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1.
Child Obes ; 2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830940

ABSTRACT

Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Get Up & Go program, an established effective 10-week healthy weight program for children ages 6-14 years provided free to families, has offered the option of a synchronous virtual delivery. Pre- and postassessments include a parental questionnaire about child's health behaviors, and weight and height measurements of children. Over 3 cycles, 116 and 107 families registered for virtual and in-person delivery, respectively, with 70 (60.3%) and 84 (78.5%) attending ≥1 session (p = 0.003). More families in virtual delivery spoke Spanish (41.4% vs. 22.6%, p = 0.01), but children did not differ in age, gender, and severe obesity status, and baseline behavior scores and graduation rates were similar. Improvement from baseline in BMIp95 was -3.71 [standard deviation (SD) 5.26] for virtual delivery and -1.95 (3.69) (p = 0.06) for in-person. Behavior questionnaire improvement [+15.9 (12.9) vs. +14.2 (12.0), p = 0.51] did not differ. The virtual implementation demonstrated good effect and may be useful in nonpandemic environments.

2.
Journal of Translational Critical Care Medicine ; 4(1):1-7, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1824555

ABSTRACT

Background: There are controversies regarding corticosteroids using in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in the current pandemic. Objectives: This study investigates the efficacy and safety profiles of corticosteroids therapy in COVID-19 patients. Methods: Retrospective, multicenter study case series of consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection at the whole hospital from January 1 to March 1, 2020, were enrolled. Demographic, clinical, radiological, laboratory, and treatment data were collected and analyzed. The effect of corticosteroids therapy on death and organ-failure complications of pneumonia were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: A total of 470 COVID-19 patients at the whole hospital were enrolled. According to the time of corticosteroids initiation and severity of illness, there were 159 patients stratified into critical ill group and 64% (102 of 159) patients received corticosteroids treatments. Ninety-four percent (166 of 176) of corticosteroids were methylprednisolone. The median cumulative corticosteroids dosage was 300 mg equivalent of methylprednisolone over a median duration of 6 days. Multivariate regression analysis showed that corticosteroids use did not affect the mortality. However, corticosteroids therapy at moderate cumulative doses (total exposure 480 mg to 1200 mg) was associated with deceased occurrence of organ-failure complications in critically ill COVID-19. Conclusions: Corticosteroids have no effect to mortality in COVID-19 patients. The moderate cumulative doses of corticosteroids might decrease organ-failure complications in critically ill COVID-19. Further large-scale randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm our findings, until then use of corticosteroids should be used with caution COVID-19 patients.

3.
Journal of Translational Critical Care Medicine ; 3(1):1-7, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1824462

ABSTRACT

Background: The effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEIs/ARBs) on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains controversial from clinic evidence. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to report the major characteristics and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients treated with ACEIs and ARBs and compare the different effects of the two drugs for outcomes of COVID-19 patients. Methods: This is a retrospective, two-center case series of 198 consecutive COVID-19 patients with a history of hypertension. Results: Among 198 patients, 58 (29.3%) and 16 (8.1%) were on ARB and ACEI, respectively. Patients who were on ARB or ACEI/ARB had a significantly lower rate of severe illness and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) when compared with patients treated with ACEI alone or not receiving RAAS blocker (P < 0.05). The Kaplan–Meier survival curve showed that patients with ARB in their antihypertensive regimen had a trend toward a higher survival rate when compared with individuals without ARB (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.27;95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07–1.02;P = 0.054). The occurrence rates of severe illness, ARDS, and death were similar in the two groups regardless of receiving ACEI. The Cox regression analyses showed a better survival in the ARB group than the ACEI group (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.03;95% CI, 0.00–0.58;P = 0.02). Conclusions: Our data may provide that some evidence of using ARB, but not ACEI, was associated with a reduced rate of severe illness and ARDS, indicating their potential protective impact in COVID-19. Further large sample sizes and multiethnic populations are warranted to confirm our findings.

4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792369

ABSTRACT

A vaccine booster to maintain high antibody levels and provide effective protection against COVID-19 has been recommended. However, little is known about the safety of a booster for different vaccines. We conducted a parallel controlled prospective study to compare the safety of a booster usingfour common vaccines in China. In total, 320 eligible participants who had received two doses of an inactivated vaccine were equally allocated to receive a booster of the same vaccine (Group A), a different inactivated vaccine (Group B), an adenovirus type-5 vectored vaccine (Group C), or a protein subunit vaccine (Group D). A higher risk of adverse reactions, observed up to 28 days after injection, was found in Groups C and D, compared to Group A, with odds ratios (OR) of 11.63 (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.22-32.05) and 4.38 (1.53-12.56), respectively. Recipients in Group C were more likely to report ≥two reactions (OR = 29.18, 95% CI: 3.70-229.82), and had a higher risk of injection site pain, dizziness, and fatigue. A gender and age disparity in the risk of adverse reactions was identified. Despite the majority of reactions being mild, heterologous booster strategies do increase the risk of adverse reactions, relative to homologous boosters, in subjects who have had two doses of inactive vaccine.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322149

ABSTRACT

Background: The effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB) on the COVID-19 remains controversial from clinic evidence. Methods: This is a retrospective, two-center case series of 198 consecutive COVID-19 patients with a history of hypertension. Results: Among 198 patients, 58 (29.3%) and 16 (8.1%) were on were on ARB and ACEI, respectively. Patients who were on ARB or ACEI/ARB had a significantly lower rate of severe illness and ARDS when compared with patients treated with ACEI alone or not receiving and RAAS blocker ( P <0.05). The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that patients with ARB in their antihypertensive regimen had a trend towards a higher survival rate when compared with individuals without ARB (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.27;95% CI, 0.07-1.02;P = 0.054). The Cox-regression analysis to compared ACEI vs. ARB groups showed a significantly lower mortality rate in the ARB group (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.03;95% CI, 0.00-0.58;P = 0.02). Conclusions: Using of ARB was associated with a reduced rate of severe illness and ARDS, indicating their potential protective impact in COVID-19.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24442, 2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577650

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic interventions targeting viral infections remain a significant challenge for both the medical and scientific communities. While specific antiviral agents have shown success as therapeutics, viral resistance inevitably develops, making many of these approaches ineffective. This inescapable obstacle warrants alternative approaches, such as the targeting of host cellular factors. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the major respiratory pathogen of infants and children worldwide, causes respiratory tract infection ranging from mild upper respiratory tract symptoms to severe life-threatening lower respiratory tract disease. Despite the fact that the molecular biology of the virus, which was originally discovered in 1956, is well described, there is no vaccine or effective antiviral treatment against RSV infection. Here, we demonstrate that targeting host factors, specifically, mTOR signaling, reduces RSV protein production and generation of infectious progeny virus. Further, we show that this approach can be generalizable as inhibition of mTOR kinases reduces coronavirus gene expression, mRNA transcription and protein production. Overall, defining virus replication-dependent host functions may be an effective means to combat viral infections, particularly in the absence of antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , A549 Cells , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral/drug effects , Humans , Protein Biosynthesis/drug effects , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Rapamycin-Insensitive Companion of mTOR Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , Rapamycin-Insensitive Companion of mTOR Protein/genetics , Rapamycin-Insensitive Companion of mTOR Protein/metabolism , Regulatory-Associated Protein of mTOR/antagonists & inhibitors , Regulatory-Associated Protein of mTOR/genetics , Regulatory-Associated Protein of mTOR/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/pathology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/drug effects , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/isolation & purification , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
7.
J Vis Exp ; (177)2021 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542845

ABSTRACT

Functional genomics studies of the immune system require genetic manipulations that involve both deletion of target genes and addition of elements to proteins of interest. Identification of gene functions in cell line models is important for gene discovery and exploration of cell-intrinsic mechanisms. However, genetic manipulations of immune cells such as T cells and macrophage cell lines using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knock-in are difficult because of the low transfection efficiency of these cells, especially in a quiescent state. To modify genes in immune cells, drug-resistance selection and viral vectors are typically used to enrich for cells expressing the CRIPSR/Cas9 system, which inevitably results in undesirable intervention of the cells. In a previous study, we designed dual fluorescent reporters coupled to CRISPR/Cas9 that were transiently expressed after electroporation. This technical solution leads to rapid gene deletion in immune cells; however, gene knock-in in immune cells such as T cells and macrophages without the use of drug-resistance selection or viral vectors is even more challenging. In this article, we show that by using cell sorting to aid selection of cells transiently expressing CRISPR/Cas9 constructs targeting the Rosa26 locus in combination with a donor plasmid, gene knock-in can be achieved in both T cells and macrophages without drug-resistance enrichment. As an example, we show how to express human ACE2, a receptor of SARS-Cov-2, which is responsible for the current Covid-19 pandemic, in RAW264.7 macrophages by performing knock-in experiments. Such gene knock-in cells can be widely used for mechanistic studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Cell Line , Gene Knock-In Techniques , Humans , Macrophages , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes
8.
Vox Sang ; 116(6): 682-691, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Thousands of healthcare workers (HCWs) have been infected with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Laboratory personnel in blood transfusion departments may be infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) if laboratory biosafety protection is insufficient. Therefore, we investigated the current situation of laboratory biosafety protection in blood transfusion departments to determine how to improve the safety of laboratory processes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An online survey was conducted in blood transfusion departments from 1st to 6th May 2020 in China. A total of 653 individuals completed the questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed with reference to COVID-19 laboratory biosafety summarized in Annex II. All responses were summarized using only descriptive statistics and expressed as frequencies and ratios [n (%)]. RESULTS: Most participants were concerned about COVID-19. Some participants had inadequate knowledge of COVID-19. Two participants stated that there were laboratory personnel infected with SARS-CoV-2 in their departments. A total of 31 (4.7%) participants did not receive any safety and security training. In terms of laboratory biosafety protection practices, the major challenges were suboptimal laboratory safety practices and insufficient laboratory conditions. CONCLUSION: The major deficiencies were insufficient security and safety training, and a lack of personal protective equipment, automatic cap removal centrifuges and biosafety cabinets. Consequently, we should enhance the security and safety training of laboratory personnel to improve their laboratory biosafety protection practices and ensure that laboratory conditions are sufficient to improve the safety of laboratory processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Containment of Biohazards , Laboratories , Pandemics , Transfusion Reaction/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(23): e26047, 2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The conclusions about the relationship between eosinophil counts and the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were controversial, so we updated the evidences and reassessed it. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Cochrane library, Excerpta Medica Database, and Web of Science to compare the eosinophil counts about non-severe disease group (mild pneumonia, moderate pneumonia, non-critical disease and recovery group) and severe disease group (severe pneumonia, critical pneumonia, critical disease and death group) in COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 1228 patients from 10 studies were included. Compared with non-severe group, severe group had strikingly lower average eosinophil counts (SMD 0.65, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.29-1.01; P < .001). The result of subgroup analysis of different countries showed SMD 0.66, 95% CI 0.26-1.06; P < .001. Another subgroup analysis between mild-moderate pneumonia versus severe-critical pneumonia showed SMD 0.69, 95% CI 0.25-1.13; P < .001, and no significant risk of publication bias (Begg test 0.063 and Egger test 0.057) in this subgroup. The heterogeneity was substantial, but the sensitivity analyses showed no significant change when individual study was excluded, which suggested the crediblity and stablity of our results. CONCLUSIONS: The eosinophil counts had important value as an indicator of severity in patients with COVID-19. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020205497.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Eosinophils , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Ups J Med Sci ; 125(4): 293-296, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-800929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently breaking out worldwide. COVID-19 patients may have different degrees of coagulopathy, but the mechanism is not yet clear. We aimed to analyse the relationship between coagulation dysfunction and liver damage in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 74 patients with COVID-19 admitted to the First People's Hospital of Yueyang from 1 January to 30 March 2020 was carried out. According to the coagulation function, 27 cases entered the coagulopathy group and 47 cases entered the control group. A case control study was conducted to analyse the correlation between the occurrence of coagulation dysfunction and liver damage in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), markers of liver damage, were positively correlated with coagulopathy (p = 0.039, OR 2.960, 95% CI 1.055-8.304; and p = 0.028, OR 3.352, 95% CI 1.137-9.187). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT), and total bilirubin (TBIL) were not statistically correlated with coagulopathy. According to the diagnosis and treatment plan, the included cases were classified into mild, moderate, severe, and critical. The results showed that the occurrence of coagulation dysfunction had no statistical correlation with the severity of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Coagulation dysfunction in patients with COVID-19 is closely related to liver damage. A longer course of the disease may cause a vicious circle of coagulopathy and liver damage. Clinicians need to closely monitor coagulation and liver function tests and to give prophylactic or supportive therapy when needed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Liver Diseases/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , China , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(5): 525-529, 2020 May 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745331

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore the significance of coagulation and immune function indicators in clinical diagnosis and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: All patients with COVID-19 diagnosed and treated in First People's Hospital of Yueyang from January to March 2020 were enrolled. The general data of patients were collected. The patients were assigned into a light group (n=20), an ordinary group (n=33), a severe group (n=23), and a critically severe group (n=7) according to the severity of the disease. Coagulation and immune function indicators of each group were compared, and the relevance of coagulation and immune function indicators was analyzed. RESULTS: The age of COVID-19 patients in Yueyang City was mainly between 45 and 65 years old. There was a significant difference in the coagulation function and immune-related indicators in each group of patients (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There are some abnormalities in coagulation and immune function in patients with COVID-19, which possess significance for clinical diagnosis and treatment of the disease.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Humans , Immune System/physiopathology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Frontier of Clinical Medicine ; 2(3), 2020.
Article in Chinese | Omniscient Pte | ID: covidwho-712720

ABSTRACT

The PET/CT examination in nuclear medicine subject has many procedures involved many links and workplaces, and the management requirements for patients are complex. Patients need to stay in a relatively closed environment for a long time after the injection of radio pharmaceuticals, so the risk of cross-infection between medical staff and patients, and between patients is high. In novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) during the prevention and control, it’s very important for patients carried out PET/CT examination to formulate emergency preplans for prevention, control and optimize the workflow, take necessary control measures, make the medical staff of personal protection. We have to do well for the patients of the correct health education, reduce exposure risk, reduce the cross infection, and guarantee the quality of nuclear medicine inspection and safety.

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