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1.
Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi ; 2023.
Article in English | Europe PMC | ID: covidwho-2245482

ABSTRACT

Background An extended interval between the two primary doses may reduce the risk of myocarditis/pericarditis after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Taiwan has implemented a two-dose regimen with a 12-week interval for adolescents. Here we present nationwide data of myocarditis/pericarditis following COVID-19 vaccinations. Methods Data on adverse events of myocarditis/pericarditis were from the Taiwan Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System between March 22, 2021, and February 9, 2022. The reporting rates according to sex, age, and vaccine type were calculated. We investigated the rates among young individuals under different two-dose intervals and among those who received two doses of different vaccines. Results Among 204 cases who met the case definition of myocarditis/pericarditis, 75 cases occurred after the first dose and 129 after the second. The rate of myocarditis/pericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination varied across sex and age groups and was highest after the second dose in males aged 12–17 years (126.79 cases per million vaccinees) for the BNT162b2 vaccine and in males aged 18–24 years (93.84 cases per million vaccinees) for the mRNA-1273 vaccine. The data did not suggest an association between longer between-dose interval and lower rate of myocarditis/pericarditis among males and females aged 18–24 or 25–29 years who received two doses of the BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccine. Rates of myocarditis/pericarditis in males and females aged 18–49 years after receiving ChAdOx1-S - mRNA-1273 vaccination was significantly higher than after ChAdOx1-S - ChAdOx1-S vaccination. Conclusions Myocarditis and pericarditis are rare following mRNA vaccination, with higher risk occurring in young males after the second dose.

2.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 2023 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An extended interval between the two primary doses may reduce the risk of myocarditis/pericarditis after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Taiwan has implemented a two-dose regimen with a 12-week interval for adolescents. Here we present nationwide data of myocarditis/pericarditis following COVID-19 vaccinations. METHODS: Data on adverse events of myocarditis/pericarditis were from the Taiwan Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System between March 22, 2021, and February 9, 2022. The reporting rates according to sex, age, and vaccine type were calculated. We investigated the rates among young individuals under different two-dose intervals and among those who received two doses of different vaccines. RESULTS: Among 204 cases who met the case definition of myocarditis/pericarditis, 75 cases occurred after the first dose and 129 after the second. The rate of myocarditis/pericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination varied across sex and age groups and was highest after the second dose in males aged 12-17 years (126.79 cases per million vaccinees) for the BNT162b2 vaccine and in males aged 18-24 years (93.84 cases per million vaccinees) for the mRNA-1273 vaccine. The data did not suggest an association between longer between-dose interval and lower rate of myocarditis/pericarditis among males and females aged 18-24 or 25-29 years who received two doses of the BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccine. Rates of myocarditis/pericarditis in males and females aged 18-49 years after receiving ChAdOx1-S - mRNA-1273 vaccination was significantly higher than after ChAdOx1-S - ChAdOx1-S vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Myocarditis and pericarditis are rare following mRNA vaccination, with higher risk occurring in young males after the second dose.

3.
Pharmaceutics ; 15(2)2023 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232744

ABSTRACT

In the last few decades, RNA-based drugs have emerged as a promising candidate to specifically target and modulate disease-relevant genes to cure genetic defects. The key to applying RNA therapy in clinical trials is developing safe and effective delivery systems. Exosomes have been exploited as a promising vehicle for drug delivery due to their nanoscale size, high stability, high biocompatibility, and low immunogenicity. We reviewed and summarized the progress in the strategy and application of exosome-mediated RNA therapy. The challenges of exosomes as a carrier for RNA drug delivery are also elucidated in this article. RNA molecules can be loaded into exosomes and then delivered to targeted cells or tissues via various biochemical or physical approaches. So far, exosome-mediated RNA therapy has shown potential in the treatment of cancer, central nervous system disorders, COVID-19, and other diseases. To further exploit the potential of exosomes for RNA delivery, more efforts should be made to overcome both technological and logistic problems.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232630

ABSTRACT

Acute pancreatitis is a common gastrointestinal disease with increasing incidence worldwide. COVID-19 is a potentially life-threatening contagious disease spread throughout the world, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. More severe forms of both diseases exhibit commonalities with dysregulated immune responses resulting in amplified inflammation and susceptibility to infection. Human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, expressed on antigen-presenting cells, acts as an indicator of immune function. Research advances have highlighted the predictive values of monocytic HLA-DR (mHLA-DR) expression for disease severity and infectious complications in both acute pancreatitis and COVID-19 patients. While the regulatory mechanism of altered mHLA-DR expression remains unclear, HLA-DR-/low monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells are potent drivers of immunosuppression and poor outcomes in these diseases. Future studies with mHLA-DR-guided enrollment or targeted immunotherapy are warranted in more severe cases of patients with acute pancreatitis and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pancreatitis , Humans , Acute Disease , HLA-DR Antigens , Monocytes , Immunity
5.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(6): e35266, 2022 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-COV-2 virus and its variants pose extraordinary challenges for public health worldwide. Timely and accurate forecasting of the COVID-19 epidemic is key to sustaining interventions and policies and efficient resource allocation. Internet-based data sources have shown great potential to supplement traditional infectious disease surveillance, and the combination of different Internet-based data sources has shown greater power to enhance epidemic forecasting accuracy than using a single Internet-based data source. However, existing methods incorporating multiple Internet-based data sources only used real-time data from these sources as exogenous inputs but did not take all the historical data into account. Moreover, the predictive power of different Internet-based data sources in providing early warning for COVID-19 outbreaks has not been fully explored. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of our study is to explore whether combining real-time and historical data from multiple Internet-based sources could improve the COVID-19 forecasting accuracy over the existing baseline models. A secondary aim is to explore the COVID-19 forecasting timeliness based on different Internet-based data sources. METHODS: We first used core terms and symptom-related keyword-based methods to extract COVID-19-related Internet-based data from December 21, 2019, to February 29, 2020. The Internet-based data we explored included 90,493,912 online news articles, 37,401,900 microblogs, and all the Baidu search query data during that period. We then proposed an autoregressive model with exogenous inputs, incorporating real-time and historical data from multiple Internet-based sources. Our proposed model was compared with baseline models, and all the models were tested during the first wave of COVID-19 epidemics in Hubei province and the rest of mainland China separately. We also used lagged Pearson correlations for COVID-19 forecasting timeliness analysis. RESULTS: Our proposed model achieved the highest accuracy in all 5 accuracy measures, compared with all the baseline models of both Hubei province and the rest of mainland China. In mainland China, except for Hubei, the COVID-19 epidemic forecasting accuracy differences between our proposed model (model i) and all the other baseline models were statistically significant (model 1, t198=-8.722, P<.001; model 2, t198=-5.000, P<.001, model 3, t198=-1.882, P=.06; model 4, t198=-4.644, P<.001; model 5, t198=-4.488, P<.001). In Hubei province, our proposed model's forecasting accuracy improved significantly compared with the baseline model using historical new confirmed COVID-19 case counts only (model 1, t198=-1.732, P=.09). Our results also showed that Internet-based sources could provide a 2- to 6-day earlier warning for COVID-19 outbreaks. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach incorporating real-time and historical data from multiple Internet-based sources could improve forecasting accuracy for epidemics of COVID-19 and its variants, which may help improve public health agencies' interventions and resource allocation in mitigating and controlling new waves of COVID-19 or other relevant epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Social Media , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Mater Chem B ; 11(1): 33-54, 2022 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160360

ABSTRACT

In recent years, electrochemical biosensors (ECBSs) have shown significant potential for real-time disease diagnosis and in situ physical condition monitoring. As a multi-constituent oral fluid comprising various disease signaling biomarkers, saliva has drawn much attention in the field of point-of-care (POC) testing. In particular, during the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, ECBSs which hold the simplicity of a single-step assay compared with the multi-step assay of traditional testing methods are expected to relieve the human and economic burden caused by the massive and long-term sample testing process. Noteworthily, ECBSs for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in saliva have already been developed and may replace current testing methods. Furthermore, the detection scope has expanded from routine indices such as sugar and uric acid to abnormal biomarkers for early-stage disease detection and drug level monitoring, which further facilitated the evolution of ECBSs in the last 5 years. This review is divided into several main sections. First, we discussed the latest advancements and representative research on ECBSs for saliva testing. Then, we focused on a novel kind of ECBS, organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs), which hold great advantages of high sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio and on-site detection. Finally, application of ECBSs with integrated portable platforms in oral cavities, which lead to powerful auxiliary testing means for telemedicine, has also been discussed.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva , Pandemics , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Biomarkers
7.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 462, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Numerous vaccine strategies are being advanced to control SARS-CoV-2, the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic. EuCorVac-19 (ECV19) is a recombinant protein nanoparticle vaccine that displays the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) on immunogenic nanoliposomes. METHODS: Initial study of a phase 2 randomized, observer-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerance of ECV19 was carried out between July and October 2021. Two hundred twenty-nine participants were enrolled at 5 hospital sites in South Korea. Healthy adults aged 19-75 without prior known exposure to COVID-19 were vaccinated intramuscularly on day 0 and day 21. Of the participants who received two vaccine doses according to protocol, 100 received high-dose ECV19 (20 µg RBD), 96 received low-dose ECV19 (10 µg RBD), and 27 received placebo. Local and systemic adverse events were monitored. Serum was assessed on days 0, 21, and 42 for immunogenicity analysis by ELISA and neutralizing antibody response by focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT). RESULTS: Low-grade injection site tenderness and pain were observed in most participants. Solicited systemic adverse events were less frequent, and mostly involved low-grade fatigue/malaise, myalgia, and headache. No clinical laboratory abnormalities were observed. Adverse events did not increase with the second injection and no serious adverse events were solicited by ECV19. On day 42, Spike IgG geometric mean ELISA titers were 0.8, 211, and 590 Spike binding antibody units (BAU/mL) for placebo, low-dose and high-dose ECV19, respectively (p < 0.001 between groups). Neutralizing antibodies levels of the low-dose and high-dose ECV19 groups had FRNT50 geometric mean values of 129 and 316, respectively. Boosting responses and dose responses were observed. Antibodies against the RBD correlated with antibodies against the Spike and with virus neutralization. CONCLUSIONS: ECV19 was generally well-tolerated and induced antibodies in a dose-dependent manner that neutralized SARS-CoV-2. The unique liposome display approach of ECV19, which lacks any immunogenic protein components besides the antigen itself, coupled with the lack of increased adverse events during boosting suggest the vaccine platform may be amenable to multiple boosting regimes in the future. Taken together, these findings motivate further investigation of ECV19 in larger scale clinical testing that is underway. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as # NCT04783311.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Pandemics , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged
8.
Elife ; 112022 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025329

ABSTRACT

Large-scale populations in the world have been vaccinated with COVID-19 vaccines, however, breakthrough infections of SARS-CoV-2 are still growing rapidly due to the emergence of immune-evasive variants, especially Omicron. It is urgent to develop effective broad-spectrum vaccines to better control the pandemic of these variants. Here, we present a mosaic-type trimeric form of spike receptor-binding domain (mos-tri-RBD) as a broad-spectrum vaccine candidate, which carries the key mutations from Omicron and other circulating variants. Tests in rats showed that the designed mos-tri-RBD, whether used alone or as a booster shot, elicited potent cross-neutralizing antibodies against not only Omicron but also other immune-evasive variants. Neutralizing antibody ID50 titers induced by mos-tri-RBD were substantially higher than those elicited by homo-tri-RBD (containing homologous RBDs from prototype strain) or the BIBP inactivated COVID-19 vaccine (BBIBP-CorV). Our study indicates that mos-tri-RBD is highly immunogenic, which may serve as a broad-spectrum vaccine candidate in combating SARS-CoV-2 variants including Omicron.


The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic continues to pose a serious threat to public health and has so far resulted in over six million deaths worldwide. Mass vaccination programs have reduced the risk of serious illness and death in many people, but the virus continues to persist and circulate in communities across the globe. Furthermore, the current vaccines may be less effective against the new variants of the virus, such as Omicron and Delta, which are continually emerging and evolving. Therefore, it is urgent to develop effective vaccines that can provide broad protection against existing and future forms of SARS-CoV-2. There are several different types of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, but they all work in a similar way. They contain molecules that induce immune responses in individuals to help the body recognize and more effectively fight SARS-CoV-2 if they happen to encounter it in the future. These immune responses may be so specific that new variants of a virus may not be recognized by them. Therefore, a commonly used strategy for producing vaccines with broad protection is to make multiple vaccines that each targets different variants and then mix them together before administering to patients. Here, Zhang et al. took a different approach by designing a new vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV2 that contained three different versions of part of a SARS-CoV2 protein ­ the so-called spike protein ­ all linked together as one molecule. The different versions of the spike protein fragment were designed to include key features of the fragments found in Omicron and several other SARS-CoV-2 variants. The experiments found that this candidate vaccine elicited a much higher immune response against Omicron and other SARS-CoV-2 variants in rats than an existing SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. It was also effective as a booster shot after a first vaccination with the existing SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. These findings demonstrate that the molecule developed by Zhang et al. induces potent and broad immune responses against different variants of SARS-CoV-2 including Omicron in rats. The next steps following on from this work are to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine candidate in clinical trials. In the future, it may be possible to use a similar approach to develop new broad-spectrum vaccines against other viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Rats , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
9.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2022 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013464

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, it has become difficult to provide centre-based cardiac rehabilitation for heart failure patients. Digital therapeutics is a novel concept proposed in recent years that refers to the use of evidence-based therapeutic interventions driven by high-quality software programs to treat, manage, or prevent a medical condition. However, little is known about the use of this technology in heart failure patients. This study aims to explore the safety and efficacy of digital therapeutics-based cardiac rehabilitation in heart failure patients and to provide new insights into a new cardiac rehabilitation model during the COVID-19 era. To identify technologies related to digital therapeutics, such as the use of medical applications, wearable devices, and the Internet, all relevant studies published on PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane database, and China National Knowledge Internet were searched from the time the database was established until October 2021. The PEDro was used to assess the quality of included studies. We ultimately identified five studies, which included 1119 patients. The mean age was 66.37, the mean BMI was 25.9, and the NYHA classification ranged from I to III (I = 232, II = 157, III = 209). The mean 6-min walk distance was 397.7 m. The PEDro scores included in the study ranged from 4 to 8, with a mean of 5.8. Exercise training was performed in four studies, and psychological interventions were conducted in three studies. No death or serious adverse events were observed. Adherence was reported in three studies, and all exceeded 85%. The results of most studies showed that digital therapeutics-based cardiac rehabilitation significantly increases exercise capacity and quality of life in heart failure patients. Overall, although this study suggests that digital therapeutics-based cardiac rehabilitation may be a viable intervention for heart failure patients during the COVID-19 era, the efficacy of this new model in routine clinical practice needs to be further validated in a large clinical trial.

10.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 856627, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952723

ABSTRACT

Background: The government's COVID-19 pandemic response lockdown strategy had a negative psychological and physical impact on individuals, which necessitated special care to pregnant women's mental health. There has been no large-scale research on the underlying relationship between perceived stress and insomnia symptoms in pregnant Chinese women up to this point. During the COVID-19 pandemic, we wanted to see if there was an association between perceived stress and insomnia symptoms, as well as the moderating impact of resilience for Chinese pregnant women. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined 2115 pregnant women from central and western China using multi-stage sampling methodologies. A systematic questionnaire was used to collect information on sleep quality, perceived stress, and resilience using the Insomnia Severity Index, Perceptual Stress Scale, and Connor and Davidson Resilience Scale. To assess the moderating influence of resilience, hierarchical regressions were used. Results: During the COVID-19 pandemic, 18.53% of respondents (N = 2115) reported experiencing sleeplessness. In pregnant women, perceived stress was positively linked with insomnia symptoms (p < 0.001). Furthermore, resilience significantly attenuated the influence of perceived stress on insomnia symptoms in Chinese expectant mother (ßinteraction = -0.0126, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Pregnant women with strong resilience were less influenced by perceived stress than those with poor resilience. The findings of this study might give empirical proof that health care professionals should identify the relevance of reducing perceived stress in pregnant women with poor resilience and provide better treatment and support when necessary.

11.
Cell Rep ; 39(13): 111004, 2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944462

ABSTRACT

Vaccine boosters and infection can facilitate the development of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with improved potency and breadth. Here, we observe superimmunity in a camelid extensively immunized with the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD). We rapidly isolate a large repertoire of specific ultra-high-affinity nanobodies that bind strongly to all known sarbecovirus clades using integrative proteomics. These pan-sarbecovirus nanobodies (psNbs) are highly effective against SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron, with the best median neutralization potency at single-digit nanograms per milliliter. A highly potent, inhalable, and bispecific psNb (PiN-31) is also developed. Structural determinations of 13 psNbs with the SARS-CoV-2 spike or RBD reveal five epitope classes, providing insights into the mechanisms and evolution of their broad activities. The highly evolved psNbs target small, flat, and flexible epitopes that contain over 75% of conserved RBD surface residues. Their potencies are strongly and negatively correlated with the distance of the epitopes from the receptor binding sites.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , Single-Domain Antibodies , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Curr Med Sci ; 42(3): 561-568, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1942807

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of hypertension on the clinical outcome of COVID-19 patients aged 60 years old and older. METHODS: This single-center retrospective cohort study enrolled consecutive COVID-19 patients aged 60 years old and older, who were admitted to Liyuan Hospital from January 1, 2020 to April 25, 2020. All included patients were divided into two groups: hypertension and nonhypertension group. The baseline demographic characteristics, laboratory test results, chest computed tomography (CT) images and clinical outcomes were collected and analyzed. The prognostic value of hypertension was determined using binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Among the 232 patients included in the analysis, 105 (45.3%) patients had comorbid hypertension. Compared to the nonhypertension group, patients in the hypertension group had higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, red cell distribution widths, lactate dehydrogenase, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, D-dimer and severity of lung lesion, and lower lymphocyte counts (all P<0.05). Furthermore, the hypertension group had a higher proportion of intensive care unit admissions [24 (22.9%) vs. 14 (11.0%), P=0.02) and deaths [16 (15.2%) vs. 3 (2.4%), P<0.001] and a significantly lower probability of survival (P<0.001) than the nonhypertension group. Hypertension (OR: 4.540, 95% CI: 1.203-17.129, P=0.026) was independently correlated with all-cause in-hospital death in elderly patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The elderly COVID-19 patients with hypertension tend to have worse conditions at baseline than those without hypertension. Hypertension may be an independent prognostic factor of poor clinical outcome in elderly COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Stroke ; : 17474930221114561, 2022 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923474

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may have an increased risk of acute cardiovascular events in the convalescent period. AIMS: To determine whether patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection have an increased risk of cardiovascular events during the convalescent period. METHODS: We analyzed 10,691 hospitalized adult pneumonia patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and contemporary matched controls of pneumonia patients without SARS-CoV-2 infection. The risk of new cardiovascular events following >30 days pneumonia admission (convalescent period) was ascertained using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to adjust for potential confounders. RESULTS: Among 10,691 pneumonia patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 697 patients (5.8%; 95% CI, 5.4-6.2%) developed new cardiovascular events (median time interval of 218 days post pneumonia admission; interquartile range Q1 = 117 days, Q3 = 313 days). The risk of new cardiovascular events was not significantly higher among pneumonia patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with those with pneumonia without SARS-CoV-2 infection (hazard ratio (HR), 0.90, 95% CI, 0.80-1.02) after adjustment for potential confounders. In addition, no significant difference in the rate of a new ischemic stroke (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.70-1.02) or ischemic heart disease (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.87-1.15) was observed between the pneumonia patients with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that new cardiovascular events rate in the convalescent period among pneumonia patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection was not significantly higher than the rate seen with other pneumonias.

14.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 74, 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, seasonal influenza activity declined globally and remained below previous seasonal levels, but intensified in China since 2021. Preventive measures to COVID-19 accompanied by different epidemic characteristics of influenza in different regions of the world. To better respond to influenza outbreaks under the COVID-19 pandemic, we analyzed the epidemiology, antigenic and genetic characteristics, and antiviral susceptibility of influenza viruses in the mainland of China during 2020-2021. METHODS: Respiratory specimens from influenza like illness cases were collected by sentinel hospitals and sent to network laboratories in Chinese National Influenza Surveillance Network. Antigenic mutation analysis of influenza virus isolates was performed by hemagglutination inhibition assay. Next-generation sequencing was used for genetic analyses. We also conducted molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of circulating influenza viruses. Viruses were tested for resistance to antiviral medications using phenotypic and/or sequence-based methods. RESULTS: In the mainland of China, influenza activity recovered in 2021 compared with that in 2020 and intensified during the traditional influenza winter season, but it did not exceed the peak in previous years. Almost all viruses isolated during the study period were of the B/Victoria lineage and were characterized by genetic diversity, with the subgroup 1A.3a.2 viruses currently predominated. 37.8% viruses tested were antigenically similar to reference viruses representing the components of the vaccine for the 2020-2021 and 2021-2022 Northern Hemisphere influenza seasons. In addition, China has a unique subgroup of 1A.3a.1 viruses. All viruses tested were sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors and endonuclease inhibitors, except two B/Victoria lineage viruses identified to have reduced sensitivity to neuraminidase inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza activity increased in the mainland of China in 2021, and caused flu season in the winter of 2021-2022. Although the diversity of influenza (sub)type decreases, B/Victoria lineage viruses show increased genetic and antigenic diversity. The world needs to be fully prepared for the co-epidemic of influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Neuraminidase/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Pandemics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
16.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(6): e35266, 2022 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-COV-2 virus and its variants pose extraordinary challenges for public health worldwide. Timely and accurate forecasting of the COVID-19 epidemic is key to sustaining interventions and policies and efficient resource allocation. Internet-based data sources have shown great potential to supplement traditional infectious disease surveillance, and the combination of different Internet-based data sources has shown greater power to enhance epidemic forecasting accuracy than using a single Internet-based data source. However, existing methods incorporating multiple Internet-based data sources only used real-time data from these sources as exogenous inputs but did not take all the historical data into account. Moreover, the predictive power of different Internet-based data sources in providing early warning for COVID-19 outbreaks has not been fully explored. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of our study is to explore whether combining real-time and historical data from multiple Internet-based sources could improve the COVID-19 forecasting accuracy over the existing baseline models. A secondary aim is to explore the COVID-19 forecasting timeliness based on different Internet-based data sources. METHODS: We first used core terms and symptom-related keyword-based methods to extract COVID-19-related Internet-based data from December 21, 2019, to February 29, 2020. The Internet-based data we explored included 90,493,912 online news articles, 37,401,900 microblogs, and all the Baidu search query data during that period. We then proposed an autoregressive model with exogenous inputs, incorporating real-time and historical data from multiple Internet-based sources. Our proposed model was compared with baseline models, and all the models were tested during the first wave of COVID-19 epidemics in Hubei province and the rest of mainland China separately. We also used lagged Pearson correlations for COVID-19 forecasting timeliness analysis. RESULTS: Our proposed model achieved the highest accuracy in all 5 accuracy measures, compared with all the baseline models of both Hubei province and the rest of mainland China. In mainland China, except for Hubei, the COVID-19 epidemic forecasting accuracy differences between our proposed model (model i) and all the other baseline models were statistically significant (model 1, t198=-8.722, P<.001; model 2, t198=-5.000, P<.001, model 3, t198=-1.882, P=.06; model 4, t198=-4.644, P<.001; model 5, t198=-4.488, P<.001). In Hubei province, our proposed model's forecasting accuracy improved significantly compared with the baseline model using historical new confirmed COVID-19 case counts only (model 1, t198=-1.732, P=.09). Our results also showed that Internet-based sources could provide a 2- to 6-day earlier warning for COVID-19 outbreaks. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach incorporating real-time and historical data from multiple Internet-based sources could improve forecasting accuracy for epidemics of COVID-19 and its variants, which may help improve public health agencies' interventions and resource allocation in mitigating and controlling new waves of COVID-19 or other relevant epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Social Media , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 834942, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809393

ABSTRACT

As the new year of 2020 approaches, an acute respiratory disease quietly caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China. Subsequently, COVID-19 broke out on a global scale and formed a global public health emergency. To date, the destruction that has lasted for more than two years has not stopped and has caused the virus to continuously evolve new mutant strains. SARS-CoV-2 infection has been shown to cause multiple complications and lead to severe disability and death, which has dealt a heavy blow to global development, not only in the medical field but also in social security, economic development, global cooperation and communication. To date, studies on the epidemiology, pathogenic mechanism and pathological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2-induced COVID-19, as well as target confirmation, drug screening, and clinical intervention have achieved remarkable effects. With the continuous efforts of the WHO, governments of various countries, and scientific research and medical personnel, the public's awareness of COVID-19 is gradually deepening, a variety of prevention methods and detection methods have been implemented, and multiple vaccines and drugs have been developed and urgently marketed. However, these do not appear to have completely stopped the pandemic and ravages of this virus. Meanwhile, research on SARS-CoV-2-induced COVID-19 has also seen some twists and controversies, such as potential drugs and the role of vaccines. In view of the fact that research on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 has been extensive and in depth, this review will systematically update the current understanding of the epidemiology, transmission mechanism, pathological features, potential targets, promising drugs and ongoing clinical trials, which will provide important references and new directions for SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 373-385, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686263

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread rapidly over the world and claimed million lives. The virus evolves constantly, and a swarm of mutants is a now major concern globally. Distinct variants could have independently converged on same mutation, despite being detected in different geographic regions, which suggested it could confer an evolutionary advantage. E484K has rapidly emerged and has frequently been detected in several SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. In this study, we review the epidemiology and impact of E484K, its effects on neutralizing effect of several monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, and post-vaccine sera.

19.
Crit Rev Biotechnol ; : 1-18, 2022 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684300

ABSTRACT

While the research field and industrial market of in vitro diagnosis (IVD) thrived during and post the COVID-19 pandemic, the development of isothermal nucleic acid amplification test (INAAT) based rapid diagnosis was engendered in a global wised large measure as a problem-solving exercise. This review systematically analyzed the recent advances of INAAT strategies with practical case for the real-world scenario virus detection applications. With the qualities that make INAAT systems useful for making diagnosis relevant decisions, the key performance indicators and the cost-effectiveness of enzyme-assisted methods and enzyme-free methods were compared. The modularity of nucleic acid amplification reactions that can lead to thresholding signal amplifications using INAAT reagents and their methodology design were examined, alongside the potential application with rapid test platform/device integration. Given that clinical practitioners are, by and large, unaware of many the isothermal nucleic acid test advances. This review could bridge the arcane research field of different INAAT systems and signal output modalities with end-users in clinic when choosing suitable test kits and/or methods for rapid virus detection.

20.
J Immunol ; 206(7): 1597-1608, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082059

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with immune dysregulation and cytokine storm. Exploring the immune-inflammatory characteristics of COVID-19 patients is essential to reveal pathogenesis and predict progression. In this study, COVID-19 patients showed decreased CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells but increased neutrophils in circulation, exhibiting upregulated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and neutrophil-to-CD8+ T cell ratio. IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-18, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-10, Tim-3, IL-8, neutrophil extracellular trap-related proteinase 3, and S100A8/A9 were elevated, whereas IFN-γ and C-type lectin domain family 9 member A (clec9A) were decreased in COVID-19 patients compared with healthy controls. When compared with influenza patients, the expressions of TNF-α, IL-18, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-8, S100A8/A9 and Tim-3 were significantly increased in critical COVID-19 patients, and carcinoembryonic Ag, IL-8, and S100A8/A9 could serve as clinically available hematologic indexes for identifying COVID-19 from influenza. Moreover, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1ß, TNF-α, proteinase 3, and S100A8/A9 were increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of severe/critical patients compared with moderate patients, despite decreased CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells, and NK cells. Interestingly, bronchoalveolar IL-6, carcinoembryonic Ag, IL-8, S100A8/A9, and proteinase 3 were found to be predictive of COVID-19 severity and may serve as potential biomarkers for predicting COVID-19 progression and potential targets in therapeutic intervention of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammation Mediators , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Calgranulin A/blood , Calgranulin A/immunology , Calgranulin B/blood , Calgranulin B/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Progression , Female , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/blood , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/immunology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Myeloblastin/blood , Myeloblastin/immunology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
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