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1.
Ocean & Coastal Management ; 224:106171, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1814999

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has had a huge impact on the global container market. Many liner companies have adopted a blank sailing for some voyages to adjust capacity, and vessel schedule reliability continues to be sluggish. From the perspective of the container liner company, this paper studies the integrated recovery of liner schedule and container flow under the background of suspension of shipping service. With the goal of minimizing the total cost of the liner company, the hard time window constraints of the container flow on the suspended routes are set to construct the integrated recovery problem.The increased carbon emission cost during the restoration of the container flow is taken into account.A mixed integer nonlinear programming model is established, and the adaptive mutation particle swarm optimization (AMPSO) is used to solve the model. The results show that the total cost of the model is reduced by 10.66% compared with the total cost of the shipping schedule recovery model that did not consider the recovery of container flow.

2.
Energy Strategy Reviews ; : 100845-100845, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1796859
3.
Life ; 12(4):547, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1776279

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a dominant, rapidly spreading respiratory disease. However, the factors influencing COVID-19 mortality still have not been confirmed. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is unknown, and relevant mortality predictors are lacking. This study aimed to investigate COVID-19 mortality in patients with pre-existing health conditions and to examine the association between COVID-19 mortality and other morbidities. (2) Methods: De-identified data from 113,882, including 14,877 COVID-19 patients, were collected from the UK Biobank. Different types of data, such as disease history and lifestyle factors, from the COVID-19 patients, were input into the following three machine learning models: Deep Neural Networks (DNN), Random Forest Classifier (RF), eXtreme Gradient Boosting classifier (XGB) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). The Area under the Curve (AUC) was used to measure the experiment result as a performance metric. (3) Results: Data from 14,876 COVID-19 patients were input into the machine learning model for risk-level mortality prediction, with the predicted risk level ranging from 0 to 1. Of the three models used in the experiment, the RF model achieved the best result, with an AUC value of 0.86 (95% CI 0.84–0.88). (4) Conclusions: A risk-level prediction model for COVID-19 mortality was developed. Age, lifestyle, illness, income, and family disease history were identified as important predictors of COVID-19 mortality. The identified factors were related to COVID-19 mortality.

4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705620

ABSTRACT

As of August 2021, there have been over 200 million confirmed case of coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and more than 4 million COVID-19-related deaths globally. Although real-time polymerase chain reaction is considered to be the primary method of detection for SARS-CoV-2 infection, the use of serological assays for detecting COVID-19 antibodies has been shown to be effective in aiding with diagnosis, particularly in patients who have recovered from the disease and those in later stages of infection. Since it has a high detection rate and few limitations compared to conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocols, we used a lateral flow immunoassay as our diagnostic tool of choice. Since lateral flow immunoassay results interpreted by the naked eye may lead to erroneous diagnoses, we developed an innovative, portable device with the capacity to capture a high-resolution reflectance spectrum as a means of promoting diagnostic accuracy. We combined this spectrum-based device with commercial lateral flow immunoassays to detect the neutralizing antibody in serum samples collected from 30 COVID-19-infected patients (26 mild cases and four severe cases). The results of our approach, lateral flow immunoassays coupled with a spectrum-based reader, demonstrated a 0.989 area under the ROC curve, 100% sensitivity, 95.7% positive predictive value, 87.5% specificity, and 100% negative predictive value. As a result, our approach exhibited great value for neutralizing antibody detection. In addition to the above tests, we also tested plasma samples from 16 AstraZeneca-vaccinated (ChAdOx1nCoV-19) patients and compared our approach and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results to see whether our approach could be applied to vaccinated patients. The results showed a high correlation between these two approaches, indicating that the lateral flow immunoassay coupled with a spectrum-based reader is a feasible approach for diagnosing the presence of a neutralizing antibody in both COVID-19-infected and vaccinated patients.

5.
Ann Hepatol ; 27(3): 100685, 2022 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693950

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic imperiled the global health system. We aimed to determine the impact of COVID-19 on the care continuum of HCV-infected patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-six patients who were prescribed a course of DAA therapy at three tertiary medical centers in the US and China between January 1, 2019 to June 30, 2020 were included. We assessed the proportions of patients who completed DAA therapy and had HCV RNA testing during and after the end of therapy. We also assessed the impact of utilization of telemedicine. RESULTS: The proportion of patients undergoing HCV RNA testing during DAA treatment decreased from >81.7% before pandemic to 67.8% during the pandemic (P=0.006), with a more prominent decrease in the US. There were significant decreases in HCV RNA testing >12 (P<0.001) and >20 weeks (P<0.001) post-treatment during COVID-19 era. Compared to pre-COVID period, post-treatment clinic encounters during COVID-19 era decreased significantly in China (Xi'an: 13.6% to 7.4%; Nanjing: 16.7% to 12.5%) but increased in the US (12.5% to 16.7%), mainly due to the use of telemedicine. There was a 4-fold increase in utilization of telemedicine in the US. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pandemic carried profound impact on care for HCV patients in both the US and China. HCV cure rate assessment decreased by half during COVID era but the proportion of patients finishing DAA therapy was not significantly affected. Increased utilization of telemedicine led to increased compliance with DAA therapy but did not encourage patients to have their laboratory assessment for HCV cure.

6.
Tourism Tribune ; 36(9):103-119, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1558951

ABSTRACT

The unexpected COVID-19 pandemic will reduce the attractiveness of hospitality occupations for a considerable period of time. There is still a lack of research on the combined effects of pressure, state and response with respect to hotel employees ' perceptions of their career prospects as a result of the major public health crisis. This study applied complexity theory and the pressure-state-response (PSR) model to examine the combined and interactive effects of PSR factors on employees' career prospect perceptions by means of fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis(fsQCA). Our sample consisted of employees (N=1090) at star-rated hotels in southeast coastal areas of China. A number of conclusions emerged from this study. First, from an analysis of necessary conditions, hotel employees developed low career prospects in the case of high hotel operation losses, high employee job adjustments, and low income levels. Hotel safety incentives and employee safety participation provided the basic conditions for forming high career prospects.In the particular case of COVID-19 prevention and control in China, employee safety compliance and hotel safety control are necessary conditions with respect to perceptions of high or low career prospects. Second, the sufficient conditions analysis for perceptions of low career prospects yielded four configurations. In terms of pressure factors, hotel operation losses and high employee job adjustments were the main causes of negative prospect perceptions;perceived risk and negative emotion further aggravated such perceptions. With respect to state factors, frontline employees with low incomes and low positions had weak adaptability and flexibility, and they were more likely to have perceptions of low career prospects. Even some older employees who had worked in hotels for a long time had such low perceptions. With regard to response factors, the lack of hotel safety incentives and employee safety participation were the main reasons that led to perceptions of low career prospects. Third, the sufficient conditions analysis for perceptions of high career prospects gave rise to five configurations. Compared with frontline employees, senior managers who worked in higher position, had higher incomes, and with long working years had greater adaptability to the impact of COVID-19, and they had perceptions of higher career prospects. Under the same pandemic pressure factors, higher hotel safety incentives and employee safety participation had a positive effect on perceptions of career prospects. In conclusion, the present study offers the following suggestions for management. First, as a result of COVID-19, it is necessary for hotel managers to consider alleviating and adjusting their employees' work stress;they should reduce the impact of pressure factors related to their employees perceptions of career prospects. Second, to achieve hierarchical control of their employees career prospects, hotel managers need to implement differentiated management for different types of employees. Finally, hotels should create a positive atmosphere of safety with respect to preventing and controlling COVID-19 and enhancing the level of risk response of their staff.

7.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(3): 410-418, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482511

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The dynamic adaptive immune responses elicited by the inactivated virus vaccine CoronaVac remain elusive. METHODS: In a prospective cohort of 100 healthcare professionals naïve for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) who received two doses of CoronaVac, we analysed SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular responses at four different timepoints, including before vaccination (T1), 2 weeks after the first dose (T2), 2 weeks after the booster dose (T3), and 8-10 weeks after the booster dose (T4). SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, serum neutralizing activities, peripheral B cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and their memory subsets were simultaneously measured in this cohort. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific IgG responses reached a peak (geometric mean titre (GMT) 54827, 30969-97065) after two doses and rapidly declined (GMT 502, 212-1190) at T4, whereas suboptimal IgA responses were detected (GMT 5, 2-9). Spike-specific circulating B cells (0.60%, 0.46-0.73% of total B cells) and memory B cells (1.18%, 0.92-1.44% of total memory B cells) were effectively induced at T3 and sustained over time (0.33%, 0.23-0.43%; 0.87%, 0.05-1.67%, respectively). SARS-CoV-2-specific circulating CD4+ T cells (0.57%, 0.47-0.66%) and CD8+ T cells (1.29%, 1.04-1.54%) were detected at T3. At T4, 0.78% (0.43-1.20%) of memory CD4+ T cells and 0.68% (0.29-1.30%) of memory CD8+ T cells were identified as SARS-CoV-2-specific, while 0.62% (0.51-0.75%) of CD4+ T cells and 0.47% (0.38-0.58%) of CD8+ T cells were SARS-CoV-2-specific terminally differentiated effector memory cells. Furthermore, age and interval between doses affected the magnitude of CoronaVac-induced immune responses. SARS-CoV-2 memory CD4+ T cells were strongly associated with both receptor binding domain (RBD)-specific memory B cells (r 0.87, p <0.0001) and SARS-CoV-2-specific memory CD8+ T cells (r 0.48, p <0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: CoronaVac induced robust circulating and memory B cell and T cell responses. Our study offers new insight into the underlying immunobiology of inactivated virus vaccines in humans and may have implications for vaccine strategies in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization , Prospective Studies , Vaccination
8.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 14: 1371-1378, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405368

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic may increase the development of psychiatric disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among medical staff. A brief validated screening tool is essential for the early diagnosis of PTSD. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the validation of a Chinese version of the Primary Care-PTSD-5 (C-PC-PTSD-5) and determine an appropriate cutoff score with optimal sensitivity and specificity for medical staff in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted on medical staff (n = 1104) from 17 medical institutions in Shanghai. Questionnaires comprising general information, medical-related traumatic event experiences, the PTSD Checklist (PCL-5), and C-PC-PTSD-5 were distributed to participants using the online Questionnaire Star electronic system. Internal consistency, convergent validity, and test-retest reliability were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine diagnostic accuracy and the optimal cutoff score of the C-PC-PTSD-5 for medical staff. RESULTS: We included 1062 valid questionnaires for the analysis. Data of 838 traumatic experiences were analyzed. Internal consistency of the C-PC-PTSD-5 was satisfied (Cronbach's α = 0.756). The total score of the C-PC-PTSD-5 showed good test-retest reliability (r = 0.746). We found a strong correlation between the C-PC-PTSD-5 score and PCL-5 total score (r = 0.669, p < 0.001), which indicated good convergent validity. The ROC analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.81 ± 0.016. A cutoff score of 2 provided optimal sensitivity and specificity for the C-PC-PTSD-5 (sensitivity = 0.632, specificity = 0.871, Youden index = 0.503, and overall efficiency = 0.768). CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that the C-PC-PTSD-5 can be employed as a brief and efficient screening instrument for medical staff exposed to the COVID-19 pandemic. A score of 2 was identified as the optimal threshold for probable clinical PTSD symptoms.

9.
Hepatol Commun ; 2020 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous studies reported that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was likely to result in liver injury. However, few studies investigated liver injury in COVID-19 patients with chronic liver diseases. We described the clinical features in COVID-19 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Confirmed COVID-19 patients from hospitals in 10 cities of Jiangsu province, China were retrospectively included between January 18, 2020, and February 26, 2020. Hepatic Steatosis Index (HSI) was used to defined NAFLD. RESULTS: A total of 280 COVID-19 patients were enrolled. Eighty-six (30.7%) of 280 COVID-19 patients were diagnosed as NAFLD by HSI. 100 (35.7%) patients presented abnormal liver function on admission. The median ALT levels (34.5 U/L vs. 23.0 U/L, P<0.001) and the proportion of elevated ALT (>40 U/L) (40.7% vs. 10.8%, P<0.001) were significantly higher in patients with NAFLD than in patients without NAFLD on admission. The proportion of elevated ALT in patients with NAFLD was also significantly higher than patients without NAFLD (65.1% vs. 38.7%, P<0.001) during hospitalization. Multivariate analysis showed that age over 50 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.077, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.183-3.648, P=0.011), and concurrent NAFLD (OR 2.956, 95% CI 1.526-5.726, P=0.001) were independent risk factors of ALT elevation in COVID-19 patients, while the atomized inhalation of interferon α-2b (OR 0.402, 95%CI 0.236-0.683, P=0.001) was associated with the reduced risk of ALT elevation during hospitalization. No patient developed liver failure or death during hospitalization. The complications and clinical outcomes were comparable between COVID-19 patients with and without NAFLD. CONCLUSIONS: NAFLD patients are more likely to develop liver injury when infected by COVID-19. However, no patient developed severe liver-related complications during hospitalization.

10.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 100, 2021 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an international public health threat, and people's participation in disease-related preventive behaviours is the key to controlling infectious diseases. This study aimed to assess the differences in adopting preventive behaviours among populations to explore potential individual and household factors and inequalities within families. METHODS: This online survey was conducted in April 2020. The directional stratified convenient sampling method was used to select 4704 participants from eight provinces in eastern, central, and western China. The questionnaire included demographic information, household variables, and five target prevention behaviours. The chi-squared test, binary multilevel model, and Mantel-Haenszel hierarchical analysis were used for data analysis in the study. RESULTS: Approximately 71.2% of the participants had appropriate outdoor prevention, and 32.9% of the participants had indoor protection in place. Sharing behaviours (P < 0.001) and education level (P < 0.001) were positively associated with adopting preventive measures. The inhibiting effect of household crowding and stimulating effect of high household income on preventive behaviours were determined in this study. Household size was negatively associated with living area (ß = -0.057, P < 0.05) and living style (ß = -0.077, P < 0.05). Household income was positively associated with age (ß = 0.023, P < 0.05), and relationship with friends (ß = 0.053, P < 0.05). Vulnerable groups, such as older adults or women, are more likely to have inadequate preventive behaviours. Older adults (OR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.09-2.15), women (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.15-1.64), and those with more than 2 suspected symptoms (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.07-3.19) were more likely to be affected by the inhibiting effect of household crowding, while the stimulating effect of high household income was limited in these groups. CONCLUSIONS: Inequalities in COVID-19 prevention behaviours exist between families and inadequate adoption of prevention by vulnerable groups are noteworthy. This study expands the research perspective by emphasizing the role of household factors in preventive behaviours and by focusing on family inequalities. The government should use traditional media as a platform to enhance residents' public health knowledge. Targeted additional wage subsidies, investments in affordable housing, financial support for multigenerational households, and temporary relocation policies may deserve more attention. Communities could play a critical role in COVID-19 prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Crowding , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
11.
Virol J ; 18(1): 147, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311250

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical and virological course of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are lacking. We aimed to describe the clinical and virological characteristics of COVID-19 patients from 10 designated hospitals in 10 cities of Jiangsu province, China. The factors associated with the clearance of SARS-CoV-2 were investigated. METHODS: A total of 328 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were retrospectively recruited. The epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, radiology and treatment data were collected. The associated factors of SARS-CoV-2 clearance were analyzed. RESULTS: The median duration of hospitalization was 16.0 days (interquartile range [IQR] 13.0-21.0 days). On multivariate Cox regression analysis, age > 60 years (hazard ratio [HR] 0.643, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.454-0.911, P = 0.013) was associated with the delayed SARS-CoV-2 clearance, while the atomized inhalation of interferon α-2b could improve the clearance of SARS-CoV-2 (HR, 1.357, 95% CI 1.050-1.755, P = 0.020). Twenty-six (7.9%) patients developed respiratory failure and 4 (1.2%) patients developed ARDS. Twenty (6.1%) patients were admitted to the ICU, while no patient was deceased. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found that age > 60 years was associated with the delayed SARS-CoV-2 clearance, while treated with atomized inhalation of interferon α-2b could promote the clearance of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Duration of Therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
12.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 2021 Jun 17.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the impacts of metabolic syndrome (MS) on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We described the clinical features and prognosis of confirmed COVID-19 patients with MS during hospitalization and after discharge. METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-three COVID-19 patients from the hospitals in 8 cities of Jiangsu, China were retrospectively included. Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients were described and risk factors of severe illness were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Forty-five (19.3%) of 233 COVID-19 patients had MS. The median age of COVID-19 patients with MS was significantly higher than non-MS patients (53.0 years vs. 46.0 years, P=0.004). There were no significant differences of clinical symptoms, abnormal chest CT images, and treatment drugs between two groups. More patients with MS had severe illness (33.3% vs. 6.4%, P<0.001) and critical illness (4.4% vs. 0.5%, P=0.037) than non-MS patients. The proportions of respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome in MS patients were also higher than non-MS patients during hospitalization. Multivariate analysis showed that concurrent MS (odds ratio [OR] 7.668, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.062-19.201, P<0.001) and lymphopenia (OR 3.315, 95% CI 1.306-8.411, P=0.012) were independent risk factors of severe illness of COVID-19. At a median follow-up of 28 days after discharge, bilateral pneumonia was found in 95.2% of MS patients, while only 54.7% of non-MS patients presented bilateral pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: 19.3% of COVID-19 patients had MS in our study. COVID-19 patients with MS are more likely to develop severe complications and have worse prognosis. More attention should be paid to COVID-19 patients with MS.

13.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(8): e23880, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is still little knowledge about the association of liver fibrosis with the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of the study was to determine the association of NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS)-determined liver fibrosis with clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with NAFLD. METHODS: The NAFLD was diagnosed by the Hepatic Steatosis Index (HSI) in the absence of other causes of chronic liver diseases. NFS was used to evaluate the severity of liver fibrosis. RESULTS: A total of 86 COVID-19 patients with NAFLD were included. The median age was 43.5 years, and 58.1% of patients were male. Thirty-eight (44.2%) patients had advanced liver fibrosis according to the NFS. Multivariate analysis indicated that concurrent diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 8.264, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.202-56.830, p = 0.032) and advanced liver fibrosis (OR 11.057, 95% CI 1.193-102.439, p = 0.034) were independent risk factors of severe illness in COVID-19 patients with NAFLD. CONCLUSION: NAFLD patients with NFS-determined advanced liver fibrosis are at higher risk of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Adult , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/virology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Environ Res ; 202: 111637, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293778

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic is the biggest challenge facing humanity after the 1918 Flu pandemic. The pandemic also poses a massive challenge to the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Meeting this challenge requires a comprehensive investigation of the impact of the pandemic on sustainability. In this work, publications related to the impact of COVID-19 on sustainability in the Web of Science database were explored systematically by using bibliometrics techniques and meta-analysis approach. The results show the research scope is extensive, covering many subjects, whereas the research depth is not enough. Research in developed countries is dominant, although the pandemic poses more significant challenges to the sustainable development of developing countries than of developed countries. Developed countries are committed to studying education sustainability, while developing countries have shown greater attention to economic sustainability during the epidemic. The cluster analysis also shows that the COVID-19 pandemic has brought negative effects on 17 SDGs goals, whereas the pandemic may also bring opportunities to another 14 SDGs goals. At the end of the article, we put forward relevant suggestions for achieving sustainable development goals in the post-epidemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sustainable Development , Goals , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 566990, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291006

ABSTRACT

Chinese emergency department (ED) staff encountered significant mental stress while fighting the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We sought to investigate the prevalence and associated factors for depressive symptoms among ED staff (including physicians, nurses, allied health, and auxiliary ED staff). A cross-sectional national survey of ED staff who were on duty and participated in combating the COVID-19 pandemic was conducted March 1-15, 2020. A total of 6,588 emergency medical personnel from 1,060 hospitals responded to this survey. A majority of respondents scored above 10 points on the PHQ-9 standardized test, which is associated with depressive symptoms. Those aged 31-45, those working in the COVID-19 isolation unit, and those with relatives ≤ 16 or ≥70 years old at home all had statistically significant associations with scoring >10 points. Depressive symptoms among Chinese emergency medical staff were likely quite common during the response to the COVID-19 pandemic and reinforce the importance of targeted ED staff support during future outbreaks.

17.
Virol Sin ; 35(6): 713-724, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217485

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), reminiscent of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003, has been a tragic disaster to people all over the world. As there is no specific drug for COVID-19, neutralizing antibodies are attracting more and more attention as one of the most effective means to combat the pandemic. Here, we introduced the etiological and serological characteristics of COVID-19, discussed the current stage of development of human monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and summarized the antigenic epitopes in the S glycoprotein, which may deepen the understanding of the profile of immune recognition and response against SARS-CoV-2 and provide insight for the design of effective vaccines and antibody-based therapies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
18.
JCI Insight ; 6(4)2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039950

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become the worst public health crisis in a century. However, knowledge about the dynamics of antibody responses in patients with COVID-19 is still poorly understood. In this study, we performed a serological study with serum specimens collected at the acute and the convalescent phases from 104 patients with severe COVID-19 who were part of the first wave of COVID-19 cases in Wuhan, China. Our findings revealed that neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 are persistent for at least 6 months in patients with severe COVID-19, despite that IgG levels against the receptor binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid protein (N) IgG declined from the acute to the convalescent phase. Moreover, we demonstrate that the level of RBD-IgG is capable of correlating with SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing activities in COVID-19 serum. In summary, our findings identify the magnitude, functionality, and longevity of antibody responses in patients with COVID-19, which sheds light on the humoral immune response to COVID-19 and would be beneficial for developing vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immune Sera , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Male , Middle Aged , Survivors , Time Factors
19.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 27(S1): 4-11, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013710

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The increasing number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 globally is shocking every day. US daily deaths have numbered over one-thousand people per day for nearly 3 days (from November 18, 2020 to November 20, 2020), and total deaths have exceeded 250 000 as of November 21, 2020, which drives the medical community to search for trends to provide an early warning of rising numbers of cases and to prevent future increases. OBJECTIVE: The study intended to evaluate available US COVID-19 data to determine the possibility of predicting the spread of COVID-19 in the USA. DESIGN: The research team collected US COVID-19 data from a time-series view and established a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model to predict trends. RESULTS: According to the spatial and temporal distribution of cumulative confirmed cases, US COVID-19 cases are mainly concentrated in areas with high population density, with that variable having a positive correlation to the number of confirmed cases and deaths. The correlation coefficients are 0.95 and 0.817, respectively, indicating that the transmission of COVID-19 in the USA is characterized by agglomeration. After exploring the impact of population density, the research team established a SARIMA model to predict the trends, finding that US COVID-19 cases will continue to go up. CONCLUSIONS: By combining knowledge of the statistical features of the virus with modeling findings, the study determined a method that can improve understanding of the serious pandemic, paving the way toward the development of predictive and preventative solutions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Forecasting , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Appl Energy ; 281: 116043, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996627

ABSTRACT

There is increasing interest in CO2 emissions inequality between and within countries, and concerns about the impacts of COVID-19 on vulnerable groups. In this study, the CO2 emissions inequality based on the different consumption category data of disaggregated income groups in eight developing countries is analyzed with the application of input-output model. We further examine the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on CO2 emissions inequality based on the hypothetical extraction method, and the results reveal that the outbreak has decreased the CO2 emissions inequality and emissions over time. However, the shared socioeconomic pathway scenario simulation results indicate that long-term CO2 emissions inequality will persist. Targeted poverty elimination measures improve the utility of the low- and lowest-income groups and reduce CO2 emissions inequality. Reducing the excessive consumption on the demand side as well as improving the energy efficiency and increasing the share of renewable energy in the energy consumption on the supply side will provide more informed options to achieve multiple desirable outcomes, such as poverty elimination and climate change mitigation.

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