration to complete fever recovery was 1.0 day. The median durations of viral shedding and hospitalization were 10.5 and 21.5 days, respectively. None of the patients worsened and died, and no serious adverse events occurred related to QFPDD during hospitalization. Conclusion: QFPDD combined with conventional treatment improved clinical symptoms in COVID-19 patients with other respiratory diseases, and no serious adverse reactions associated with QFPDD were observed. Larger sample studies confirm our findings in the future.

20.
International Journal of Financial Engineering ; 09(01):17, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1927665

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we use the permutation entropy algorithm to derive the static and dynamic permutation entropy of commodity futures, and to evaluate the effectiveness of main products in China's commodity futures market. The intraday data of six varieties belonging to six categories in China's commodity futures market are taken as samples. We find the following: (1) The return distribution of the main varieties shows high peaks, fat tails and asymmetry, and follows the biased random walk distribution characteristics;(2) The permutation entropy of all varieties decreases significantly in the same time window, during which the price volatility of major commodity markets rises. And the time window coincides with the impact time of COVID-19 epidemic;(3) By comparing the distribution of permutation entropy of main varieties in different stages of event shock, we found that the mean value of permutation entropy decreases significantly during the process of event shock, and the price fluctuates greatly. Therefore, the significant decrease of permutation entropy is a valuable warning signal for regulators and investors.

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