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1.
Microbes and Infection ; : 105044, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2007954

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization has highlighted the importance of an international standard (IS) for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) neutralizing antibody titer detection to calibrate diagnostic techniques. We applied an IS to calibrate neutralizing antibody titers (NTs) (international units/mL) in response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. Moreover, the association between different factors and neutralizing antibodies was analyzed. A total of 1,667 serum samples were collected from participants receiving different COVID-19 vaccines. Antibody titers were determined by a microneutralization assay using live viruses in a biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratory and a commercial serological MeDiPro kit. The titer determined using the MeDiPro kit was highly correlated with the NT determined using live viruses and calibrated using IS. Fever and antipyretic analgesic treatment were related to neutralizing antibody responses in ChAdOx1-S and BNT162b2 vaccinations. Individuals with diabetes showed a low NT elicited by MVC-COV1901. Individuals with hypertension receiving the BNT162b2 vaccine had lower NTs than those without hypertension. Our study provided the international unit (IU) values of NTs in vaccinated individuals for the development of vaccines and implementation of non-inferiority trials. Correlation of the influencing factors with NTs can provide an indicator for selecting COVID-19 vaccines based on personal attributes.

2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12596, 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956423

ABSTRACT

Low power microwave can effectively deactivate influenza type A virus through the nonthermal structure-resonant energy transfer effect, at a frequency matching the confined-acoustic dipolar mode frequency of the virus. Currently, aerosol is considered the major route for SARS-CoV-2 transmission. For the potential microwave-based sterilization, the microwave-resonant frequency of SARS-CoV-2 must be unraveled. Here we report a microwave absorption spectroscopy study of the SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E viruses through devising a coplanar-waveguide-based sensor. Noticeable microwave absorption can be observed, while we identified the resonant frequencies of the 1st and 2nd dipolar modes of SARS-CoV-2 virus as 4 and 7.5 GHz respectively. We further found that the resonant frequencies are invariant to the virus titer, and we also studied the microwave absorption of HCoV-229E in weak acidity medium to simulate the common pH value in fluid secretion. Our results suggest the possible radiation frequency for the recently proposed microwave sterilization devices to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 virus through a nonthermal mechanism so as to control the disease transmission in the post-pandemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Humans , Microwaves , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Microbiol Mol Biol Rev ; 86(2): e0002621, 2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765086

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The global COVID-19 pandemic continues to threaten the lives of hundreds of millions of people, with a severe negative impact on the global economy. Although several COVID-19 vaccines are currently being administered, none of them is 100% effective. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 variants remain an important worldwide public health issue. Hence, the accelerated development of efficacious antiviral agents is urgently needed. Coronavirus depends on various host cell factors for replication. An ongoing research objective is the identification of host factors that could be exploited as targets for drugs and compounds effective against SARS-CoV-2. In the present review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 and related coronaviruses, focusing on the host factors or pathways involved in SARS-CoV-2 replication that have been identified by genome-wide CRISPR screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
mSphere ; 7(1): e0088321, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673356

ABSTRACT

Considering the urgent demand for faster methods to quantify neutralizing antibody titers in patients with coronavirus (CoV) disease 2019 (COVID-19), developing an analytical model or method to replace the conventional virus neutralization test (NT) is essential. Moreover, a "COVID-19 immunity passport" is currently being proposed as a certification for people who travel internationally. Therefore, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was designed to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-neutralizing antibodies in serum, which is based on the binding affinity of SARS-CoV-2 viral spike protein 1 (S1) and the viral spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) to antibodies. The RBD is considered the major binding region of neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, S1 covers the RBD and several other regions, which are also important for neutralizing antibody binding. In this study, we assessed 144 clinical specimens, including those from patients with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections and healthy donors, using both the NT and ELISA. The ELISA results analyzed by spline regression and the two-variable generalized additive model precisely reflected the NT value, and the correlation between predicted and actual NT values was as high as 0.917. Therefore, our method serves as a surrogate to quantify neutralizing antibody titer. The analytic method and platform used in this study present a new perspective for serological testing of SARS-CoV-2 infection and have clinical potential to assess vaccine efficacy. IMPORTANCE Herein, we present a new approach for serological testing for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using innovative laboratory methods that demonstrate a combination of biology and mathematics. The traditional virus neutralization test is the gold standard method; however, it is time-consuming and poses a risk to medical personnel. Thus, there is a demand for methods that rapidly quantify neutralizing antibody titers in patients with COVID-19 or examine vaccine efficacy at a biosafety level 2 containment facility. Therefore, we used a two-variable generalized additive model to analyze the results of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and found the method to serve as a surrogate to quantify neutralizing antibody titers. This methodology has potential for clinical use in assessing vaccine efficacy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Models, Immunological , Models, Statistical , Neutralization Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Regression Analysis
5.
mBio ; : e0271721, 2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634330

ABSTRACT

Enterovirus infections can cause severe complications, such as poliomyelitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, meningitis, neurological pulmonary edema, and even death. Here, we used genome-wide CRISPR screens to gain new insight into the mechanism by which enteroviruses co-opt host pathways to potentiate replication and propagation. We found that acyl-coenzyme A synthetase long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4) is involved in viral replication organelle formation. ACSL4 is a key component of ferroptosis, an iron-dependent, nonapoptotic programmed cell death. Our results indicated that enteroviruses and coronaviruses can induce ferroptosis via ACSL4. Most importantly, ferroptosis inhibitors, including two FDA-approved drugs, rosiglitazone (ROSI; ACSL4 inhibitor) and pioglitazone (PIO; ACSL4 inhibitor), decreased the viral load of human enteroviruses and coronaviruses, suggesting that ACSL4 is a target for counteracting viral infection. IMPORTANCE We provide the first evidence for the role of ACSL4 in enterovirus replication organelle formation. Moreover, both enteroviruses and coronaviruses induce ferroptosis via ACSL4. These findings establish a novel regulatory mechanism for viral replication. The inhibition of ACSL4 by ferroptosis inhibitors can reduce viral yields of enteroviruses and coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, implying that ACSL4-mediated ferroptosis is a promising therapeutic target for viral diseases.

6.
mSphere ; 6(2)2021 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166378

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) carrying the D614G mutation on the spike protein is the predominant circulating variant and is associated with enhanced infectivity. However, whether this dominant variant can potentially spread through the cold chain and whether the spike protein affects virus stability after cold storage remain unclear. To compare the infectivity of two SARS-CoV-2 variants, namely, SARS-CoV-2 variants with spike protein with the D614 mutation (S-D614) and G614 mutation (S-G614), after different periods of refrigeration (4°C) and freezing (-20°C). We also determined the integrity of the viral RNA and the ability of the spike protein to bind angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) after storage at these conditions. The results showed that SARS-CoV-2 was more stable and infectious after storage at -20°C than at 4°C. Particularly, the S-G614 variant was found to be more stable than the S-D614 variant. The spike protein of the S-G614 variant had better binding ability with the ACE2 receptor than that of the S-D614 variant after storage at -20°C for up to 30 days. Our findings revealed that SARS-CoV-2 remains stable and infectious after refrigeration or freezing, and their stability and infectivity up to 30 days depends on the spike variant. Stability and infectivity are related to each other, and the higher stability of S-G614 compared to that of S-D614 may contribute to rapid viral spread of the S-G614 variant.IMPORTANCE It has been observed that variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are more stable and infectious after storage at -20°C than at 4°C. A SARS-CoV-2 S-D614G variant is currently the most dominant variant in circulation and is associated with enhanced infectivity. We compared the stability of two SARS-CoV-2 variants: the early S-D614 variant carrying the D614 spike protein and the new S-G614 variant carrying the G614 spike protein, stored at both 4°C and -20°C for different periods. We observed that SARS-CoV-2 remains stable and infectious after refrigeration or freezing, which further depends on the spike variant, that is, the ability of the spike protein to bind with the ACE2 receptor with higher efficiency. The high stability of the S-G614 variant also explains its rapid spread and infectivity. Therefore, precautions should be taken during and after handling food preserved under cold conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Cold Temperature , Genetic Fitness/genetics , Humans , Mutation , Protein Stability
7.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 183: 113213, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163433

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters the cells through the binding of its spike protein (S-protein) to the cell surface-expressing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Thus, inhibition of S-protein-ACE2 binding may impede SARS-CoV-2 cell entry and attenuate the progression of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy-based biosensing platform consisting of a recombinant ACE2-coated palladium nano-thin-film electrode as the core sensing element was fabricated for the screening of potential inhibitors against S-protein-ACE2 binding. The platform could detect interference of small analytes against S-protein-ACE2 binding at low analyte concentration and small volume (0.1 µg/mL and ~1 µL, estimated total analyte consumption < 4 pg) within 21 min. Thus, a few potential inhibitors of S-protein-ACE2 binding were identified. This includes (2S,3aS,6aS)-1-((S)-N-((S)-1-Carboxy-3-phenylpropyl)alanyl)tetrahydrocyclopenta[b] pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (ramiprilat) and (2S,3aS,7aS)-1-[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-1-Carboxybutyl]amino]propanoyl]-2,3,3a,4,5,6,7,7a-octahydroindole-2-carboxylic acid (perindoprilat) that reduced the binding affinity of S-protein to ACE2 by 72% and 67%; and SARS-CoV-2 in vitro infectivity to the ACE2-expressing human oral cavity squamous carcinoma cells (OEC-M1) by 36.4 and 20.1%, respectively, compared to the PBS control. These findings demonstrated the usefulness of the developed biosensing platform for the rapid screening of modulators for S-protein-ACE2 binding.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Dielectric Spectroscopy , Humans , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
8.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(9)2020 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646490

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus (CoV) disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a health threat worldwide. Viral main protease (Mpro, also called 3C-like protease [3CLpro]) is a therapeutic target for drug discovery. Herein, we report that GC376, a broad-spectrum inhibitor targeting Mpro in the picornavirus-like supercluster, is a potent inhibitor for the Mpro encoded by SARS-CoV-2, with a half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 26.4 ± 1.1 nM. In this study, we also show that GC376 inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication with a half-maximum effective concentration (EC50) of 0.91 ± 0.03 µM. Only a small portion of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro was covalently modified in the excess of GC376 as evaluated by mass spectrometry analysis, indicating that improved inhibitors are needed. Subsequently, molecular docking analysis revealed that the recognition and binding groups of GC376 within the active site of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro provide important new information for the optimization of GC376. Given that sufficient safety and efficacy data are available for GC376 as an investigational veterinary drug, expedited development of GC376, or its optimized analogues, for treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection in human is recommended.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Pyrrolidines/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Amino Acid Motifs , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Catalytic Domain , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Gene Expression , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonic Acids , Thermodynamics , Vero Cells , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1457-1466, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599993

ABSTRACT

Taiwan experienced two waves of imported infections with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed at investigating the genomic variation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Taiwan and compared their evolutionary trajectories with the global strains. We performed culture and full-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 strains followed by phylogenetic analysis. A 382-nucleotides deletion in open reading frame 8 (ORF8) was found in a Taiwanese strain isolated from a patient on February 4, 2020 who had a travel history to Wuhan. Patients in the first wave also included several sporadic, local transmission cases. Genomes of 5 strains sequenced from clustered infections were classified into a new clade with ORF1ab-V378I mutation, in addition to 3 dominant clades ORF8-L84S, ORF3a-G251V and S-D614G. This highlighted clade also included some strains isolated from patients who had a travel history to Turkey and Iran. The second wave mostly resulted from patients who had a travel history to Europe and Americas. All Taiwanese viruses were classified into various clades. Genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in Taiwan revealed a new ORF8-deletion mutant and a virus clade that may be associated with infections in the Middle East, which contributed to a better understanding of the global SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Haemophilus parainfluenzae/isolation & purification , Humans , Middle East , Open Reading Frames , Pandemics , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Deletion , Taiwan , Travel , Vero Cells , Virus Cultivation , Whole Genome Sequencing
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