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1.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 2021 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605425

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Both genetic variants and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) contribute to the risk of incident severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Whether genetic risk of incident severe COVID-19 is the same regardless of pre-existing COPD is unknown. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential interaction between genetic risk and COPD in relation to severe COVID-19. METHODS: We constructed a polygenic risk score (PRS) for severe COVID-19 by using 112 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 430,582 participants from the UK Biobank study. We examined the associations of genetic risk and COPD with severe COVID-19 by using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Of 430,582 participants, 712 participants developed severe COVID-19 as of February 22, 2021, of whom 19.8% had pre-existing COPD. Compared with participants at low genetic risk, those at intermediate genetic risk (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.09-1.66) and high genetic risk (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.18-1.92) had higher risk of severe COVID-19 (P for trend = 0.001), and the association was independent of COPD (P for interaction = 0.76). COPD was associated with a higher risk of incident severe COVID-19 (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.12-1.67; P = 0.002). Participants at high genetic risk and with COPD had a higher risk of severe COVID-19 (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.35-3.04; P < 0.001) than those at low genetic risk and without COPD. CONCLUSIONS: The PRS which combines multiple risk alleles can be effectively used in screening for high-risk populations of severe COVID-19. High genetic risk correlates with a higher risk of severe COVID-19, regardless of pre-existing COPD.

2.
Clin Lab ; 67(11)2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that brings a significant public health challenge. A rapid and simple method is necessary for testing suspected samples and screening the population. METHODS: To better monitor sample effectiveness, this study described a method to detect nucleocapsid protein gene (N gene) of SARS-CoV-2 and human ACTB gene employing real-time duplex reverse transcription multienzyme isothermal rapid amplification (RT-MIRA) assays. RESULTS: The established real-time duplex RT-MIRA assays showed that no cross-reactions were observed to other pathogens and the detection limit was 100 copies/reaction. Using simulated clinical samples to test established assays further and the amplification process took no more than 20 minutes at 42°C. CONCLUSIONS: RT-MIRA assays are faster and easier than reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). It is expected to be further optimized and evaluated in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 confirmed cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reverse Transcription , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
Cancer Research on Prevention and Treatment ; 47(4):227-234, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1408605

ABSTRACT

In the current pandemic of SARS-Cov-2 (formally known as novel coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19), the cancer treatment is particularly a challenge that must be overcome as soon as possible. Currently, the clinical data on the prevalence of SARS-Cov-2 in cancer patients is very limited, alone with constant evolving situations. To obtain existing evidence, we reviewed a wide range of medical literature and relevant websites including the National Health Commission of China. With the actual situation of Hubei Cancer Hospital, we formulated the interim guideline which was developed by all contributors from different disciplines after fully discussion, to provide the reference for treatment options on cancer patients, especially the cancer patients recovered from COVID-19 infection. This guideline highlighted the multidisciplinary team (MDT) diagnostic model, the assessment between risks and benefits prior to treatment, individualized service for patients' medical needs, and the acceptability in ethics and patients' socio-economic conditions.

4.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(5): 1035-1049, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352580

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) broke out in Wuhan and other places. Seven versions of the Diagnosis and Treatment Program for Coronavirus Disease-2019 successively issued by the Chinese government have designated traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as a necessary medical strategy. Based on the changes in TCM diagnosis and treatment strategies in these seven versions of Diagnosis and Treatment Program for Coronavirus Disease-2019, this paper collected data reported by the Chinese government media; analyzed the understanding of the etiology, pathogenesis, syndrome differentiation, treatment methods, and prescriptions of COVID-19 by TCM and evaluated the clinical efficacy of TCM strategies. COVID-19 is associated with TCM disease of pestilence, and its pathogenesis can be summarized as an "epidemic pathogen invading the body, followed by entering the internal organs and transforming into heat, resulting in pathogen trapping in the interior and healthy qi collapsing, and deficiency of qi and yin". Pathological processes should be emphasized in syndrome differentiation. The manifestations of qi deficiency and yin deficiency are exhibited during the recovery period. TCM strategies represented by Qing Fei Pai Du Tang have shown apparent advantages in improving symptoms, promoting virus clearance, and shortening hospitalization, as well as surprising efficacy of zero patient progressing from mild to severe cases in a TCM cabin hospital. Clinical data illustrate the effectiveness of TCM strategies proposed by the Chinese government. This major epidemic may bring new opportunities for TCM development.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4389

ABSTRACT

A review. Objective: The visualization anal. and interpretation of domestic scientific researches on coronavirus disease 2019 were conducted to provide clues and guidance for the epidemic prevention and control strategies and programs. Methods: The literatures related to COVID-19 on CNKI database were retrieved with the keyword of "novel coronavirus" and the retrieval time limited to Dec. 1, 2019 to March 1, 2020. Then the co-occurrence network anal. of authors and high-frequency keywords were performed by the visualization software VOSviewer and the research status and hotspots of COVID-19 were interpreted according to the visualization anal. results. Results: Totally 664 literatures were obtained and analyzed. The result of the co-occurrence anal. showed that the authors were divided into five groups and there was little cooperation between them. Ten high-frequency key words such as "epidemic prevention and control" and "Chinese medicine" were clustered into seven research themes with other keywords. And the contents revealed by each theme truly reflected the current research status and hotspots. Conclusion The current researches of COVID-19 in China are focused on the epidemic prevention and control of COVID-19, the management and protection of medical staff, children's infection and protection, the clin. characteristics diagnosis and treatment scheme of COVID-19 and the application of traditional Chinese medicine in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.

9.
APMIS ; 129(2): 91-102, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900954

ABSTRACT

T cells play vital roles in the development and progression of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), including cytotoxicity mediated by CD8+ T cells and immunoregulatory activity mediated by CD4+ T cells. Interleukin (IL)-9-secreting CD4+ T cells (Th9 cells) were recently found to be involved in the onset of ACS. We investigated regulatory role of Th9 cells to CD8+ T cells in patients with stable angina pectoris, unstable angina pectoris, and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Circulating Th9 cells percentage, plasma IL-9 level, and PU.1 mRNA relative level was up-regulated in AMI patients compared with controls. There was no significant difference of IL-9-secreting CD8+ T cells percentage among groups. CD8+ T cells from AMI patients revealed increased cytotoxicity than those from controls, which presented as enhanced cytotolytic activity to target cells, increased interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α secretion, elevated perforin and granzyme B production, and reduced programmed death-1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4. IL-9 stimulation did not affect proliferation, but promoted CD8+ T-cell cytotoxicity from both controls and AMI patients. IL-9-secreting CD4+ T cells were enriched in CD4+ CCR4- CCR6- CXCR3- cells. The enhancement of CD8+ T-cell cytotoxicity induced by CD4+ CCR4- CCR6- CXCR3- cells was dependent on IL-9 secretion. The present results indicated that up-regulation of IL-9-secreting CD4+ T cells may contribute to pathogenesis of AMI through enhancement of CD8+ T-cell cytotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/pathology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Interleukin-9/blood , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/immunology , CTLA-4 Antigen/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Female , Granzymes/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-9/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008584, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-771813

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has recently emerged as a global threat. Understanding workers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding this new infectious disease is crucial to preventing and controlling it. This study aimed to assess KAP regarding COVID-19 during the outbreak among workers in China. The present study was part of a cross-sectional online survey study conducted based on a large labor-intensive factory, which has 180,000 workers from various Chinese provinces, from 2 February 2020 to 7 February 2020. KAP related to COVID-19 were measured by 32 items, each item was measured with an agree/disagree/unclear format, and only correct responses were given 1 point. KAP regarding COVID-19 were measured with 20 items, 6 items and 6 items, respectively. A total of 123,768 valid responses (68.8%) were included in the analysis. Generally, the levels of knowledge (mean: 16.3 out of 20 points), attitudes (mean: 4.5 out of 6 points), and practices (mean: 5.8 out of 6 points) related to COVID-19 were high. Only 36,373 respondents (29.4%) disagreed that gargling with salt water is effective in protecting against COVID-19. Moreover, older respondents had decreased levels of knowledge and practices related to COVID-19 (both P values for the trend <0.001), while better-educated respondents had increased levels of knowledge and practices related to COVID-19 (both P values for the trend <0.001). These results suggest that Chinese workers are highly aware of COVID-19, but health authorities still need to provide correct information on COVID-19 prevention and strengthen health interventions, particularly for older and less-educated workers.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Manufacturing and Industrial Facilities , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1555, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-769267

ABSTRACT

The sudden pandemic of SARS-Cov-2 (also known as novel coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19) poses a severe threat to hundreds of millions of lives in the world. The complete cure of the virus largely relies on the immune system, which becomes particularly a challenge for the cancer subjects, whose immunity is generally compromised. However, in a constant evolving situation, the clinical data on the prevalence of SARS-Cov-2 for cancer patients is still limited. On top of a wide range of medical references and interim guidelines including CDC, NCI, ASCO, ESMO, NCCN, AACR, ESMO, and the National Health Commission of China, etc., we formed into a guideline based on our experience in our specialized cancer hospital in Wuhan, the originally endemic center of the virus. Furthermore, we formulated an expert consensus which was developed by all contributors from different disciplines after fully discussion based on our understanding and analysis of limited information of COVID-19. The consensus highlighted a multidisciplinary team diagnostic model with assessment of the balance between risks and benefits prior to treatment, individualizing satisfaction of patients' medical needs, and acceptability in ethics and patients' socio-economic conditions.

13.
Dig Endosc ; 32(6): 914-920, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-767221

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To investigate control measures for COVID-19 pandemic in GIE centers in China. METHODS: This is a retrospective multi-center research, including seven centers. Data collection was from 1 February to 31 March 2020 and the same period in 2019. RESULTS: There were a total of 28 COVID-19 definite cases in these hospitals. Six out of seven GIE centers were arranged to shut down on 1 February, with a mean number of shutdown days of 23.6 ± 5.3. The actual workloads were only 10.3%-62.9% compared to those last year. All centers had a preoperative COVID-19 screening process. Epidemiological questionnaire, temperature taking and QR-code of journey were conducted. Chest CT scan was conducted during the shutdown period and continued in five centers after return to work. Antibody and nucleic acid test were applied in one to three centers. All endoscopists had advanced PPE. Five centers used surgical mask and the rest used N95 mask. Six centers used goggles or face shield. Five centers selected isolation gowns and the rest selected protective suits. The change frequency of these PPE was 4 h. Sterilizing measures were improved in six centers. Five centers utilized ultraviolet and six centers strengthened natural ventilation. Four and six centers used peracetic acid during the period of shutdown and return to work, alone or matched with OPA or acidified water. CONCLUSIONS: Many effective control measures were conducted in GIE centers during the outbreak, including patients' volume limitation, preoperative COVID-19 screening, advanced PPE and disinfection methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Infection Control/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 436, 2020 09 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurological symptoms are increasingly being noted among COVID-19 patients. Currently, there is little data on the mental health of neurological healthcare workers. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and influencing factors on anxiety and depression in neurological healthcare workers in Hunan Province, China during the early stage of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. METHODS: An online cross-sectional study was conducted among neurological doctors and nurses in early February 2020 in Hunan Province. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed by the Chinese version of the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) (defined as a total score ≥ 50) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) (defined as a total score ≥ 53). The prevalences of probable anxiety and depression were compared between different groups, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to understand the independent influencing factors on anxiety and depression. RESULTS: The prevalence of probable anxiety and depression in neurological nurses (20.3 and 30.2%, respectively) was higher than that in doctors (12.6 and 20.2%, respectively). Female healthcare workers (18.4%) had a higher proportion of anxiety than males (10.8%). Probable anxiety and depression were more prevalent among nurses, younger workers (≤ 40 years), and medical staff with junior titles. Logistic regression analysis showed that a shortage of protective equipment was independently associated with probable anxiety (OR = 1.980, 95% CI: 1.241-3.160, P = 0.004), while young age was a risk factor for probable depression (OR = 2.293, 95% CI: 1.137-4.623, P = 0.020) among neurological healthcare workers. CONCLUSIONS: Probable anxiety and depression were more prevalent among neurological nurses than doctors in Hunan Province. The shortage of protective equipment led to probable anxiety, and young age led to probable depression in healthcare workers in neurology departments, which merits attention during the battle against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Nurses/psychology , Pandemics , Physicians/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Hospital Units , Humans , Male , Neurology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
J Affect Disord ; 277: 495-502, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730713

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has gained intense attention globally. However, little is known about the COVID-19-ralated mental health status among workers. METHODS: The cross-sectional online survey with 123,768 workers was conducted from February 2, 2020 to February 7, 2020 on a mega-size labor-intensive factory in Shenzhen, China. Oral consent was obtained prior to the questionnaire survey. The information collected in the survey included demographic characteristics, psychological symptoms, COVID-19-related information, and demands for psychological education and interventions. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were measured by the Zung's Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and Self-Rating Depression Scale. Logistic regression models were performed to determine the association between related factors and mental health status. RESULTS: The prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms was 3.4% and 22.8%, respectively. The dominant epidemic-related factors were having confirmed cases in the community (odds ratio [OR], 2.75, 95% CI, 2.37-3.19) and having confirmed friends (OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.69-3.52) for the increased risk of anxiety and depression symptoms, respectively. Nevertheless, major traditional risk factors such as general or poor health status and always drinking alcohol were still the dominant factors associated with the increased risk of anxiety and depression symptoms. Overall, 67.3% and 26.8% workers reported desire for psychological education and interventions, respectively. LIMITATIONS: All assessments were self-reported, resulting in a risk of method bias. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show a relatively low prevalence of anxiety symptoms, a relatively high prevalence of depression symptoms, and urgent demand for psychological education and interventions among workers during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Employment , Female , Friends , Health Status , Humans , Male , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111035, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694305

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first detected in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, with 11,669,259 positive cases and 539,906 deaths globally as of July 8, 2020. The objective of the present study was to determine whether meteorological parameters and air quality affect the transmission of COVID-19, analogous to SARS. We captured data from 29 provinces, including numbers of COVID-19 cases, meteorological parameters, air quality and population flow data, between Jan 21, 2020 and Apr 3, 2020. To evaluate the transmissibility of COVID-19, the basic reproductive ratio (R0) was calculated with the maximum likelihood "removal" method, which is based on chain-binomial model, and the association between COVID-19 and air pollutants or meteorological parameters was estimated by correlation analyses. The mean estimated value of R0 was 1.79 ± 0.31 in 29 provinces, ranging from 1.08 to 2.45. The correlation between R0 and the mean relative humidity was positive, with coefficient of 0.370. In provinces with high flow, indicators such as carbon monoxide (CO) and 24-h average concentration of carbon monoxide (CO_24 h) were positively correlated with R0, while nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 24-h average concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2_24 h) and daily maximum temperature were inversely correlated to R0, with coefficients of 0.644, 0.661, -0.636, -0.657, -0.645, respectively. In provinces with medium flow, only the weather factors were correlated with R0, including mean/maximum/minimum air pressure and mean wind speed, with coefficients of -0.697, -0.697, -0.697 and -0.841, respectively. There was no correlation with R0 and meteorological parameters or air pollutants in provinces with low flow. Our findings suggest that higher ambient CO concentration is a risk factor for increased transmissibility of the novel coronavirus, while higher temperature and air pressure, and efficient ventilation reduce its transmissibility. The effect of meteorological parameters and air pollutants varies in different regions, and requires that these issues be considered in future modeling disease transmissibility.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Air Pollution/analysis , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Carbon Monoxide/analysis , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperature , Weather
17.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(2): 275-280, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-13587

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, COVID-19 has occurred unexpectedly and emerged as a health problem worldwide. Despite the rapidly increasing number of cases in subsequent weeks, the clinical characteristics of pediatric cases are rarely described. A cross-sectional multicenter study was carried out in 10 hospitals across Hubei province. A total of 25 confirmed pediatric cases of COVID-19 were collected. The demographic data, epidemiological history, underlying diseases, clinical manifestations, laboratory and radiological data, treatments, and outcomes were analyzed. Of 25 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the boy to girl ratio was 1.27:1. The median age was 3 years. COVID-19 cases in children aged <3 years, 3.6 years, and ≥6-years patients were 10 (40%), 6 (24%), and 9 (36%), respectively. The most common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (13 [52%]), and dry cough (11 [44%]). Chest CT images showed essential normal in 8 cases (33.3%), unilateral involvement of lungs in 5 cases (20.8%), and bilateral involvement in 11 cases (45.8%). Clinical diagnoses included upper respiratory tract infection (n=8), mild pneumonia (n=15), and critical cases (n=2). Two critical cases (8%) were given invasive mechanical ventilation, corticosteroids, and immunoglobulin. The symptoms in 24 (96%) of 25 patients were alleviated and one patient had been discharged. It was concluded that children were susceptible to COVID-19 like adults, while the clinical presentations and outcomes were more favorable in children. However, children less than 3 years old accounted for majority cases and critical cases lied in this age group, which demanded extra attentions during home caring and hospitalization treatment.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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